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tial armies ; ' he is mounted on a the shoulders of Garuda, a youth peacock. He has six faces, and is with the wings and beak of a fabled to have been nursed by the hawk; but he is more frequently six Kritikas, or stars of the Pleïades, represented reposing on the great who are the wives of the Rooshis, many-beaded set peut of eternity, or stars of the constellation of the floating on the milky ocean ; in Great Bear. Ganesa is the god of which case luckshenii is generally wisdom; he is often the god of for- sitting at his feet. The Hindoos tune, and presides over the limits of believe that the four yougs must fields. He is represented very fat, revolve seventy-two times in every with the head of an elephant, hav- kalpa, (creation or formation), at ing sometimes iwo aod sometimes the end of which, all things are four faces. He holds in his hands absorded into the deity, and that, a cup containing round cakes, which in the interval of another creation, be appears to be eating, and the he reposeth himself on the serpent ankasa, or hook used by the drivers Shesba (duralion), who is called of elephants, which has been taken Ananta (endless. Many of the for a key, and supposed to confirm offices of Vishnu are common, both the identity of this god with Janus. to Brahma and to Siva ; and the Ganesa' is invoked the first in all names of all three are frequently sacrifices, and all writings begin used for the sun, for fire, and for with his name. He is always at. water. Each deity has weapons tended by a rat, the emblem of peculiar to himself; those which forethought.

always distinguish Vishnu are the “ Vishnu, the preserving deity, chakra or discus, and the chank or exclusive of his names in his several wreathed shell, on wbich the note awatars, is Narayun, or moving on of victory is sounded. The parathe ocean, Shreedher, Govind, and dise of Vishnu is Vaikontha; he is Hari. His wife is Luckshemi, the often painted of a dark blue cogoddess of fortune, called also Ká- lour, on which account be is called mala, or the lotus-boin, baving Nielkont. sprung on a lotus from the ocean. “ 'l he awatars of Vishnu, by She is the goddess of beauty, and which are meant bis descents upon presides over marriage. Her son earth, are usually counted ten, Camdeo is the god of beauty and of though sore writers make them love. It is related in the Rama- much more numerous. The first yuna, that Camdeo or Kundurpa, is the Mutchee or lish awatar, when, having presumed to wonnd Siva, in the form of a huge fish, he con. while with uplifted arm he was' docied and preserved the boat of engaged in sacred austerities, the Sivavrata the 7th Menu, while the incensed god consumed his body. earth was deluged in consequence with lightning from his eyes. Hence of the loss of the vedas, and the Camdeo is called Ununga, bodyless, subsequent wickedness of mankind. and he is the only person in the The holy books had been stolen by Hindoo mythology who is ever said Hyagriva, king of the demons ; to be immaterial. He is sometimes Vishnu undertook to recover them ; called Muddun, and rides on a fish, and, after a severe combat with with a banner in bis hand.

Hyagriva, he destroyed him, re!! Viskor is often seen riding op stored the sacred books, and caused


tbe waters to subside. The second bearen, leaving only Patala or hell awatar is Koorma, or the tortoise, to Beli. Vamuna is soinetimes In order to recover some of the ad- called Tri-vikrum, or three-stepper. vantages lost to mankind by the In the sixth awatar, Vishnu, as deluge, Visbnu became a tortoise, Parashu Rama, the son of the Braand sustained, on his back, the min Jemadagni, is fabled to have mountain Meru, wbile the gods and destroyed all the males of the Xe. genii churned with it the milky trie or fighting caste, on account of ocean, and produced seven precious the wickedness of their chief Sahasthings, among which were the rarjum, who oppressed the Bramins, moon, a physician, a borse, a wo- particularly Jemadagni. The se man, an elephant, and Amrita, or venth descent of Vishnu is sung in the water of life, wbich was drank the epic poein of Valmiki, called by the immortals. The third awa the Ramayuna, from Rama the ditar is Varaha, or the boar, Prit'- vine hero, the son of Dusbaruthra, hivi, the earth, having been over- king of Uyodhya, or Oude, who led come by the genius of the waters, a life of adventure in the woods Vishnu, in the shape of a man, with and forests of India, attended by his the head of a hog, descended and brother Lakshmana, and by bis supported her on his tusk, while he faithful friend, Hanuman the divine subdued the waters and restored monkey, the son of Pavana, god of her. In the fourth awatar, Vish- the wind. Sita, the wife of Rama, nu, in the form of a monstrous having been stolen by Rawana the man, with a lion's head, sprang ten-headed tyrant of Lanka (Cey. from a pillar to destroy an impious lon) Hanuman discovered the place king who was on the point of mur- of her concealment, and, with the dering his own son. He is called assistance of Soogreera and other Narasiuba, or lion-headed. Vish- divine baboons, he built the bridge nu, in his fifth descent, is called of Rama (Adam's bridge,) from the Vamuna, or the Brahmin dwarf. continent of India to Ceylon, to Beli having, by bis meritorious aus. facilitate the passage of Rama and terities, obtained the sovereignty of his army to that island, where he the world, neglected to worship the destroyed the tyrant and recovered gods; the Dewtabs, alarmed lest he Sita. should deprive them of their celes: “ Krishna, the person in whom tial habitations, entreated protection Vishnu was incarnate in his eighth from Vishnu, who descended in the awatar, is said to have been bora form of a Bramin dwarf, and bav- of the sister of a tyrant, who, tu ing obtained from Beli a promise, secure the death of his nephew, confirmed by an irrevocable oath, caused all the young children in his to grant wbatever he should ask, dominions to be murdered; but, in he demanded as much space os be the mean time, the young Krishna could compass in three steps. The was concealed and brought up boon being granted, his form di- among some herdsmen, whence be lated to its divine dimensions; the is considered as the peculiar patron eigbt celestial weapons appeared in of herds, and is often represented as the eight hands of the god, wbose attended by nine Gopia or dairyfirst step compassed the earth, his women. He is the god of poetry second the ocean, and bis tbird god music, of wrestlers and boxers.


