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Southern Cruise of Sir Henry Clinton—Fortifications at Charleston —Arrival there of General Lee—Battle at Sullivan's Island— Washington announces the result to the Army - 550


Putnam's Military Projects—Chevaux-de-frise at Fort Washington —Meditated Attack on Staten Island—Arrival of Ships—Hessian Reinforcements — Scotch Highlanders — i-ir Henry Clinton and Lord Cornwallis—Putnam's Obstructions of the Hudson—The 'Phoenix' and ' Rose' attacked by Row Galleys at Tarry town— General Order of Washington on Sectional Jealousies—Profane Swearing prohibited in the Camp—Preparations against AttackLevies of Yeomanry—George Clinton in Command of the Levies along the Hudson —Alarms of the People of New York—Benevolent Sympathy of Washington,—The 'Phoenix' grappled by a Fire-Ship—The Ships evacuate the Hudson - 555

CHAPTER LXXIII. The Battle of Long Island - - - - " - - 564

CHAPTER LXXIV. The Retreat from Long Island _____ 579


Long Island in Possession of the Enemy—Distressed Situation of the American Army at New York—Question of Abandoning the City—Letters from either Camp—Enemy's Ships in the Sound —Removal of Women and Children from the City—Yearning for Home among the Militia—Tolerant Ideas of Washington and Greene—Fort Constitution—Conference of Lord Howe with a Committee from Congress ______ 585


Movements of the Enemy—Councils of War—Question of the Abandonment of the City—Distribution of the Army—Ships in the East River—The Enemy at Hell Gate—Skirmish at Turtle Bay —Panic of the Connecticut Militia—Rage and Personal Peril of Washington—Putnam's perilous Retreat from the City—British Regale at Murray Hill - - - - - - 592


Fortified Camp at King's Bridge—American and British Lines—
The Morris House—Alexander Hamilton—The Enemy Advance
—Successful Skirmish—Death of Knowlton—Great Fire in New
York—Reorganization of the Army—Exchange of Prisoners—
Daniel Morgan Regained—De Lancey's Tory Brigade—Robert
Rogers, the Partisan—His Rangers—The 'Roebuck,' 'Phcenix,'
and ' Tartar' in the Hudson—Military Movements by Land and
Water—Letter of John Jay - - _ _ _ 599

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Lee expected in Camp—His Letter of Advice to the President of Congress—The Enemy at Throg's Neck—Washington's Arrangements—Bides to Throg's Neck—The Enemy brought to a Stand —Military Movements—Arrival of Lee—A Command assigned to Him—Criticises the Conduct of Congress and the Army— Council of War—The Army to move to the Mainland—Fort Washington to be kept up - - . - - -613


Army Arrangements—Washington at White Plains—The Enemy at Throg's Point—Skirmish of Colonel Glover—Attempt to Surprise Rogers, the Renegade—Troopers in a Rough Country —Alarms at White Plains—Cannonading of Ships at Fort Washington—March of Lee—Fortified Camp at White Plains—Reconnoitring—The Affair at Chatterton Hill — Relative Situation of the Armies—Change of Position—Contrast of the Appearance of the Troops—George Clinton's Idea of Strategy—Movement of the British Army—Incendiaries at White Plains - - - 619

CHAPTER LXXX. Conjectures as to the Intentions of the Enemy—Consequent Precautions— Correspondence with Greene respecting Fort Washington—Distribution of the Army—Lee left in Command at Northcastle—Instructions to him.—Washington at Peekskill— Visits to the Posts in the Highlands - 629


Affairs on Lake Champlain—Gates at Ticonderoga—Arnold's Flotilla—Military Preparations of Sir Guy Carleton at St. John's— Nautical Encounters—Gallant Conduct of Arnold and Waterbury—Carleton in Possession of Crown Point—His return to Canada and Winter Quarters ----- 636

CHAPTER LXXXn. Washington crosses the Hudson—Arrives at Fort Lee—Affairs at Fort Washington — Question about its Abandonment—Movements of Howe—The Fort summoned to Surrender—Refusal of Colonel Magaw—The Fort Attacked—Capture of the Fort and Garrison—Comments of Washington on the state of Affairs - 642


The Enemy crosses the Hudson—Retreat of the Garrison from Fort Lee—The Crossing of the Hackensack—Lee ordered to Move to the West Side of the River—Reed's Letter to him—Second Move of the Army beyond the Passaic—Assistance sought from various Quarters—Correspondences and Schemes of Lee—Heath stanch to his Instructions—Anxiety of George Clinton for the safety of the Hudson—Critical situation of the Army—Disparaging correspondence between Lee and Reed—Washington retreats across the Raritan—Arrives at Trenton—Removes his baggag across the Delaware—Dismay and despondency of the Country—Proclamation of Lord Howe—Exultation of the Enemy—Washington's resolve in case of extremity - 651


Lee at Peekskill—Stanch adherence of Heath to Orders—Lee Crosses the Hudson—Washington at Trenton—Lee at the Heels of the Enemy—His Speculations on Military Greatness—Forced March of Cornwallis — Washington Crosses the Delaware — Putnam in Command at Philadelphia—Baffling Letters of Lee —Hopes to reconquer the Jerseys—Gates on the March—Lee Quartered at Basingridge — Surprised and captured — Speculations on his Conduct ______ 665


Washington clothed with additional Powers—Recruitment of the
Army—Increased Pay—Colonel John Cadwalader—Arrival of
Sullivan—Gates—Wilkinson—A Coup-de-Main meditated —
Posture of Affairs at Trenton—Gates declines to take a part—
His Comments on Washington's Plans—Preparations for the
Coup-de-Main — Crossing of the Delaware — Attack on the
Enemy's Forces at Trenton—Death of Rahl—His Character - 678

