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259.

Pinckney, Thomas, special mission to port, 236, 237 ; sent against Indians,

Spain, ii. 163 tf.
Princeton, battle of, i. 177.

Supreme Court, appointed by Wash-
“ Protection," Washington's views on, ington, ii. 71.
ii. 110-119.

TALLEYRAND, report on death of Wash-
RANDOLPH, Edmund, made attorney ington, i. 1 (note); remark upon

general, character of, ii. 63; drafts Hamilton, ii. 137 ; Washington's
neutrality proclamation, 145 ; hesi treatment of, ii. 249.
tation with Genet, 151 ; argument Thackeray, W. M., description of
on relations with France, 167 ; suc- Washington's resignation of his
.ceeds Jefferson, 181, 241; letter commission, i. 340.
from Fauchet to be placed in hands Thatcher, Dr., description of Wash-
of President, 193; receives Fauchet | ington, i. 134.
letter and resigns, 197; Mr. Con- Thomson, Charles, Washington's com-
way's views of Washington's treat- pliment to, ii. 345.
ment of, 198; defence, 199; attacks Trenton, battle of, i. 175; strategic
Washington, 200.

and political value of battle of, 178.
Rahl, Colonel, death at Trenton, i.. Trumbull, Jonathan, Washington's
176.

friendship for, ii. 358.
Randolph, John, on Virginian society, Tryon, Gov., intrigues of, i. 154 ; raids
i. 15.

in Connecticut, 262.
Rutledge, John, rejected by Senate, ii.
62; judge, 71.

VALLEY FORGE, wintering the army

at, i. 221 ff.
SANDWICH, Lord, declaration as to Van Braam, Jacob, i. 63; goes with
Yankees, i. 151.

Washington to France, 64.
Saratoga, battle of, 197.

Virginia, contrast of society of, in 1732
Savage, portrait of Washington, i. 13. and now, i. 16; population, 17;
Savannah, attack upon, i. 240.

towns, 18; travel and travellers, 19;
Schuyler, Philip, accompanies Wash slaves and poor whites, 20; middle

ington from Philadelphia to New class and great planters, 21 ; occu-
York, i. 133; in command of north pations of planters, 22; education,
ern department, 199; devotion to 23; habits and life of planters, 24;
Washington's ideas, 201 ; removed luxury and apparent wealth, 25 ; in-
from command, 203; value of ser terests and amusements, 26, 27; lib-
vices of, 204 ; would not have per erty-loving and aristocratic spirit
mitted conditional surrender at Sar in, 28; thanks of, to Washington
atoga, 205.

after his first campaign, 77 ; British
Shays insurrection, ii. 26.

campaign in, 295, 298; free trade
Shirley, Governor, 'Washington's visit in, ii. 114 ; nullification resolutions,
to, i. 88, 94.

261 ; aristocracy of, 310.
Short, William, sent as commissioner
to Spain, ii. 163.

WASHINGTON, Augustine, father of
Slavery, Washington's views upon, i. George, i. 37; death of, 38; char-

acter, 45.
Sparks, Jared, treatment of Washing- Washington, George, honors to his
ton's letters, ii. 332, 333.

memory in France and England, i.
St. Clair, Arthur, campaign against 1-3; in the United States, 4; gen-

Indians, and defeat, ii. 93, 94; Wash eral admission of his greatness, 6;
ington's treatment of, 97.

tributes from distant countries, 6;
Steuben, Baron, rightly valued by " an unknown man,” 7; minuteness

Washington, i. 187 ; inspector-gen of existing knowledge, 8; a myth-
eral, 225; desires to quit inspector ical character, 9; the Weems myth,
ship, 242; special envoy to get sur 10; other myths, 11 ; no new Wash-
render of western posts, 335.

ington, 12; all not told, portraits of
Stirling, Lord, taken prisoner at Long Stuart and Savage, 13; a silent man,
Island, i. 161.

