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France was then preparing. The way was in the hands of a power, great grievance which the ruler of which, from her continental peso France alleged against the courts sessions, was necessarily under the of St. Petersburgh and Stockholm controi of France; and it was the was, that they did not push their policy of the North to exclude hostility far enough against us, in from the Baltic the power and furtherance of his views to accom. influence of France. Without an plish our ruin.

This was not, intimate alliance with Sweden, and however, the sole object of his go a permanent sEcurity on the side ing to war uith Russia. He was of Finland, Russia could not have stimulated by the defeats in the resisted and repeiled the French in peninsula, which had tarnished his the manner she did ; and the re.. lustre, and he sought to find some treat from Moscow, though it compensation in conquests against might have been attended with loss the

great power of the North. At in many respects, could not perthe very moment when he made haps have been attended with loss this demand of stricter enforce. of reputation. He slould be prement of the continental system, he pared to deíend the treaty between was liimself relaxing it for his own Russia and Sweden on the princiadvantage. In the January pre- ples of self-detence. The character ceding he had invaded Swedish of Denmark was to be tiken into Pomerania. He afterwards offered account ; that charac: er was una to Sweden, if she would attack veiled in 1808, when she issued å Russia with 40,000 men by the way declaration of war against Sweden, of Finland, that he would support, altogether uncalled for any Sweden in her attempt to recover justifiable grounds, and merely be. that country. Russia could hard. cause such was the will of France. ly be supposed, in that case, we'l Sweden could cnly be connected able to defend Finland at a mo with France, and regain possession ment when she was attacked by ail of Finland, or stand and fall with the power of France on the Vistula. Russia. She chose to look to her He was ready to agree that a de- preservation, by seeing herself sesire of territorial acquisition, di cure on this side of the Baltic, with stinct from military security, was an alliance with the great military upwarrantable ; but if territorial power of Russia on the other side, acquisition had been the object of and not to rely on the conduct of Sweden, it would have been more a timid power like Demark. But advantageous to have closed with though he felt that Russia and the proposals of Bonaparte, than Sweden were justifiable on the to have entered into an agreement ground of self-defence, and not on with Russia. That the possession the base principle of self-aggranof Norway was necessary to the 'disement, he would dcntend that military security of Sweden in case Russia had then just cause of war of variance with France, was a against Denmark, because Denfact which could be easily made mark had done that which was a out. It was only in 1808 that an legal cause of war. At the period army in Norway took the field, alluded to, Denmark iras not called with the view of compelling Swe on to send her troops to accompany den to accede to the views of the French army, but to furnish a France. The possession of Nor. corps to occupy the shores of the 1813.



Baltic, from which the French which clearly showed that she did troops had been withdrawn to the not wish for peace with this coun. attack of Russia. Oldenburg, a try. But besides the terms already territory occupied by the Danish mentioned, she required further, troops, was a territory closely con that we should guaranty the whole rected in interest and feeling with of her posessions among the rest, Russia. He had no hesitation in Norway. As Bonaparte

was stating, however, that the engage. aware of these terms, he could not ment between Sweden and Russia be ignorant of the answer which was solely entered into for the this country was likely to give. 10 purpose of uniting the two great was not true that the treaty between powers of the north in their resist- Russia and Sweden, or our treaty ance to France ; for Sweden, if she vith the latter, was the cause that chooses, may be an independent Denmark at present was an enemy power. With respeet to the share instead of an ally. The noble lord which the government of this concluded by saying, if the conduct country had in this affair, he would of ministers deserved such a cen. state that the treaty was first com sure as that contained in the premunicated to this country early sent address, that they were unfis in July ?812 ; and if the war had for their places. He must there. not exploded in the North against fore oppose the amendment. Russia, he believed this country Mr. Canning said, that the nanever would have heard of it, and ture of the subject, and the situa. that it never would have been ation which he had formerly the. attempted to be carried into execu. honour to hold, made it natural fos tion. With respect to Denmark, him to wish to give his opinion to the first proposition was in the the bouse upon the present qtes month of February, stating that tion. He did not at all censure they were ready to negotiate a se this measure on the ground of im. parate peace with us.

