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CHAPTER XLIII.

Page

Washington takes command of the Armies—Sketch of General Lee

—Characters of the British Commanders, Howe, Clinton, and

Burgoyne—Survey of the Camps from Prospect Hill—The Camps

contrasted — Description of the Revolutionary Army—Rhode

Island Troops—Character of General Greene—Washington repre-

sents the deficiencies of the Army—His Apology for the Mas-

sachusetts Troops—Governor Trumbull—Cragie House, Wash-

ington's Head-quarters ------ 349

CHAPTER XLIV.

Questions of Military Rank—Popularity of Putnam—Arrangements

at Head-quarters—Colonel Mifflin and John Trumbull, Aides-de-

camp—Joseph Reed, Washington's Secretary and confidential

Friend—Gates as Adjutant-general—Hazardous situation of the

Army—Strengthening of the Defences—Efficiency of Putnam—

Rapid Changes—New Distribution of the Forces—Rigid Disci-

pline—Lee and his Cane—His idea as to strong Battalions—

Arrival of Rifle Companies—Daniel Morgan and his Sharp-

shooters—Washington declines to detach Troops to distant points

for their protection—His reasons for so doing - 357

CHAPTER XLV.

Washington's Object in distressing Boston—Scarcity and Sickness

in the Town—A Startling Discovery—Scarcity of Powder in the

Camp—Its Perilous Situation—Economy of Ammunition—Cor-

respondence between Lee and Burgoyne — Correspondence

between Washington and Gvge—The Dignity of the Patriot

Army asserted ------- 3135

CHAPTER XLVI.

Dangers in the Interior—Machinations of the Johnson Family—

Rivalry of Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold—Government per-

plexities about the Ticonderoga Capture—Measures to secure

the Prize—Allen and Arnold ambitious of further laurels—

Projects for the Invasion of Canada—Ethan Allen and Seth

Warner honoured by Congress—Arnold displaced by a Com-

mittee of Inquiry—His indignation—News from Canada—The

Revolution to be extended into that Province—Enlistment of

Green Mountain Boys — Schuyler at Ticonderoga — State of

Affairs there — Election for Officers of the Green Mountain

Boys—Ethan Allen dismounted—Joins the Army as a Volunteer

—Preparations for the Invasion of Canada—General Montgomery

—Indian Chiefs at Cambridge — Council Fire — Plan for an

Expedition against Quebec—Departure of Troops from Ticon-

deroga—Arrival at Isle aux Noix ----- 372

CHAPTER XLVII. Page

A Challenge declined—A Blow meditated—A cautious Council of

War—Preparations for the Quebec Expedition—Benedict Arnold

the Leader — Advice and Instructions — Departure — General

Schuyler on the Sorel—Reconnoitres St. Johns—Camp at Isle

aux Noix—Illness of Schuyler—Returns to Ticonderoga—

Expedition of Montgomery against St. Johns—Letter of Ethan

Allen—His Dash against Montreal—Its Catastrophe—A Hero in

Irons — Correspondence of Washington with Schuyler and

Arnold—Hia anxiety about them. ----- 385

CHAPTER XLVIII.

British in Boston send out Cruisers—Depredations of Captain

Wallace along the Coast—Treason in the Camp—Arrest of Dr.

Church—His Trial and Pate—Conflagration of Falmouth—Irri-

tation throughout the Country—Fitting out of Vessels of War—

Embarkation of General Gage for England—Committee from

Congress—Conferences with Washington—Resolutions of Con-

gress to carry on the War—Return of Secretary Reed to Phi-

ladelphia. --------399

CHAPTER XLIX.

Measures of General Howe—Desecration of Churches—Three Pro-

clamations—Seizure of Tories—Want of Artillery—Henry Knox,

the Artillerist—His Mission to Ticonderoga—Re-enlistment of

Troops—Lack of Public Spirit—Comments of General Greene - 40G

CHAPTER L.