14, 67, 68: pedigree, 29, 32; birth-
Stony Point, capture of, i. 261.

place, 37; character of mother of,
Stuart, Gilbert, portrait of Washing 39; early stories about, 43; their

ton, i. 13; description by, of Wash character, falsity, and origin, 44, 45 ;
ington, 55.

early teachers, 46; plan for his go-
Sullivan, John, at Trenton, i. 175; at| ing to sea, studies to be a surveyor,

the Brandywine, 192, 193; at New-1 49; rules of behavior in his diary,

101.

51; surveys Lord Fairfax's prop-1
erty, 54; appearance at that time,
55; first surveying expedition, 56-
59: life at Greenway Court, 59;
journey to Barbadoes, 60; diary
there, 61 ; death of Lawrence, 62;
military education, 63 ; expedition
to negotiate with French, 64-66 ;
starts with two companies against
French, 69; the march, 70; protests
against treatment of troops, 71; the
Jumonville affair, 72; at the Great
Meadows, 73; surrenders, 74; char-
acter of this campaign, 75; effect
on Washington, 76; retires to Mt.
Vernon, refusing to submit to Eng-
lish officers ranking him, 77, 78;
joins Braddock's staff, 79; treat-
ment of, on staff, 80; advice to
Braddock, 81 ; delayed by illness,
82 ; bravery in the battle, 83; con-
ducts retreat, 84; returns to Mt.
Vernon, 85; takes command of Vir-
ginian forces, 86; denounces treat-
ment of troops and conduct of af-
fairs, 87; settles question of rank,
disappointed in Lord Loudon, 88;
replies angrily to criticisms, 89; re-
tires to Mt. Vernon, and joins ex
pedition of Forbes, 90; fall of Fort
Duquesne, close of first period of
career, 91 ; love affairs, 92; journey
to Boston, 94 ; dress and appear-
ance, 95 ; in New York, Philadel-
phia, and Boston, 96; return to
Virginia, 97; meets Martha Custis,
98; his wedding, thanked by assem-
bly, 99; wealth and position, 100;
management of estate, 101; of slaves,
102; opinions on slavery, 103-105 ;
knowledge of business, 105 ; care of
old soldiers, 106; care of his step-
children, 108; books and pictures,
109; horses and hounds, 110 ; fox-
hunting, 111 ; affair with the poach-
er, 112; hospitality, 113; love of
Bociety, 114 ; mental and physical
strength, 115 ; feeling as to stamp
act, 116; expects war, 117; sustains
non-importation agreements, 118;
fasts on account of Boston port
bill, 120; opinion on conduct of Par-
liament, 121; presides at Fairfax
County meeting, 122 ; opinion of
Gage's conduct, speech in conven-
tion, 123 ; offers to raise men, elected
to Continental Congress, 124 ; starts
for Philadelphia, 125 ; conduct in
Congress, 126 ; opinion of British
policy, 127 ; belief that indepen-
dence must come, 128 ; preparing for
war in Virginia, 129; in Congress
again, 130; wears his uniform, ac-
cepts command, 131 ; feeling in do-