The adventures of Krishna, and the mythological union of the deities of wars in which he was engaged, are heat and of water is fabled to have described in the Bhagavat. The produced the metals. Surya, the ninth awatar is Bhûd, who reformed god of the sun, is drawn in a chathe rules of the vedas, and forbid riot by a many-headed horse ; he the destroying animal life. The represents truth, and has a numerous tenth awatar, called Kalkee, is to sect of worshippers called Sauras. come. He will be a warrior on a Chandra, the moon, is drawn in a white horse; in his days the world car by an antelope; the twentyshall be at peace, all enmity shall be seven lunar stations, called Nukshu. destroyed, and men shall bave but tras, into which the Hindoos divide one faith.

the beavens, are considered as his “Of the religious sects worship- wives. ping Vishnu, the Vaishnavas adore “ Viswakarman is the artificer of him alone, as comprising in his the gods ; Koovera is the god of person the greatest number of the riches, and resides in the forest of attribuies of the deity. The Go- Chitra-ruthra; and Pavarah is the clasthas and the Ramapoj are in god of the wind. Eight guardians fact worshippers of deified heroes; preside over the eight quarters of the first pay respect to Vishnu in the world; and all oature is crowded the awatar of Gocal or Krishna,' with deities. and the second in that of Raina “ In making this slight sketch of Chandra.

the Hindoo mythology, I have for« Besides the great deiries above- borne to point out the striking simentioned, there are multitudes of milarity of many of the deities to interior divine persons, over whom those of Greece and Rome, as it is Indra, the thousand-eyed lord of the too obvious to escape your attendewtabs, presides. He dwells with tion. A remarkable proof of their his wife Indranee in the forest Non- identity with the gods of Egypt ocdana, and with her is often seen curred in 1801, when the sepoy mounted on an elephant with three regiments who had been sent into trunks. He presides over delusions. that country, fell down before the Agni, the god of fire, is represented gods in the temple of Tentyra, and with two faces and three legs, rid. claimed them as those of their own ing on a ram. He is said to have belief. The coarseness and inelemarried the goddess Gunga (Gan- gance of the Hindoo polytheism, ges,) the sister of Parvati. Gunga will certainly disgust many accusis fabled to have rested on the head tomed to the graceful mythology of Siva, or that of Vishnu, in her of antient Europe; but it is not indescent from heaven, and to have curious, nor perhaps useless, to exflowed, thence in three streams, amine the various systems of relicalled triveni, or three locks, and gion which the feelings natural to running to the sea, to have filled up the mind of man have produced,its bason, which, although dug be- to observe how they have been mofore that time, was empty. Her dified by climate or other circumunion with Agni produced the me- stances, -and to trace, under all tals. The range of mountains among these various disguises, the workings which the Ganges takes it rise, of the same common nature; and abounds with mines; hence the in the superstitions of India, no legs


than in the lofty visions of Plato, shadowed with wood, sometimes to recognize the existence of those walled by rocks, till we arrived at moral ties which unite ibe heart of the cave. We came upon it unexe man to the Author of his being.' pectedly, and I confess that I never For my own part, living among the felt such a sensation of astonish. people, and daily beholding the ment as' w..en the cavern opened prostrate worshipper, the temple, upon me. At first it appeared all the altar, and the offering, I take darkness, while on the bill above, an interest in them which makes below, and around, shrubs and up for their want of poetical beauty. flowers of the most brilliant hóes Nor can I look with indifference

were waving in the full sunshine. upon a system, however barbarous As I entered, my sight became gra. and superstitious, which has so dually more distinct, and I was strong a hold of the minds of its able to consider the wonderful votaries, and which can bring them chamber in which I stood. The tn despise death and torture in their entrance is fifty-five feet wide, its most dreadful forms.