Affairs in Canada—Capture of Fort Chamblee—Siege of St. Johns

—Maclean and his Highlanders—Montgomery on the treatment

of Ethan Allen — Repulse of Carleton — Capitulation of the

Garrison of St. Johns—Generous Conduct of Montgomery—

Maclean re-embarks for Quebec—Weary struggle of Arnold

through the Wilderness—Defection of Colonel Enos—Arnold

in the Valley of the Chaudiere—His arrival opposite Quebec

—Surrender of Montreal—Escape of Carleton—Home Sickness

of the American Troops - - - - - -411

CHAPTER LI.

Washington's anticipations of Success at Quebec—His Eulogium

of Arnold—Schuyler and Montgomery talk of resigning—Ex-

postulations of Washington—Their effect—Schuyler's Conduct

to a Captive Foe. ------- 420

CHAPTER LII.

Difficulties in filling up the Army — The Connecticut Troops

persist in going Home—Their reception there—Timely arrival of

spoils in the Camp—Putnam and the Prize Mortar—A Maraud

by Americans — Rebuked by Washington—Correspondence of

Washington with General Howe about the treatment of Ethan

Allen—Fraternal zeal of Levi Allen—Treatment of General

Prescott—Preparations to bombard Boston—Battery at Lech-

mere's Point—Prayer of Putnam for Powder - 423

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CHAPTER LIII.

Page

Mount Vernon in Danger—Mrs.Washington invited to the Camp—

Lund Washington, the General's Agent—Terms on which he

serves—Instructed to keep up the hospitality of the house—

Journey of Mrs. Washington to Camp—Her Equipage and

Liveries—Arrival at Camp—Domestic Affairs at Head-quarters—

Gaieties in Camp—A Brawl between Round-jackets and Ritle-

shirts --------- 431

CHAPTER LTV.

Affairs in Canada—Arnold at Point Levi—Quebec reinforced—

Crossing of the St. Lawrence — Landing in Wolfe's Cove—

Arnold on the Heights of Abraham — Cautious Counsel —

Quebec aroused—The Invaders baffled—Withdraw to Point aux

Trembles—Booming of Cannon—Carleton at Quebec—Letter of

Washington to Arnold ------ 437

CHAPTER LV.

Lord Dunmore — His Plans of harassing Virginia—Lee's Policy

respectng Tory Governors and Placemen—Rhode Island harassed

by Wallace and his Cruisers, and infested by Tories—Lee sent

to its Relief—His Vigorous Measures—The Army disbanding—

Washington's Perplexities—Sympathy of General Greene—His

Loyalty in time of Trouble—The Crisis—Cheering News from

Canada—Gloomy Opening of the New Year—News from Colonel

Knox - " - - - - - - - -441

CHAPTER LVI.

Military Preparations in Boston—A Secret Expedition—Its Object
—Lee's Plan for the Security of New York—Opinion of Adams
on the Subject—Instructions to Lee—Transactions of Lee in
Connecticut—Lee's Policy in regard to the Tories—Uneasiness
in New York—Letter of the Committee of Safety to Lee—His
Reply—His Opinion of the People of Connecticut—Of the Hys-
terical Letter from the New York Congress - - - 447

CHAPTER LVII.

Montgomery before Quebec—His Plan of Operations—A Summons
to Surrender—A Flag insulted—The Town besieged—Plan of an
Escalade — Attack on the Lower Town — Montgomery in the
Advance—His Death—Retreat of Colonel Campbell—Attack by
Arnold—Defence of the Lower Town—Arnold wounded—Re-
treat of the Americans—Gallant resolve of Arnold - - 454

CHAPTER LVIII.

Correspondence of Washington and Schuyler on the Disasters in
Canada—Reinforcements required from New England—Dangers
in the Interior of New York—Johnson Hall beleaguered—Sir
John capitulates — Generous Conduct of Schuyler — Governor
Tryon and the Tories—Tory machinations—Lee at New York—

Sir Henry Clinton in the Harbour—Menaces of Lee—The City and River fortified—Lee's Treatment of the Tories—His Plans of Fortification—Ordered to the Command in Canada—His speculations on Titles of Dignity ------ 463

CHAPTER LIX. Monotonous State of Affairs before Boston—Washington anxious for Action—Exploit of Putnam—Its Dramatic Consequences— The Farce of the Blockade of Boston—An alarming interruption —Distresses of the Besieged—Washington's irksome predicament —His bold proposition—Demur of the Council of War—Arrival of Knox with Artillery—Dorchester Heights to be seized and fortified—Preparations for the attempt - - - -471

CHAPTER LX.