ing so, 132; starts for Boston, 133;
takes command at Cambridge, 134 ;
appearance, 135; gets returns of
army, 136 ; enforces discipline, 137 ;
obliged to teach Congress, 138; dis-
covers lack of powder, 139; plans
campaigns in Canada and elsewhere,
140 ; proposes to attack Boston in
September, 141; corresponds with
Gage as to prisoners, 143-145; cor-
responds with Howe as to prisoners,
145; winter difficulties, stops quar-
rel between Marblehead and Vir-
ginia soldiers, 146; suggests admi.
ralty courts, 147 ; gloom of winter,
resolves to attack, 148; throws up
works at Dorchester, 149; retreat
of British, 150; victory due to
Washington's abilities, 151 ; enters
Boston, 152; effort to make Con-
gress understand extent of war, 153;
reaches New York, 154; deals with
Tories, 155 ; conspiracy against, 156;
insists on titles in correspondence
with Lord Howe, 157 ; allaying state
jealousies, 158; obliged to spare
New York, 159; assumes command
on Long Island, 160; watches the
defeat, 161; withdraws, 162; re-
treats from town of New York, 163;
fury at retreat of troops at Kip's
landing, 164; continues retreat, 165;
writes to Congress, 166; tries to
arouse it to sense of danger, 167 ;
withdraws to White Plains, 168;
skirmishes successfully, 169; blames
himself for loss of forts, 170; re-
treats through New Jersey, 171 ;
difficulties of his position, 172; plans
an attack, 173; desperate measures,
174; crosses the Delaware, 175;
battle of Trenton, evades Cornwal-
lis, 176; battle of Princeton, 177;
saves the Revolution, 179; withdraws
to Morristown, 180; fluctuations in
army, 181 ; persistence in fighting,
delusions of Congress, 182; issues
proclamation to come in and take
oath, 183; questions of rank, 184 ;
attitude toward appointment of for-
eign officers, 184-187; national spir-
it, 188; baffles Howe advancing from
New York, 189; goes south to meet
Howe, passes through Philadelphia,
190; takes position at the Brandy-
wine and gives battle, 191 ; is de-
feated, 192; rallies army and pre-
pares to fight again, 193; attacks
at Germantown and is defeated,
194; opinion of battle, 195; Eng-
lish opinion of, 196; foresees and
prepares for northern invasion, 198;
instructions to Schuyler, deter-
mined to hold Howe, 199; fear that

lish opinar northern u vler, deltat

Howe might march north, 200 ;
plans for campaigns, 201 ; not dis- /
heartened by loss of forts, 202;
slighted by Gates, 206; feeling
against, in Congress, 207, 208; op-
poses Conway's promotion, defends
and loses Delaware forts, 211; re-
fuses battle with Howe, 212; value
and meaning of this refusal, 213;
watches cabal, 214; letter to Con-
way, correspondence with Gates,
215; cannot be driven to resign, tone
in regard to Burgoyne's surrender,
218; does not worry about cabal,
219; defeats cabal, 220; withdraws
to Valley Forge, 221 ; efforts to
care for soldiers, 222; appeals to
Congress, and reply to legislature
of Pennsylvania, 223; bent on suc-
cess, urges improvements in army
on Congress, 224; persists in his
policy which is partially adopted,
225; watches Clinton in Philadel-
phia, 226, 227; pursues Clinton, 228;
hears bad news and hurries to front,
229; rebukes Lee, 230; rallies army
and defeats British, 231 ; celebrates
French alliance, 234; difficulty of
task of managing allies, 235; writes
to D'Estaing, 236; difficulties at
Newport, 237; pacifies the French
after Newport, 238; writes to
D'Estaing as to opportunities, 240;
opposes giving excessive rank to
foreign officers, 241, 242; American
feeling, 243; national feeling, 244;
a national leader, 245; opposition
to attacking Canada, 246, 247 ; cool
judgment as to France, 248; anxiety
as to finances, 251 ; strives to have
better men sent to Congress, 252 ;
anger against speculators, 253, 254 ;
internal troubles the great peril,
255 ; anxiety on that account, 256;
remains near New York watching
enemies' movements, 257; efforts
to divine their plans, 258 ; labors at
navy, and sends Sullivan against In-
dians, 259; foresees danger in the
south, 260; plans attack on Stony
Point, 261; contempt for certain
English methods of warfare, 262;
difficulties of wintering army 1779-
80, 263; unable to do anything in
spring of 1780, 264 ; understands
perfectly what should be done at
Charleston, 265; plans to take ad-
vantage of French forces, 267 ; holds
firm to the Hudson, 268; sends out
call for aid to States, 269; lack of
supplies, appeals to Congress, 270;
plain statements as to condition of
affairs, 271; tries to get De Rocham-
beau to agree to attack on New York,