But what morality, but as opposing a very were the terms of their proposal ? serious obstacle to the conclusion Why, a surrender of all our con- of a peace. He must say, also, quests from them, and also of their that, without entertaining any_illinavy. Was it possible that they beral suspicions, he thought Eng. could have made such a proposition land had sufficient experience of with any hope of its leading to the versatility of European politics peace, particularly when it is re to make it advisable for her rathed membered that they proposed a to retain Guadaloupe for some separate peace? It was not pro- time in her own hands; and when bable that Denmark expected that it was considered how often the we should treat with her indepen- Crown Prince of Sweden expressed dently of our allies. But even.six his attachment to France, and how weeks before the proposition from often he had even expressed his that country, our ambassador at wish for an alliance with her, hc Stockholm (Mr. Thornton) was did not think that less caution was empowered to treat with Denmark necessary, now than in ordinary there, but conjointly with Russia cases. He considered that this and Sweden. This proposal was cession might be a material obstacle rejected by Denmark, who refused to a peace. Bonaparte mighs to treat with us, except separately; make the restitution of it a point of



honour; and if we were bound to in ihis struggle we had acted vaguaranty it to Sweden, then he rious parts. We had seen Russia, might insist on retaining far more without complaint or remonstrance than its value, or than he would re on our part, not like a friend, but tain if it was to begiven up. He con like an enemy in the basest manner, cluded by repeating, that his great deprive Sweden, whom we now objection was not to the assisting jointly pretended to regard as Sweden to gain military possession friend, of her territory--taking adof Norway, nor to the cession of a vantage of the imbecile state of that colony to her as the price of her country to deprive her of Finland. active co-operation in the continen- The time had now come that Rus. tal war ; but to the principle of sia was afraid of the encroachments guarantying, what we had no of France-it then became necesright to guaranty, the permanent sary for her to endeavour to make possession of that to which the up a friendship with Sweden ; but right had not been established by to do so, she did not say that she treaty.

would restore to Swedea Finland, Mr. Whitbread denied that, in but that she would assist Sweden the worst times of the French re in wresting Norway from Denmark. volution, he had heard arguments Did any man suppose, if Russia more hostile to good government had been willing to give up Fin. than had fallen from the honour- land to Sweden, that there would able gentleman-the diplomatist have been any necessity to procure who had spoken last-and other the accession of Sweden to the honourable gentlemen, this evening. treaty in question, to rob Denmark As well might France say that of Norway? He conceived the Ireland was disaffected from the present treaty to be a most unwor. government of this country, and thy act of diplomacy. As to the that, therefore, she was warranted panegyric passed by the noble lord in endeavouring to effect the junc- on the person who now filled the tion of that country to Spain, as throne of Sweden, he did not che we were warranted in saying that ject to it, though he thought it Norway was not well affected to strange, applied as it was to one Denmark, and, therefore, that we who had been raised from the ranks, were entitled to enter into a treaty and who had been selected by ire to separate her from Denmark, and Swedish people to fill their throne, to render her subject to Sweden. in imitation of the glorious examHe had come down to the house ple set them by this country. He full of all those prejudices against was happy to hear the person al. the treaty which it was naturally luded to was so deserving of comcalculated to produce; and though mendation; but he would rather the noble lord (Castlereagh) had not have seen him a party to such made what he might call an ex a treaty, to which he (Mr. Whit. ceedingly good speech, he had not bread) could not give his support. taken the sing out of it, nor en

The house then divided on the abled him (Mr. Whitbread) to say original motionthat he did not still condemn the For the motion

115 treaty. We had now been at war For the amendment

224 for twenty years in the struggle in which we were now engaged, and Majority against the motior 109





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Debates on Mr. Swan's Motion respecting the Hellestone Election-ón Lord A.

Ham:l'on's Motion for the Liberation of Crogan-07, Mr. Creevey's Sentence
for a Lifelon Mr. Wynne's Motion respecting the Orange Lodges-on Lord
Boring don's Bill for General Vaccination--on the Vote of Credit-Mr.
Wbitiread's Motion to purchase Mr. Hargrave's Library-Debates on
Lord Cochrane's R solutions respecting the Hardships of British Seamen-
Mstion of Thanks to Lord Wellington for the Victory at Vittoria, in the House
of Lords and also in the House of Commons.
UNE 21.-Mr. Swan in the who had got the majority of influ.

house of commons moved that ence into their own hands, mathe special report of the Helles. naged that influence for the Godol. tone election committee be now phin family, which family had in read.

