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intention to employ the most proper TREATY BETWEEN RUSSIA AND
means for conciliating the interests
of all, perceives, in the numerous Substance of the engagements be-
settlements which have taken place twen the courts of St. Peters.
between the old and the new land. burg and Stockholm, signed at
holders, the means of rendering St. Petersburg the 24th of March
those cares almost superfluous. He 1812, so far as the same are re-
engages, however, to interdict alt

ferred to in the treaty between
proceedings by the tribunals, con his majesty and the king of Swe-
trary to such settlements,—to en den signed at Stockholm on the
courage voluntary arrangements, 3d of March 1813.
and, on the part of himself and his The object of the emperor of
family, to set the example of all Russia and the king of Sweden in
those sacrifices which may contribute forming an alliance is stated to be
to the repose of France, and the for the purpose of securing recipro-
sincere union of all Frenchmen *. cally their states and possessions

The king has 'guarantied to the against the common enemy. army the maintenance of the ranks, The French government having employments, pay, and appoint- by the occupation of Swedish Po ments which it at present enjoys. merania committed an act of hostiHe promises also to the generals, lity against the Swedish governofficers, and soldiers, who shall ment, and by the movement of its signalise themselves in support of armies having menaced the tranhis cause, rewards more substantial, quillity of the empire of Russia, distinctions more honourable, than the contracting parties engage to any they can receive from an usur- make a diversion against France per,-always ready to disown, or and her allies, with a combined even to dread their service. The force of twenty-five or thirty thouking binds himself anew to abolish sand Swedes, and of fifteen or that pernicious conscription, which twenty thousand Russians, upon destroys the happiness of families such point of the coast of Germany and the hope of the country. as may be judged most convenient

Such always have been, such for that purpose. still are, the intentions of the king. As the king of Sweden cannot His re-establishment on the throne make this diversion in favour of the of his ancestors will be for France common cause, consistently with only the happy transition from the the security of his dominions, so calamities of a war which tyranny long as he can regard the kingdom perpetuates, to the blessings of a of Norway as an enemy, his masolid peace, for which foreign jesty the emperor of Russia enpowers can never find any security gages, either by negotiation or by but in the word of the legitimate military co-operation, to unite the sovereign.

kingdom of Norway to Sweden.

Louis. He engages moreover to guaranty Hartwell, Feb. 1, 1813.

the peaceable possession of it to his Swedish majesty.

The two contracting parties en

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The uti possidetis of course is meant by his majesty,



gage to consider the acquisition of By a subsequent convention,
Norway by Sweden as a prelimi- signed at Abo the 30th of August
nary military operation to the di- 1812, the Russian auxiliary force
version on the coast of Germany, was to be carried to thirty-tive thou.
and the emperor of Russia pro- sand men.
mises to place for this object, at
the disposal and under the imme.
diate orders of the prince royal of PROCLAMATION of the KING OS
Sweden, the corps of Russian troops
above stipulated.

The two contracting parties be. His majesty the king of Prussia,
ing unwilling, if it can be avoided, having made an offensive and
to make an enemy of the king of detensive treaty with the emperor
Denmark, will propose to that so Alexander, has issued the follow-
vereign to accede to this alliance, ing proclamation :
and will offer to his Danish majesty

TO THE PUBLIC. to procure for him a complete in It is unnecessary to render an demnity for Norway, by a territory account to my good people of Germore contiguous to his German many of the motives for the war dominions, provided his Danish which is now commencing ; they majesty will cede for ever his rights are evident to impartial Europe. on the kingdon of Norway to the Bent under the superior power of king of Sweden.

France, that peace which deprived In case his Danish majesty shall me 'of half my subjects, procured refuse this offer, and shall have us no blessings-it on the contrary decided to remain in alliance with hurt us more than war itself. The France, the two contracting parties heart of our country was impoveengage to consider Denmark as

rished. The principal fortresses their enemy.

