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This objection is very plausible, the proportion between the supply:
find a purchaser for it; or, in other given above. They amounted, in
465,995 cents, and the other descriptions 1813 Ditto
978,872 of stock, not so likely to be paid The following is a comparative off. Indeed it must be obviously so; view of the import of coffee, cotfor all men must prefer that stock ton, and sugar, for three years, which they can sell whenever they ending the 5th of January in each please, to that for which they may be year: obliged to accept the principal when 1811
25,812,795 they know not what to do with it. 1812
3,616,814 We shall conclude this chapter 1813
2,573,614 with the following extracts relative to the revenue and expenditure, the 1811
£3,882,423 imports and exports of the year, 1812
2,990,821 ending the 5th of January, 1813, 1813
2,166,412 as they appear in the annual statement laid before parliament, of the 1811
36,429,044 finances and commerce of the 1812
5,033,396 The revenue of that year, in- The imports of this country from eluding the loan, amounted to Ireland, it appears, are regularly on 95,712,6952. The gross receipt of the increase : the income tax, within the same 1811
£3,280,747 period, was 13,131,5481.
3,312,879 The total expenditure during the 1813
3,551,269 year ending the 5th of Jan. 1813
But if the imports of Great Briwas 104,398,2481.
tain fell off during the last year, it The public debt during the same appears that the exports have ma. period cost the country 36,607,1281. terially improved. The following of which the sum of 13,482,5101. is a comparative view of our expassed into the hands of the com- ports for three years, ending the missioners for the reduction of the 5th of January in each year: national debt.
1811 EXPORIS €34,923,575 The following is a comparative 1812 Do. 24,131,73+ view of the imports of the country 1813 Do.
31,243,362 for three years, ending the 5th of The real value of British proJanuary in each year :
duce and manufactures exported, as , 1811 IMPORTS £36,427,722 estimated at the custom-house, is
1812 Ditto 24,520,329 43,657,8641.
The imports from India are not foreign merchandize exported, is included in any of the three sums given as follows:
11,998,179 The following is a comparative view of the principal articles of which these exports consist:
COTTON GOODS. 1811
15,972,826 WOOLLENS. 1811
1,570,277 The following is a comparative view of the shipping and navigation of Great Britain and her des pendencies, for three years, end. ing the 30th of September in each year :
NUMBER OF SHIPS. 1810
24,107 Which, in the last-mentioned year, were navigated by 165,030 sead men.
Great Importance and Difficulty of the Question respecting the Justice and
Policy of the East Indian Monopoly-Views of it taken by different Classes of people by ibe Merchants and Manufacturers--by the religious Part of the Community—by tbe Friends of Civilization and Knowledge-Cole lateral Topics respecting opening the Trade to tbe Our Ports--and respecting ibé China Trade first considered-Remarks on the American Tea Trade Misconception on that Point--Grand and primary Subject considered Objections to a free Trademas injurious to the East India Company-ta the Merchants and Manufacturers-to the Country at large—and to the Natives of the East Indies—these Objections considered-Remarks on the Cone duct of Government with respect to the Renewal of the Charter-Concluding Observations.
