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Astronomical Occurrences

· In OCTOBER 1829.

16th

SOLAR PHENOMENA. The Sun enters Scorpio at 29 m. after 4 in the afternoon of the 23d of this month, and he rises and sets during the same period as in the following

TABLE
Of the Sun's Rising and Setting for every fifth Day.
October 1st, Sun rises 12 m. after 6, sets 48 m. after 5
6th

22
6 38

5
Ilih

32

6. 28 42

6. 18 21st

51

6. 26th

1

7 59
31st
10

50 Equation of Time. One of the most convenient ways of ascertaining true time is to correct apparent time by the numbers given in the following

TABLE
Of the Equation of Time for every fifth Day.
Thursday, October 1st, from the time by the dial sub. 10 20
Tuesday

, 11 56
Sunday..
Ilth

13 12
Friday
16th

14 22
Wednesday
.21st

15 17
Monday

15 55
Saturday
31st

..... 16 14

.
Phases of the Moon:
First Quarter.. 5th day, at 49 m. after 11 at night
Full Moon....12th.....

3. in the afternoon
Last Quarter ..19tb....... 30
New Moon... ..27th......

7 at night." Moon's Passage over the Meridian. The following passages of the Moon over the first meridian will afford opportunities for observation, if the weather prove favourable at the respective times: viz.

m. $.

6th .....

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26th ,...

29.

5th.

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October 4th, at Om. after in the afternoon

54 6th v 48

6 in the evening
7th 43 ..... 7

i
8th ..
39

8
9th

9
10th 30 10
17th
9

4 in the morning
18th 3
19th 54

5
20th : 43

6 21st .. 30...7 22d 15 ... 8 23d,..58 bili 81.. 24th

... 41 alin. 9 PHENOMENA PLANETARUM,

Phases of Venus. The following are the proportional phases of Ve. nus at this time: viz. October 1st Illuminated part":

= 9•7090S Dark part.1.15 2.29192 Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites, it's There will be a great number of eclipses of the first and second of these satellites during this month; but only one of them will be visible here:

Emersion.
First Satellite, 14th day, at 55 m. 7 s. after 5 in the evening.

Form of Saturn's Ring. The transverse and conjugate axes of this ring now exhibit the following proportion : viz.

Transverse axis
October 1st

{ Conjugate axis S. - 0.271 Conjunction of the Moon with the Planets and Stars. October 2d, with w in Libra .... at 2 in the morning

7th B : Capricorn... 10
15th 3. Taurus 4 in the afternoon
15th ld.. Taurus
15th .28.; Taurus 6
15th vi.da
Taurus von

11 at ight
24th

• Virgo 1 in the afternoon, u i 25th

5 29th

Libra....... 8 in the morning.

Other Phenomena. Mercury will attain his greatest elongation on the 5th of this month: he will be stationary on the 17th,

1.000

. Mars

and in bis inferior conjunction at one in the morning of the 29th. Georgium Sidus will be stationary on the 12th, and in quadrature at half past 5 in the morning of the 26th.

NEBULÆ.

[From the Literary Gazette.]
Oh! when the soul, no longer earthward weighed,

Exults towards heaven, with swift seraphic wing,

Among the joys, past man's imagining,
It may be one, to scan, ʼmidst space, displayed,
Those wondrous works our blindness now debars,

The awful secrets written in the stars. As the illumination of the atmosphere diminishes, and yields undivided empire to the darkness of night, a more distinct view of the wonders of the heavens is presented for our investigation; we penetrate with greater facility those awful depths, above, beneath, around; and find ample employment for contemplation and improvement,

In former astronomical papers, brief sketches have been given of those wonders in creation-subjects of a higher astronomy—which carry the mind beyond the movements of this lower sphere, this remote province of the universe, to expatiate on the loftier pinnacles of the higher heavens-systems of suns, performing their revolutions about their common centre of gravity, in vastly extended periods of time--lost stars, those bodies which, after shining for ages, gradually disappear, and are no longer seen as glittering gems in the diadem of night-new stars, or such as suddenly appear where no stars were before observed, justifying the suspicion, that these latter are new creations which have commenced their measured circling way, till the appointed period arrives for them to be commanded back to the realms of obscuritythe subject of Nebulæ, a still higher step in this wondrous scale of progression, dimly telling us, not merely of the existence of other suns like our own, with each a splendid retinue of planets, of solar stars

connected together by mutual gravitation, but of systems of these, vastly separated in space, yet almost infinite in the individual suns that form the group, and these groups perhaps infinite in number, and scattered with boundless profusion over the vast concavity of the heavens, while the whole of each starry system is, probably, revolving about some distant, stupendous, and unspeakably resplendent, glorious centre. Nebulæ may be generally divided into two kinds; one, a combination of innumerable stars, which, from their distance, have the appearance of a faint cloud,-a distance so remote, as to leave the most powerful mind faltering in endeavouring to acquire an adequate conception of it: the other, probably not so remote, though inconceivably beyond our system of fixed stars, composed of a luminous matter, of the nature and density of which but a very faint idea is furnished for conjecture. The most remarkable of this kind is that in the sword-handle of Orion; its irregularity of form suggests a resemblance to the head of a monstrous animal, with two horns of unequal lengths, making a considerable angle with each other, the lower one having an easterly direction; an unequal brilliancy occurs throughout, as though one part was formed of accumulated luminous matter, assuming, in some places, the appearance of solidity: those parts which mark the outline of the mouth and eye of the fancied animal may be better described by comparing them to deep indented bays, nearly of a quadrangular figure, well defined, and by its brightness giving an intensity to the darkness of the sky that it surrounds, which, in these openings (probably by contrast) appears of an unusual blackness. The brightest part has by no means a uniform aspect, but exhibits an unevenness not unlike fleecy clouds of a scirrhous or mottled appearance, as if undergoing some change of separation. This bright region in some directions is abruptly terminated, and beyond it is seen a fainter region of nebulosity, while other

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parts gradually fade into that which is more diluted, till it subsides in the gloom of the neighbouring sky,

In these regions are several minute stars, one clus ter of four, on the bright part, of different colours, arranged in the form of a trapezium; five others in the fainter part of the nebula, in the direction of the southern horn: other stars are scattered in and pear the nebula, some of which are surrounded with the same milky luminosity. One most striking peculiarity is observed relative to these stars, that the nebulous matter seems to recede from them, so as to leave'a dark space between it and their brilliant points, as though the stars were either repelling the nebulous matter or absorbing it. This is particularly the case with those that form the trapezium. A similar appearance may be observed in Sagittarius,-a nebula is broken into three parts, forming dark roads through the luminous matter, leading to a centre, in which is situated a beautiful double star. On one of the sides of the dark openings before referred to, in the nebula of Orion, are filaments or fibres of light, which appear as if extending themselves to the opposite side; and on the sides of the head, in the direction of the northern horn, are faint streams of liglit, not unlike the tails of comets: closely adjoining to this nebula are several smaller. The whole sky for several degrees around this constellation is not free from these appearances; two, close together, one of a spindle, the other of a circular form; in the centre of the latter is a small star: a smaller nebula, at the entrance of one of the dark openings, appears as if drawing together into a star.

This is but an imperfect description of the present appearance of this magnificent phenomenon, as recently seen by Herschel's 20-feet reflecting telescope: there is every reason to believe that it has undergon considerable changes since it was first observed by Huygens, in 1656. A careful comparison of the descriptions and drawings of various astronomers seems

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