The affair of Dorchester Heights—American and English Letters respecting it—A Laborious Night—Revelations at Daybreak— Howe in a Perplexity — A Night Attack meditated,—Stormy Weather — The Town to be evacuated — Negotiations and Arrangements — Preparations to embark — Excesses of the Troops—Boston evacuated—Speech of the Duke of Manchester on the subject—A Medal voted by Congress - 476

CHAPTER LXI.

Destination of the Fleet—Commission of the Two Howes—Character of Lord Howe—The Colonies divided into Departments— Lee assigned to the Southern Department—General Thomas to Canada—Character of Lee, by Washington—Letters of Lee from the South—A Dog in a Dancing-school—Committee of Safety in Virginia—Lee's Grenadiers—Putnam in Command at New York —State of Affairs there—Arrival of Washington—New Arrangements—Perplexities with respect to Canada—England subsidizes Hessian Troops ------- 488

CHAPTER LXII.

Arnold blockades Quebec—His Difficulties—Arrival of General
Wooster—Of General Thomas—Abortive Attempt on Quebec-
Preparations for Retreat—Sortie of Carleton—Retreat of the
Americans—Halt at Point Deschambault—Alarm in the Colo-
nies at the Retreat of the Army—Popular Clamour against
Schuyler—Slanders refuted - - 497

CHAPTER LXIII.

Gates sent to Philadelphia with the Canada Despatches—Promoted to the rank of Major-General—Washington summoned to Philadelphia—Putnam left in Command—Conference with Congress —Army Arrangements—A Board of War instituted—The Clintons of New York—Mrs. Washington Inoculated—Reed made Adjutant-General ------- 503

CONTESTS. IX CHAPTER LXIV.

Page

Affairs in Canada—Disaster at the Cedars—Hostile Designs of the Johnsons—A bloody Summer expected—Forts in the Highlands —Colonel James Clinton in command—Fortifications at King's Bridge and on Long Island ------ 507

CHAPTER LXV.

Retreat of General Thomas—His Death—General Sullivan in command—Scene on the Sorel—Sanguine expectations of Sullivan— Washington's opinion of Sullivan's Character—Gates appointed to the command in Canada—Reinforcements of the Enemy— Keverses—Thompson captured—Retreat of Sullivan—Close of the Invasion of Canada ------ 512

CHAPTER LXVI.

Designs of the Enemy against New York and the Hudson—Plot of Tryon and the Tories — Arrival of a Fleet — Alarm Posts — Treachery up the Hudson—Fresh Arrivals—General Howe at Staten Island—Washington's Preparations - 518

CHAPTER LXVn.

First Appearance of Alexander Hamilton—His early Days—General Hugh Mercer in Command of the Flying Camp—Declaration of Independence—Announced to the Army—Downfall of the King's Statue - 525

CHAPTER LXVHr.

Arrival of more Ships—Movements of the 'Phoenix' and the 'Rose'—Panic in the City—Hostile Ships up the Hudson—Stir of War along the River—General George Clinton, and the Militia of Ulster County—Fresh Agitation of New York—Arrival of Lord Howe - 530

CHAPTER LXIX.

Precautions against Tories — Secret Committees — Declaration of Lord Howe—His Letter to the Colonial Governors—His Letter to Washington rejected—Interview between the British Adjutant-General and Colonel Reed—Reception of the AdjutantGeneral by Washington—The 'Phoenix' and 'Rose' in the Tappan Sea and Haverstraw Bay—Arming of the River Yeomanry—George Clinton at the Gates of the Highlands - - 534

CHAPTER LXX.

Question of Command between Gates and Schuyler—Condition of the Army at Crown Point—Discontent and Departure of Sullivan—Fortifications at Ticonderoga—The Question of Command adjusted—Secret Discontents—Sectional Jealousies in the Army —Southern Troops Smallwood's Macaroni Battalion—Connecticut Light-Horse - - .» • - - - 541

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