were occupied by the enemy ; agriAs it has been expressly stipu- culture was neglected, as well as lated that the engagement of his the industry of our cities, which Swedish majesty to operate with had risen to a very high degree. his troops in Germany in favour of Liberty of trade being interrupted, the common cause, shall not take naturally closed all the sources of effect until after Norway shall have ease and prosperity:-By the most been acquired by Sweden, either exact observance of the stipulated

by the cession of the king of Den- treaties, I hoped to obtain an alle| mark, or in consequence of mili- viation for my people, and at last

tary operations, his majesty the to convince the French emperor king of Sweden engages to trans. that it was his own interest to have port his army into Germany, ac Prussia independent; but my incording to a plan of campaign to tentions, my exertions, to attain so be agreed upon, as soon as the desirable an object proved fruitless. above object shall have been at. Nothing but haughtiness and treachtained.

ery was the result! We discovered, His Britannic majesty to be in- but rather late, that the emperor's vited by both powers to accede to conventions were more ruinous to and to guaranty the stipulations than his open wars. The mo. contained in the said treaty. ment is now arrived in which no


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illusion respecting our condition Even this you would manfully sup-
can remain. Brandenburghers! port for your honour, because a
Prussians! Silesians ! Pomerani. Prussian and German cannot live
ans ! Lithuanians ! you know without it. But we dare confi.
what you: have suffered during the dently trust, God and our firm
last seven years--you know what purpose will give our just cause
à miserable fate awaits you, if you victory, and with this an unirter.
do not honourably finish the now rupted peace, and the return of
commencing conflict. Remember happier times.
former times-remember the illus.

trious elector, the great Frederick Breslau, March 17.
-remember the benefits for which [Another address, to the army,
our ancestors contended under their couched in similar energetic terms,
direction. The liberty of con- promises that their king and princes
science--honour- independence-- will always be with them, and
trade— industry and knowledge. fight by their side.]
Bear in mind the great example of
our allies the Russians-think of
the Spaniards and Portuguese;
small nations have even gone to MESSAGE FROM PRESIDENT MADISON,
battle, for similar benefits, against Fellow citizens of the senate, and
a more powerful enemy, and ob of the house of representatives,
tained victory

Remember the At an early day after the close of
Swiss and the Netherlands.--Great last session of congress, an offer
sacrifices are required from all was formally communicated from
ranks; because our plan is great, the emperor of Russia of his media,
and the number and means of our tion as the common friend of the
enemy not less so. You will make United States and Great Britain,
them sooner for your country- for the purpose of facilitating a
your king--than for a foreign re- peace between them. The high
gent, who by so many examples has character of the emperor Alexan-
proved he would take your sons and der being a satisfactory pledge for
last strength for designs to which the sincerity and impartiality of his
you are strangers. Confidence in offer, it was immediately accepted;
God, constancy, courage, and the and as a further proof of the dis-
powerful assistance of our allies, position on the part of the United
will favour our just cause with glo- States to meet their adversary in
rious victory. But however great honourable experiments for termi.
the sacrifices that may be required nating the war, it was determined
from individuals, they will not out to avoid intermediate delay, inci-
weigh the sacred

interests for dent to the distance of tlie parties, which they are given, for which we by a definitive provision for the combat and must conquer, or cease contemplated negotiation. Three to be Prussians or Germans.---We of our eminent citizens were acare now engaged in the last deci- cordingly commissioned, with the sive contest for our existence, our requisite powers, to conclude a independence, and our property. treaty of peace, with persons clothed There is no medium between an with like powers on the part of honourable peace or glorious ruin. Great Britain. They were autho.


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rised also to enter into such conven- acted by them, as an article of mutional regulations of the commerce nicipal policy, cannot for a moment between the two countries as may be be compared with the mode pracmutually advantageous. The two tised by Great Britain, without a envoys, who were in the United conviction of its title to preference ; States at the time of their appoint- inasmuch as the latter leaves the ment, have proceeded to join tbeir discrimination between the mariners colleagues already at St. Peters. of the two nations to officers exposburgh.

ed to unavoidable bias, as well as, The envoys have received an- by a defect of evidence, to a wrong other commission, authorising the decision under circumstances preto conclude with Russia a treaty of cluding, for the most part, the encommerce, with a view to strength- forcement of controlling, penalties, en the amicable relations, and im- and where a wrong decision, beprove the beneficial intercoul. ', be- sides the irreparable violation of the tween the two countries.