272; meets De Rochambeau at Hart-
ford, 274; popular affection shown in
village as he returns, 275 ; reaches
West Point, 276; discovers treason,
277; feeling as to Arnold, 278;
course in regard to André, 279;
opinion of Arnold, 280; condemned
to inaction, 281 ; effort to hold army
together, 281-283; suppresses mu-
tiny, 284; greatness in maintaining
army, 285; rebukes Congress, 286 ;
sends Greene south and Knox to
travel through States, 287; per-
ceives need of better form of gov-
ernment, labors for it, 288-292;
effort to secure action, 293; rebukes
Lund Washington for receiving
British at Mt. Vernon, 295; desire
to get to the south, 296; frightens
Clinton, prepares to act with French
fleet, 297, 298; writes De Grasse to
meet him in Chesapeake, fears &
premature peace, 300; plan of cam-
paign, cannot get money or sup-
plies, 301 ; need of supremacy at
sea, 302; gets De Barras to go to
Chesapeake, starts from New York,
303; difficulties in making arrange-
ments for the march, 304, 305; goes
south, meets De Grasse, 306; per-
suades De Grasse to remain, begins
siege, 307 ; orders and watches as-
sault on redoubts, 308 ; analysis of
campaign, and secret of success, 310-
312; does not lose his head in vic-
tory, 313; urges De Grasse to attack
Charleston, grief for death of John
Custis, 314; goes to Philadelphia
and urges preparations for ensuing
year, 315; doubts truth of reports
that English desire peace, 316;
fears that British do not really
mean peace, 317; unable to con-
vince Congress of need of further
exertion, 318; anger at murder of
Huddy, 319; prepares to retaliate,
320; releases Asgill on order of
Congress, 321; refuses to take
credit for it, 322; love for his sol-
diers, 323; effort to get relief for
them, 325; warns Congress of im-
pending danger, 326; takes control
of movement, address to officers,
327; reply to suggestion that he
should seize supreme power, 329;
checks and controls discontents,
330; true view of his action, 332;
chafes under delay after treaty of
peace arrives, 334 ; journey through
northern and western New York,
335; circular to governors, address
to army, enters city of New York,
336 ; bids farewell to his officere,
337 ; settles accounts, 338 ; resigns

English 261; conte attaoker in the

his commission, 339; speech, 339, I
310; return to Mt. Vernon after
war, ii. 1; gives up hunting, 2;
pursued by artists and visitors, 3;.
correspondence on various subjects,
4; looking after his estate, 5; ad-
vises Congress as to peace establish-
ment, 6; as to posts, 7; broad na-
tional views, 8; takes up scheme of
inland navigation, 9; lays it before
governor and assembly, 10; stock
offered him, 11; takes it, canals
started, 12; effect of this scheme,
13; political purposes in canal pro-
ject, 14; views as to Mississippi, 15,
16; feels need of better union dur-
ing Revolution, 17; principles of
union, 18; addresses urging them,
19; value of these appeals, 20;
expects disasters of confederation,
21 ; on the evil of disunion, 22;
urges commercial agreement be-
tween Maryland and Virginia, 23;
contempt of foreign nations, 24
points out designs of England, 25;
watches course of events in States,
26; contrasted with Jefferson, 27;
letters and influence, 27, 28; elect-
ed to Philadelphia convention, 29;
hesitates about going, 30; reaches
Philadelphia, views as to duty of
delegates, speech attributed to him
by Morris, 31; chosen to preside,
33; influence in convention, 34;
signs Constitution, 35; reflects on
the work, 36; efforts for ratifica-
tion, 38-40; talked of for President,
41 ; elected, 42; speech at Alexan-
dria, 43; journey to New York, 44;
effect of reception upon him, 45 ;
inaugurated, takes the oath, 46;
speech to Congress, 47; compre-
hension of situation, 48, 50; official
title, 51; official and social eti-
quette, 52-54; attacks upon forms
adopted, 55, 56; examines thor-
oughly business of all departments,
57 ; refuses special privileges to
French minister, 58, 59; appoint-
ments to office, 60; character of ap-
pointees, 61; appoints cabinet, 62;
composition of cabinet, 63; regard
for Knox, 64; knowledge of Ham-
ilton, 65 ; feeling towards and rea-
sons for taking Jefferson, 67 ; con-
trasted with Jefferson, 68; cabinet
as a whole, 69; party character of,
all of one view as to Constitution,
70; appoints Supreme Court, 71 ;
illness, 72; journey through New
England, 73; affair with Hancock,
74 ; success of journey, 75; opens
Congress, 76 ; speech to Senate and
House, 77; subjects of speech, 79,

