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but when in previous years it had threatened him. He loved life and tasted of it deeply, but the courage which never forsook him made him ready to face the inevitable at any moment with an unruffled spirit. In this he was helped by his religious faith, which was as simple as it was profound. He had been brought up in the Protestant Episcopal Church, and to that church he always adhered; for its splendid liturgy and stately forms appealed to him and satisfied him. He loved it too as the church of his home and his childhood. Yet he was as far as possible from being sectarian, and there is not a word of his which shows anything but the most entire liberality and toleration. He made no parade of his religion, for in this as in other things he was perfectly simple and sincere. He was tortured by no doubts or questionings, but believed always in an overruling Providence and in a merciful God, to whom he knelt and prayed in the day of darkness or in the hour of triumph with a supreme and childlike confidence.

As I bring these volumes to a close I am conscious that they speak, so far as they speak at all, in a tone of almost unbroken praise of the great man they attempt to portray. If this be so, it is because I could come to no other conclusions. For many years I have studied minutely the career of Washington, and with every step the greatness of the man has grown upon me, for analysis has failed to discover the act of his life which, under the conditions of the time, I could unhesitatingly pronounce to have been an error. Such has been my experience, and although my deductions may be wrong, they at least have been carefully and slowly made. I see in Washington a great soldier who fought a trying war to a successful end impossible without him; a great statesman who did more than all other men to lay the foundations of a republic which has endured in prosperity for more than a century. I find in him a marvellous judgment which was never at fault, a penetrating vision which beheld the future of America when it was dim to other eyes, a great intellectual force, a will of iron, an unyielding grasp of facts, and an unequalled strength of patriotic purpose. I see in him too a pure and high-minded gentleman of dauntless courage and stainless honor, simple and stately of manner, kind and generous of heart. Such he was in truth. The historian and the biographer may fail to do him justice, but the instinct of mankind will not fail. The real hero needs not books to give him worshippers. George Washington will always receive the love and reverence of men because they see embodied in him the noblest possibilities of humanity.

INDEX.

Ackerson, David, description of Wash-
ington, ii. 380.

Adams, John, moves Washington be
commander-in-chief, i. 131; says
there was opposition to it, 132; d,f-
ficulties of Washington's position,
158 j sanguine as to prospects of
war, 167; out of sympathy with
Washington, 208, 209; national in
his feelings, 244; views on titles, ii.
51; attacked by Jefferson, 222; in-
auguration of, 271; sends commis-
sion to France, 277; appoints Wash-
ington head of army, 280; yields to
Washington, 282.

Adams, John, Mrs., description of
Washington, i. 134.

Adams, Sam., plans for independence,

i. 128; out of sympathy with Wash-
ington, 208.

Alien and Sedition laws, ii. 291.
Ames, Fisher, speech on Jay treaty,

ii. 207.

Andr£, Major, captured, i. 276; tried
and hanged, justice of sentence,

278-280.

Armstrong, John, Major, author of

Newburgh addresses, i. 327.
Army, the Continental, popular jeal-
ousy of, l. 324; indignant at their
treatment, 321; able and ready to
have seized government, 331.
Arnold, Benedict, in command of
Canadian expedition, i. 140; sent
against Burgoyne, 204, 205; treason
of, 273; shows Robinson's letter to
Washington, 274; flight of, 276;
Washington's opinion of, 280; in
Virginia, 295.

Capt., hostage for murder of
dy, i. 320, 321.

Bache, B. F., publishes Jay treaty, ii.
182; attacks on Washington, 234,
247, 251.

Ball, Joseph, letter as to Washington's

going to sea, i. 48.
Bernard, John, description of Wash-

ington, i. 56 ; meeting with, ii. 276;
conversation with Washington, 338-
342.

Bland, Mary, Washington in love with,

i. 92, 93.

Boston, Washington's first visit to, l.
94-96; capture of, 150; visits as Pres-
ident, ii. 73; mutiny against Jay
treaty, 185.

Braddock, Bdw., arrival in America,
i. 79; character of, 80; march of,
81; neglects Washington's advice,
82; surprised, 83; death of, 84; ef-
fects of his defeat, 85.

Brandywine, battle of the, 1. 191;
causes of defeat, 192.

Burgoyne, John, Gen., Howe expected
to meet him, i. 189; hemmed in,
204; character of, 205.

Cadwaladee, Gen., fails to cross Del-
aware, i. 175; duel with Conway,

220.

Camden, battle of, i. 273.

Carleton, Sir Guy, conduct in Huddy
case, i. 319 lf.; fears American out-
rages in New York, 336; speech to
the Indians, ii. 100, 172, 173.

Carlisle, Earl of, peace commissioner,

i. 227.

Carlyle, Thomas, mistaken opinion of

Washington, i. 14, 332; ii. 327.
Carmichael, William,minister to Spain,

ii. 163.

Cary, Mary, early love of Washington
for, i. 93.

Charleston, taken by British, i. 265,
266, 268.

Chastellux, Marquis de, Washington's
letter to, ii. 346.