CHAPTER LXXXVI. Treatment of the Hessian Prisoners—Their Interviews with Washington—Their Reception by the People - 695

CHAPTER LXXXVn. Episode—Colonel Griffin in the Jerseys— jonop decoyed— Inroad of Cadwalader and Keed—Retreat and Confusion of the Enemy's Outposts—Washington recrosses the Delaware with his Troops —The Game reversed—The Hessians Hunted back through the Country—Washington made Military Dictator - 697


Howe hears of the Affair at Trenton—Cornwallis sent back to the Jerseys — Reconnoitring Expedition of Reed — His Exploits— Washington in Peril at Trenton—Reinforced by Troops under Cadwalader and Mifflin—Position of his Men—Cornwallis at Trenton—Repulsed at the Assunpink—The American Camp menaced— Night March of Washington — Affair at Princeton— Death of Mercer—Rout of British Troops—Pursued by Washinsrton — Cornwallis at Princeton — Baffled and Perplexed — Washington at Morristown — His System of Annoyance—The Tables turned upon the Enemy - - - - -702



Burke on the State of Affairs in America—New Jersey roused to

Arms—Washington grants Safe Conduct to Hessian Convoys-

Encampment at Morristown—Putnam at Princeton—His strata-

gem to conceal the weakness of his Camp—Exploit of General

Dickinson near Somerset Court House—Washington's counter

Proclamation—Prevalence of the Small-pox—Inoculation of the

Army—Contrast of the British and American Commanders and

their Camps -------- 716


Negotiations for exchange of Prisoners — Case of Colonel Ethan

Allen—Of General Lee—Correspondence of Washington with Sir

William Howe about exchanges of Prisoners—Referees appointed

—Letters of Lee from New York—Case of Colonel Campbell—

Washington's Advice to Congress on the subject of Retaliation—

His Correspondence with Lord Howe about the Treatment of

Prisoners—The Horrors of the Jersey Prison-ship and the Sugar-

house ---------723


Exertions to form a new Army—Calls on the different States—

Insufficiency of the Militia—Washington's care for the Yeomanry

—Dangers in the Northern Department — Winter attack on

Ticonderoga apprehended—Exertions to reinforce Schuyler —

Precarious state of Washington's Army—Conjectures as to the

designs of the Enemy—Expedition of the British against Peeks-

kill --------- 733


Schuyler's Affairs in the Northern Department—Misunderstand-

ings with Congress — Gives offence by a reproachful Letter—

Office of Adjutant-General offered to Gates—Declined by him—

Schuyler reprimanded by Congress for his reproachful Letter—

Gates appointed to the command at Ticonderoga — Schuyler

considers himself virtually suspended—Takes his seat as a Dele-

gate to Congress, and claims a Court of Inquiry—Has command

at Philadelphia ------- 738


Foreign Officers Candidates for situations in the Army—Difficul-
ties in adjusting questions of Rank — Ducoudray — Conway —
Kosciusko—Washington's Guards—Arnold omitted in the Army
promotions — Washington takes his part—British Expedition
against Danbury—Destruction of American Stores—Connecticut
Yeomanry in Arms—Skirmish at Ridgefield—Death of General
Wooster—Gallant Services of Arnold—Rewarded by Congress—
Exploit of Colonel Meigs at Sag-Harbour - - - - 744


Schuyler on the point of resigning—Committee of Inquiry report in his favour—His Memorial to Congress proves satisfactory— Discussions regarding the Northern Department — Gates mistaken as to his position—He prompts his Friends in Congress— His petulant Letter to Washington—Dignified reply of the latter —Position of Gates defined—Schuyler reinstated in Command of the Department—Gates appears on the floor of Congress—His proceedings there - - - - - - - 755


The Highland Passes of the Hudson—George Clinton in Command
of the Forts—His Measures for Defence—Generals Greene and
Knox examine the state of the Forts—Their report—The general
command of the Hudson offered t > Arnold—Declined by him—
Given to Putnam—Appointment of Dr. Craik in the Medical
Department—Expedition planned against Fort Independence—
But relinquished—Washington shifts his Camp to Middlebrook—
State of his Army—General Howe crosses into the Jerseys—-
Position of the two Armies at Middlebrook and behind the
Raritan—Correspondence between Washington and Colonel Reed 762


Feigned movements of Sir William Howe—Baffling caution of Washington — Rumoured inroads from the North—Schuyler applies for Reinforcements—Renewed Schemes of Howe to draw Washington from his Stronghold—Skirmish between Cornwallis and Lord Stirling—The enemy evacuate the Jerseys—Perplexity as to their next movement—A hostile Fleet on Lake Champlain —Burgoyne approaching Ticonderoga—Speculations of Washington—His purpose of keeping Sir William Howe from ascending' the Hudson — Orders George Clinton to call out Militia from Ulster and Orange Counties—Sends Sullivan towards the Highlands—Moves his own Camp back to Morristown—Stir among the Shipping—Their destination surmised to be Philadelphia— A dinner at head-quarters —. Alexander Hamilton — Graydon's rueful description of the Army—His character of Wayne - 771


British invasion from Canada—The plan—Composition of the invading Army—Schuyler on the alert—His speculations as to the enemy's designs — Burgoyne on Lake Champlain — His Warspeech to his Indian Allies—Signs of his approach descried from Ticonderoga—Correspondence on the subject between St. Clair, Major Livingston, and Schuyler — Burgoyne intrenches near Ticonderoga—His Proclamation—Schuyler's exertions at Albany to forward reinforcements —Hears that Ticonderoga is evacuated —Mysterious disappearance of St. Clair and his Troops—Amazement and concern of Washington — Orders reinforcements to

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