80; character of, 81 ; fitness to deal
with Indian problem, 85; dangers
from Indians, 86; condition of
tribes west and south, 87; failure
of first commission to treat with
Creeks, 88; treaty with Creeks, 89;
orders expedition against western
Indians, 91; efforts for peace in
north, 92; plans second expedition
under St. Clair, 93; feelings on
hearing of St. Clair's defeat, 95;
treatment of St. Clair, plans an-
other expedition, 97; selects Wayne
as commander, 98; efforts for peace
in north and south, 99; general
results of Indian policy, 102; finan-
cial difficulties, 104; sustains as-
sumption, 105; satisfied with ar-
rangement between Jefferson and
Hamilton, 106; question of national
bank, 107; signs bill, 108; sustains
“implied powers," 109; supports
Hamilton's policy generally, 110;
views as to report on manufactures,
113; Virginian experience, 114;
lessons of the Revolution, 115; ex-
pressions in favor of protection,
116, 119; policy in regard to resist-
ance to excise, 122-124; orders
out troops, 125; overthrow of in-
surrection, 126; effect and mean-
ing of his success, 127, 128; early
determination on American policy
in foreign affairs, 131 ; knowledge
of foreign affairs, 132; existing re-
lations with other nations, 133; de-
sire for peace, 134 ; sends Morris to
open relations with England, 135;
comprehension of French revolu-
tion, 137; attitude in regard to it,
139-143; war between England and
France, issues neutrality proclama-
tion, 144; policy declared by it,
145 ; foresaw need of proclamation,
147 ; caution in dealing with France,
148; contrasted with Genet, 149;
cool reception of Genet, 150 ;
anger at escape of “Little Sarah,"
153, 154; determines on recall of
Genet, 155; revokes exequatur of
French consul, 156; refuses to deny
Jay card for Genet, 157 ; trial to
his temper of Genet business, 158;
deals with troubles excited by
Genet in west, 160 ; sympathy with
Kentuckians, 161 ; Mississippi pol-
icy, 162; policy toward Spain,
163; successful treaty, 164; atti-
tude toward France in view of trea-
ties, 167; his policy in its effect on
England, 168; despite outrages
means to try for peace, 173; on
Hamilton's withdrawal, appoints
Jay special envoy to England, 174;

