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T H E

C ο Ν Τ Ε Ν Τ S

OF THE

Essay on HUMAN UNDERSTANDING continued.

3. Communication bywords,

civil or philosophical. 4. Theimperfection of words

is the doubtfulness of their

signification. 5. Causes of their imperfec.

tion. 6. The names of mixed modes

doubtful : first, because the ideas, they stand for,

are so complex. 7. Secondly, because they

have no standards. 8. Propriety not á sufficient

remedy. 9. The way of learning these

names contributes also to

their doubtfulness. 10. Hence unavoidable obscu.

rity in ancient authors, 11. Names of substances, of

doubtful signification. 12. Names of substances re

ferred, first, to real essen.

ces, that cannot be known. 13, 14. Secondly, to' co-existing

qualities, which are

known but imperfectly. 15. With this imiperfection

they may serve for civil, but not well for philoso.

phical use. 16. Instance, liquor of the

nerves. 17. Instance, gold. 18. The names of simple ideas,

the least doubtful.

BOOK III.

OF WORDS.

CHA P. VII,

Of particles. SECT.

1. Particles connect parts, or

whole sentences together.
2. In them consists the art

of well speaking.
3, 4. They show what relation

the mind gives to its own

thoughts.
5. Instance in, But.
6. This matter but lightly

touched here.

CH A P. VIII.

Of abstract and concrete terms.

SECT.

1. Abstract terms not pre

dicable one of another,

and why.
2. They show the difference

of our ideas.

CH A P. IX.

Of the imperfection of words.

SECT.

1. Words are used for re.

cording and communicat.

ing our thoughts.
2. Any words will serve for

recording,

a 4

19. And

evident signification.

own sense of old authors. 23. The ends of language :

first, to convey our ideas.

С НА Р. Х.

24. Secondly, to do it with

quickness.

Of the abuse of words.

25. Thirdly, therewith to

SECT.

convey the knowledge of

things.

1. Abuse of words.

2, 3. First, words without any,

26-31. How men's words fail in

all these.

or without clear ideas,

4. Occasioned by learning

32. How in substances.

names, before the ideas 33. How in modes and rela.

tions.

they belong to.

5. Secondly, a steady appli.

34.Seventhly, figurativespeech

also an abuse of language.

cation of them.

6. Thirdly, affected obscu.
rity, by wrong applica.

CH A P. XI.
tion.

7. Logic and dispute have Of the remedies of the foregoing

much contributed to this.

imperfections and abuses.

8. Calling it subtiliy.

SECT.

9. This learning very little

benefits society.

1. They are worth seeking.

10. But destroys the instru.

2. Are not easy.

ments of knowledge and 3. But yet necessary to phi.
communication.

i losophy.
11. As useful as to confound 4. Misuse of words, the cause
the sound of the letters.

of great errours.
12. This art has perplexed re.

5. Obstinacy.

ligion and justice.

6. And wrangling.

13. And ought not to pass 4. Instance, bat and bird.

for learning

8. First remedy, to use no

14. Fourthly, taking them for

word without an idea.

things.

9. Secondly, to have distinct

15. Instance in matter.

ideas annexed to them in

16. Thismakeserrourstasting.

modes.

17. Fifthly, setting them for 10. And distinct and con-

what they cannot signify.

formable in substances.

18. V.g. putting them for the 11. Thirdly, propriety.

real essences of substances. 12. Fourthly, to make known
19. Hence we think every

their meaning.

change of our idea in sub-

And that three ways.

14. First,

? 3.

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