height is eighteen, and its length “ But to return to my, journal. about equal with its width. It is We got into our boat at Mazagong supported by massy pillars, carved a little before suprise, and bad the in the solid rock; the capital of pleasure of marking the gradual these resembles a compressed cushion increase of day as it broke over the bound with a fillet ; tbe abacus is Mabratta mountains. First the like a bunch of reeds supporting a woody top: of Caranjaand El phania beam, six of which run across the became illuminate l, then Bombay, whole cave; below the capital the with its forts and villages stretching columu may be compared to s along the north of the bay, while futed bell resting on a plain octathe bases of the rocky islands to the gonal member placed on a die, on south, slowly became distinguish- each corner of which sits Hanuman, able from the reflecting waves. Ganesa, or some of the other ipfeAfter an hour's row, during which rior gols. The sides of the cavern we passed Butcher's Island, called are scalptured in compartments, reby the natives Deva Devi, or holy presenting the persons of the my• island, we arrived at Elephauta, a thology; but the end of the cavern mountain isle with a double top, opposite to the entrance is the most wooded to the summit. Opposite remarkable In the centre is : to the landing-place is the colossal gigantic trimurti, or three-furmed stone elephant, from which the god. Brahma the creator is jo ibe Portuguese named the place. It is middle, with a placid countenance ; now cracked and mutilated, as tra his cap is alorned with jewels. dition says, by the Portuguese. It Vishnu, the preserving deity, is re. must have been carved out of the presented as very beautiful; bis rock on which it stands, for it ap- face is full of benevolence, his band pears too large to have been carried bolds a lotus, the same sacred flower to its present situatio... After pass. is placed in his cap, with the triing a village which, as well as the veni or triple-plaited lock, signiwhole island, the natives call Gba- fying the rivers Gunga (Ganges), ripoori, we ascended the hill through Yamuna (Jumoa), and Seraswati, romantic passes, sometimes over and other ornaments referring to

bis attributes. Siva frowns; his murti is a compartment answering nose is aquiline, and his mouth half to that I have just described. The open; in his band is his destructive principal figure I take to be Siva ; emblem, the cobra-capella, and on at his left hand stands Parvati, on bis cap, among other symbols, a whose shoulder he leans; between human skull and a new-born infant them is a dwarf, on whose head is mark his double character of de one of Siva's hands, and near Parstroyer and reproducer. These faces vati is another. Over Siva's shoulare all beautiful but for the under der hangs the zevaar, and he holds lips, which are remarkably thick, the cobra-capella in one of bis four The length from the chin to the hands. He is surrounded by the crown of the head is six feet; the same figures which fill up the comcaps are about three feet more. No partment of the Viraj; his own part of the bust is mutilated but the height (which we measured by a two hands in front, which are quite plurub-line dropped from his hoad,) destroyed. Concealed steps behind is fourteen feet, and that of farvati · Siva's hand lead to a convenient is ten. All these figures are in ledge or bench behind the cap of alto-relievo, as are those of the other the best, where a Branio might sides of the cavern, the most re. have hidden bimself for any purpose of which is one of Siva in of priestly imposition. On each bis vindictive character; he is eightside of the frimurti is a pilaster, the handed, with a chapet of skulls front of which is filled up by a round his neck, and appears in the figure fourteen feet high, leaning on act of performing the human saa dwarf; these are much defaced. crifice. To the right is a large square com

“ On the right hand, as you enpartment, hollowed a little, carved ter the cave, is a square apartment into a great variety of figures, the with four doors, supported by eight largest of which is sixteen feet high, colossal figures : it contains a giganrepresenting the double figure of tic symbol of Maha Deo, and is cut Siva and Parvati, called Viraj or out of the rock like the rest of the Ardha Nari, half male half female, cave. There is a similar chamber tbe right side of which is Siva, and in a smaller and more secret cavern, the left his wife ; it is four-banded; to which there is access from the the two lower hands, one of which corner next to the Viraj; the coappears to have rested on the Nun- vering of the passage has fallen in, di, are broken ; the upper right but, on climbing over the rubbish, hand has a cobra-capella, and the we found ourselves in a little area left a shield. On the right of the which bas no outlet, and is lighted Viraj is Brama, four-faced, sitting from above, the whole thickness of on a lotus; and on the left is Vishnu the hill being cut through. The on the shoulders of Garuda. Near cavern to which it belongs contains Brahma are Indra and Indranee on nothing but the square chamber of their elephant, and below is a frmale Maha Deo, and a bath at each end, figure holding a chamara or chow. one of which is decorated with rich

The upper part of the com- sculplure. partment is filled with small figures " When we had tired ourselves in attitudes of adoration.

with examining the various wonders “ On the other side of the tri. of the cavern of Elepbania, I sat



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