mentous, and permanently have already had occasion to nointeresting question which came tice, both in this and in our prebefore parliament, during the sesa ceding volume, that the trade and sion of 1812, was that which related commerce of Britain had suffered to the renewal of the charter of very considerably and generally by the East India company. This the exclusion of our produce and question at any time must have manufactures from the continent been interesting and important, of Europe, and from the United from the magnitude and extension States of America. The capital of the subject which it embraced ; of our merchants was consuming but it was most peculiarly so at the itself idly and unprofitably in imperiod when it was discussed, both mense stocks of goods, for which on account of the existing circum, they could find no purchasers : our stances of the couptry at large, and labouring manufacturers were, in
many places, reduced almost to measure by a different view of the state of starvation, and in all in a affairs of the company : for while condition comparatively poor and their pecuniary embarrassments wretched; and as a natural and were so very great, and were conunavoidable consequence, our taxes tinually increasing ;---while in fact had diminished in their prodnce, they could not, at least immewhile the nation at large felt the diately and completely, discharge bad consequences of this stagnation their debts,--they were dividing of trade in the increase of the an interest on their capital (on that poor's rates. Under such circum- capital which, to whatever amount stances, it was not to be wondered it really existed, was, stfictly speakat that the distressed manufacturers ing, not theirs, but their creditors') looked forward to the East Indian of upwards of ten per cent. It market with great confidence, as seemed obvious, therefore, to comone which would not only for the mon sense, that if they could afpresent take off their accumulated ford to make this dividend, they produce, but also permanently sup- could afford to pay off part of their ply a regular and large demand debts ; or at least that they ought for their goods; and consequently to have divided a more moderate that they became extremely in- interest, and to have set apart the terested in their opposition to the remainder towards freeing themrenewal of the charter of the East selves from their embarrassments : India company. Nor were the but from their actual circumstances, circumstances of the company less and mode of going on, it was evicalculated to give a peculiar im- dent that there was some gross portance to the subject at this mismanagement on their part, and time : for many years their public that the nation would have to pay, affairs had gone on so ill, that they as it had paid, for this misma. had contracted a debt of nearly nagement. 30,000,000l. ; and this debt, it was Such were the more obvious and shrewdly suspected, would be in- general motives which induced the creased, instead of being diminished; country at large to coincide with as every year, for some time past, the mierchants and manufacturers in instead of fulfilling the predictions their opposition to the renewal of of the company, that their affairs the charter of the East India com. would speedily assume a more fa- pany; but there were other reasons vourable appearance, had witnessed of a higher nature, which operated only increased pecuniary embar- with some persons to the same rassments. Whenever these embar- effect, on their viewing the subject rassments occurred, parliament was more deeply and extensively. In applied to, in order to relieve them, the first place, these persons oband thus the nation saw itself bur. jected to the renewal of the chardened with the debts of the com- ter, on the broad principle, that, as pany.
it gave the company a monopoly, This alone must have prompted it must be injurious to the counthe country at large to coincide try; and probably, they added, with the merchants in their oppo. not
very profitable to themsition to the renewal of the charter : selves as a body; for they conbut they were further urged to this tended it is the effect of a mono1813.
poly, not only to injure those subject of the renewal of the char: against whom it is granted, but very ter, and who were strongly disposed often even those on whom it is be. to object to it on grounds different stowed. In confirmation of this from any of those which we have opinion, they referred to several yet stated: we allude to those who instances of monopolies in times are called the religious party in when, from an ignorance of the parliament, and to those in the nature of trade, they were more country at large who were favourcommon, in most of which the af- able to missionary societies. They fairs of the body who possessed laid it down as an undeniable the monopdiy were unprosperous, axiom, that it was among the first though the affairs of many of the duties incumbent upon real chris. individuals who composed that body tians, to spread the light of the might be flourishing. In the se- gospel among those nations which cord place, these persons opposed were still strangers to it; and as in the renewal of the charter on still India the inhabitants were not only more important grounds; -- on unbelievers, but addicted to the grounds which affected our charac- most gross and barbarous superter as a nation, and which also stitions, which displayed not merely affected the condition and improve a want of true faith, but a corruptment of the millions in the East ed system of morals,—these ad. Indies whom the fate of war had vocates for proselytism contended, placed under our power and pro- that as friends of humanity and of tection. They contended that the good morals, as well as christians, East India company had done little they were bound to enlighten and or nothing for the improvement of reform the miserable and mistaken their territory, or for the meliora- inhabitants of India : but this tion of the inhabitants; and that scheme, they further maintained, the only mode by which these de. they could but partially and insirable effects could take place, completely carry into esecution, would be, by destroying the mono- while the East India company repoly, to allow a freer and more tained the full power given them general intercourse between the by their existing charter. They people of Britain and those of therefore were anxious that, if the the East Indies. The means by charter were renewed, some proviwhich we had acquired our terri. sion might be made for converting tory there, perhaps could not bear the natives to christianity. Thus very close or strict examination :- we perceive that very different on that subject they were not dis- classes of people were interested in posed to enter: but as we had äc- this question :-the merchant and quired it, it was the duty, both of manufacturer, the philosopher, pothe British government and the litician, and friend of humanity, British people, to take care that and the zealous christian, had each the condition of the inhabitants their motives for feeling an interwas improved, as much as possible, est in it; besides that the nation at by their connexion and subjection large,-those who either did not un
derstand the question as those other There was yet another class of descriptions of persons did,- or who people who fcit interested in the were comparatively indifferent to it