sacred righis of persons, might The issue of this friendly inter- frustrate the pla: • and profits of course of the Russian emperor, and eative voyages; whereas the mode this pacific manifestation on the part assumed by the United States guards of the United States, time only with studied fairness and elficacy can decide. That the sentiments against errors in such cases, and of Great Britain towards that so- avoids the effect of casual errors vereign will have produced an ac on the safety of navigation and ceptance of his offered mediation, the success of mercantile expedio must be presumed. That no ade- tions. quate motives exist to prefer a con. If the reasonableness of expectatinuance of war with the United tions, drawn from these consideraStates to the terms on which they tions, could guaranty their fulfil. are willing to close it, is certain. ment, a just peace would not be

The Biitish cabinet also must be distant. But it becomes the wisdom sensible, that with respect to the im- of the national legislature to keep portant question of impressment, in mind the true policy, or rather the on which the war so essentiaily indispensable obligation, of adaptturns, a search for or seizure of ing its measures to the supposition British

persons or property on that the only course to that happy board neutral vessels on the high event is in the vigorous employ. seas, is not a belligerent right de- ment of the resources of war. And rived from the law of nations; and painful as the reflection is, this duty it is obvious, that no visit or search, is particularly enforced by the spirit or use of force, for any purpose, on

and manner in which the war conboard the vessel of one independent tinues to be waged by the enemy, power on the high seas, can, in who, uninfinenced by the unvaried, war or peace, be sanctioned by the examples of humanity set them, laws or authority of another power. are adding to the savage fury of it It is equally obvious, that for the on one frontier a system of plunder purpose of preserving to each state and conflagration on the other, its sea-faring members, by exclud. equally forbidden by respect for ing them from the vessels of the national character, and by the estaother, the made heretofore proposed blished rules of civilized warfare. by the United States, and now en As an encouragement to perse1813.


vering and invigorated exertions 10 stinguished citizen who represented bring the contest to a happy result, the United States in France, withI have the satisfaction of being able out any special arrangements by 10 appeal to the auspicious progress him for such a contingency, has of our arms both by land and on left us without the expected sequel the water.

to his last communications; nor In continuation of the brilliant has the French government taken achievements of our infant navy, a any measures for bringing the designal triumph has been gained by pending negotiations to a conclusion captain Lawrence and his compa- through its representative in the nions in the Hornet sloop of war, United States. This failure adds which destroyed a British sloop of to delays before so unusually spun war, with a celerity so unexampled, out. A successor to our departed and with a slaughter of the enemy so minister has been appointed, and is disproportionate to the loss in the ready to proceed on his mission. Hornet, as to claim for the con. The course which he will pursue in querors the highest praise, and the fulfilling it, is that prescribed by a full recompense provided by con- steady regard to the true interests gress in preceding cases. Our pub- of the United States, which equally lic ships of war, in general, as well avoids an abandonment of their as the private armed vessels, have just demands, and a connection of continued also their activity and their features with the system of success against the commerce of other powers. the enemy, and by their vigilance The receipts into the treasury, and address have greatly frustrated from the 1st of October to the 31st the efforts of the hostile squadrons of March last, including the sums distributed along our coasts, to in- received on account of treasury tercept them in returning into port notes, and of the loans authorised and resuming their cruises.- The by the acts of the last and the preaugmentation of our naval force, ceding session of congress, have is authorised at the last session of amounted to 15,412,000 dollars. congress, is in progresse On the The expenditures during the same lakes our superiority is near at hand, period amounted to 15,920,000,and were it not already established. left in the treasury on the l'st of

The events of the campaign, so April 1,857,000 dollars. The loan far as they are known to us, furnish of 16 millions of dollars, authorised matter of congratulation, and show by the act of the 8th of February that, under a wise organization and last, has been contracted for. Of efficient direction, the army is dee that sum more than a million of stined to a glory not less brilliant dollars had been paid into the trea. than that which already encircles sury prior to the 1st of April, the navy. The attack and capture and formed a part of the receipts as of York is, in that quarter, a pre. above stated. The remainder of sage of future and greater victories that loan, amounting to near 15 while, on the western frontier, millions of dollars, with the sum of the issue of the late siege of Fort five millions of dollars authorised to Meigs leaves nothing to regret but be issued in treasury notes, and the a single act of inconsiderate va- estimated receipts from the customs lour.

and the sales of public lands, aThe sudden death of the di. mounting to 9,000,000 dollars, and

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