return paid the parish rates of The report, which charged the Hellestone from the reign of queen duke of Leeds with having violated Elizabeth to the year 1804, when, the law and the privileges of the in consequence of some disagreehouse, having been accordingly ment, the duke of Leeds lost the read,

patronage of the borough. Then Mr. Swan said, in bringing foro' a baronet, who was understood to ward the motion which he was think that the best plan for making about to submit to the house, he his way to the house was (as others had no political interest to answer, were supposed to have done) by and no resentments to gratify. The the possession of borough pairon. chairman of the committee had de, age, became patron of the borough clined to submit any motion to the in lieu of the duke of Leeds. Subhouse on the report, although the sequent to as well as before that majority in the committee was 11 period, it was notorious that the to 3. The house ought to be in- seats were sold for 5000 guineas formed of the proceedings of the each; and such practices took committee: the committee were place, as, to adopt the language of unanimously of opinion, that those the right honourable gentleman in voters who had benefited by the the chair, our ancestors would have corrupt influence which had been shuddered at the

very mention of. proved had disfranchised 'them. But the new patron (sir C. Hawselves. He should be sorry to say kins, we presume), having soon any thing against the noble duke ceased to retain his influence, in alluded to in the report, or the bo- consequence of a resolution of that nourable members returned; but house, the duke of Leeds was again he conceived it incumbent on him invited to resume the patronage; in this case to lay before the house which invitation his grace accepted, the nature of the transactions which upon the terms of an agreement, had taken place, and to state the by, which his grace became pledged nature of the constitution of the to pay the town rates in return for borough of Hellestone. The the power of nominating the repre: learned gentleman proceeded to sentatives. This fact was proved observe, that three of the aldermen, before the committee; and the re


his grace.

sult of the agreement was to afford cy; and in the case under considethe duke of Leeds an opportunity ration, he found the reverend of deriving a profit of 8001. a year Messrs. Trevelyan and Grylls from the patronage of the borough, among the most active in the works while each of the voters, being re at Hellestone. Indeed the duke lieved from the payment of town

of Leeds lost ground considerably rates, was insomuch bribed to vote in the borough, as it appeared, for the members recommended by from his neglect or incapacity to

The manner of ma. procure a living for the son of a naging the patronage of this bo. clergyman. But no patron could rough he thought it not amiss to in fact retain his influence in a Cor. describe to the house, because it nish borough, who had it not in his was pretty generally the system in power to make a return of church Cornish boroughs. The patron patronage. The learned member, was not allowed to have any direct adverting to the case of Crogan, connection with the voters. All now a prisoner in Newgate for the patronage was distributed by merely offering to sell a seat, the leading members of the corpo. put it to the house to consider wheration, in such a way as to preserve ther the distinct agreement of the their own consequence in the bo. duke of Leeds, stated in the report rough, and to render the voters before the house, could be consistdependent on themselves alone. ently overlooked, or rather whether With this view the personal inter- it was not deserving of exemplary position of the patron was studious- punishment? In consequence of ly excluded, while the business of this agreement, the noble duke the borough was managed by those introduced Mr. Hammersley the upon whom he was to depend for banker, and Mr. Home the bar. the retention of his influence ; every sister, at the last election, by a favour he grants being so conveyed letter under his grace's own hand, that the obligation shall be felt addressed to the mayor of the borather towards the agent than to- rough. With Crogun's example wards the principal or patron. then in view, he asked, whether And by whom was this system of the house could, with due regard cunning and corruption arranged to consistency of character and and conducted? Why, chiefly by duty, grant impunity to the duke clergymen.--Yes, wherever bribe of Leeds? In fact, if it were not ry, corruption, treating, intimida- meant that rank should give frotion, or political persecution, or any tection, and that poverty alone species of undue influence or dirty should expose a criminal to the wok, was to be managed, the cier. prosecution of that house, it was 8), who ought to shrink from and impossible to let the conduct of reprobate such practices, were the the duke of Leeds, in this case, most active and prominent agents. escape the visitation of the law he In the case of Penryn, which had had so seriously offended. The so justly provoked the indignation learned gentleman expressed his of that house, it would be remem. regret that the solici or-general bered that the reverend Mr. Dillon was not a member of that poisse, was a principal agent; in the case in order that it might have the of Tregony, also, a clergyman was advantage of that learned frontieamong the foremost in delinquena man's opinion, which he knew to

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