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fears that war is coming, 175; |
feeling against conduct of England,
176; intention of ratifying treaty,
181; withholds signature, 182;
meets crisis alone, 185; letter to
selectmen of Boston, 186; with-
standing popular feeling, 188; his
views and intentions, 189-191; re-
called to Philadelphia, 191 ; course
in regard to treaty explained, 193;
not influenced in it by Fauchet let-
ter, 195, 196; signs treaty, 197;
treatment of Randolph, 198–201 ;
reasons for signing treaty, 201, 202;
refuses to send papers relating to
negotiation to the House, 204; rea-
sons for this, 205, 206; choosing a
successor to Morris, 207; appoints
Monroe, 208; appoints Pinckney in
Monroe's place, 210; opinion of
Monroe, 211; contempt for his book,
211; foreign policy reviewed, 213-
215; not chosen to office by a party,
216; readiness to hear criticism and
desire to know public opinion, 217;
deplores sectional divisions, 218;
criticisms on newspaper editors,
219; sends Jefferson's charges to
Hamilton, 225; efforts to keep
peace between his secretaries, 226-
228; risk taken in keeping both
Jefferson and Hamilton in cabinet,
229; consents to stand again for
presidency, 230; feelings on taking
office a second time, 231; attacked
by opposition, 234 ; opinions of op-
position, 235; view of democratic
societies, 237; believes whiskey re-
bellion due to them, 238; denounces
them, 239; further attacks upon
him, 240; reconstructs cabinet on
party lines, 242; publishes farewell
address, 244; attacked for farewell
address, 246; resents accusation of
being British sympathizer, 248;
careful conduct toward France,
justice to England, 249, 250; further
attacks upon, the “Aurora” arti-
cle, 251, 252; denounces forged let-
ters, 253; regards Mr. Adams's
administration as continuing his
own, 254; opinion of Jefferson's
conduct, 255; doubts fidelity of op-
position as soldiers, 255-257 ; in-
terview with Dr. Logan, 258-261 :
feeling as to Virginia and Kentucky
resolutions, 261; letter to Henry,
262; letter on parties to Trumbull,
264 ; declares himself a Federalist,
266; attitude of Washington as a
party man, 267-269; farewell dinner
before leaving presidency, 270; ap-
pearance at inauguration of Adams,
banquet to, 271 ; journey to Mt.

Vernon, 272; description of his life
at home, 273-275; meeting with
Bernard, 276-279; interest in cur-
rent politics, 279; accepts command
of army, 280; the affair of the
major-generals, 281 ; annoyance at
conduct of Adams, 282; treatment
of Knox, 283; work in organizing
the army, 285; feeling about France,
and Gerry's conduct, 286; views
as to nomination of Murray, 287;
effect of French revolution upon
him, 288-290 ; views of alien and
sedition laws, 291 ; anxiety about
divisions among Federalists, 293;
illness, 294-297 ; death, 298; char-
acter misunderstood, 299; suffers
from being called faultless, 300;
contemporary attacks upon, 301;
charge that he was not an Ameri-
can, 302; this charge discussed,
303; contrasted with Lincoln, 305-
307; with Hampden, 308; thorough
Americanism of, 309; character of
aristocracy to which he belonged,
310; feeling toward New England,
311; democratic in feeling, 312,
313; American training, 315; na-
tional views, 316; American and
national character of his policy,
317-320 ; cpposition to foreign edu-
cation, 320; provisions of his will
in this respect, 321 ; breadth and
strength of his Americanism, 322,
323; charge that he had no decided
views, 324; that he was merely
great in character, 325 ; great in
intellect, 326; charge that he was
dull and cold, 327 ; keen observer,
328; knowledge of men, 329-331;
lack of early education, 332; in-
terest in education, 333, 334; char-
acter of his writing, books, 335,
336; wrote and talked well, 337;
conversation with Bernard, 338-
342; letter to Mrs. Stockton, 343;
power of paying a compliment, 345;
letter to De Chastellux, 346; ex-
treme exactness in money matters,
anecdotes, 347-350; stern and un-
relenting, but just and not cruel,
351, 352; sympathy with suffering,
353; remembrance of old servant,
conversation with Parson Cleave-
land, 354 ; hospitality, 355 ; friend-
ship, 356-361; kindness to Taft
family, 362; devotion to his wife,
363; kindness to her children and
to his own relations, 364; sense of
humor, 365; love of fun, 367; camp
stories, 368, 369; anecdotes show.
ing sense of humor, 369-373; plays
cards, and dances, 374; fond of
horses, controversy about church

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