Chester, Colonel, researches on Wash-
ington's pedigree, L 30, 31.

Cleaveland, Rev. Mr., anecdote about,
ii. 354.

Clinton, George, Gov., journey with
Washington through northern and
western New York, i. 335; enters
city of New York, 336; receives
Washington, ii. 44; seizes French
privateer, 151.

Clinton, Sir Henry, relieves Howe,
tries to intercept Lafayette, i. 226;
aends troops to West Indies and
Florida, leaves Philadelphia, 227;
at Monmouth, 229; defeated and
escapes to New York, 231 ; makes
an ineffectual raid, 258; gradually
shut up in New York, 262, 263; re-
turns to New York from Charleston,
268; effort to save Andre\ 278;
convinced that Washington means
to attack New York, 297, 298 ; jeal-
ous of Cornwallis, 299; deceived by
Washington, thinks Cornwallis in
no danger, 303.

Congress, decline in character of, i.
250; accepts advice of Washington,
286; inability to understand march
of army in Yorktown campaign, 304;
treatment of army, 320 ff; grant
relief, 328; flies before mutineers,
331; refuses to adjourn for Wash-
ington's birthday, ii. 243.

"Conway Cabal," i. 210, 214; failure
in Canada and in providing supplies,
216; weakness in ability, 217; breaks
down, 220.

Conway, Thomas, character and pre-
tens,ons of, i. 210; hostility to
Washington, 211; letter from Wash-
ington, made inspector-general, 215;
resignation, duel, and departure,
220.

Cornwallis, Lord, pursues Washing-
ton, i. 170; foiled by Washington
at the Assunpink, 176; in com-
mand at Monmouth, 229 ; fights bat-
tle at Guilford and retreats to Vir-
ginia, 294; harries Virginia and
obliged to remain on Chesapeake,
299; takes post at Yorktown, 300;
surrenders at Yorktown, 309.

Cowpens, The, battle of, i. 293.

Craik, Dr., attends Washington in last
illness, ii. 295; Washington's friend-
ship for, 357.

Creeks, the, negotiations with, ii. 87-
89.

Curwen, Samuel, description of Wash-
ington, i. 134.

Custis, John, death of, i. 314.

Custis, G. W. P., story of the colt,
i. 43.

Dagworthy, Capt, affair of, i. 88, 94.

Dallas, Alex., visits Genet as to sail-
ing of " Little Sarah," ii. 152.

Deane, Silas, lavish giver of commis-
s,ons, i. 185.

De Barras, persuaded by Washington
to go to Chesapeake, i. 302, 303; joins
De Grasse, 304.

De Grasse, Count, arrival with fleet,
i. 297; sails for Chesapeake, 298;
defeats British fleet, 304; meets
Washington, 306; persuaded to re-
main at Yorktown, 307; goes to
West Indies, 314.

De Rochambeau, Count, arrival at
Newport, L 269; ordered to await
arrival of fleet, 270; refuses to take
offensive, 272; interview with Wash-
ington at Hartford, 274; disap-
proves campaign in Florida, 293.

D'Estaing, Admiral, appears off coast
with fleet, i. 233; goes to Newport,
236; fights Lord Howe and with-
draws to Boston, 237; sails for West
Indies, 239; repulsed at Savannah,
240.

Dinwiddie, Governor, remonstrates
against French, i. 63; appoints Wash-
ington to negotiate with them, 64;
quarrels with assembly, 69; wishes
Washington to march against
French, 77.

Don Count, death of, i. 211.

Dorcnester, Lord. See Carleton.

Dumas, Count, anecdote of Washing-
ton, i. 275.

Dunmore, Lord, arrives in Virginia, i.
119; dissolves assembly, 129.

Du Plaine, French consul, exequatur
revoked by Washington, ii. 156.

Eden, William, peace commissioner,

i. 227.

Emerson, Rev. Dr., account of Wash-
ington organizing army, i. 137.
Emigres, Washington's treatment of,

ii. 148, 249.

England, honors to, 1. 2; policy to-
ward U. S. after the peace, 135,166,
168; true policy, 170; outrages in
West Indies, 171.

Fairfax, Bryan, corresponds with
Washington, i. 121, 123, 124.

Fairfax, George, married to Miss
Carey, i. 55; accompanies Wash-
ington over Blue Ridge, 56.

Fairfax, Wm., Washington's remem-
brance of, ii. 361.

Fairfax, Thomas, Lord, character of,
i. 53; friendship for Washington,
54, 59; letter of Washington on
death of, ii. 361.

Farewell address, ii. 244, 245.

Fauchet, M., intercepted letter to
Randolph, ii. 192, 195, 201.

Fauntleroy, Betsy, love-affair of
Washington with, i. 94.

Federal Courts, suggested by Wash-
ington, i. 147.

Federalist party, origin of, ii. 232 ; de-
cline to a faction, 250; Washington
a member of, 264-269; feeling
about French revolution, 289.
Fishbourne, Benj., rejected by Senate,
ii 62.

Fiske, John, quotes words of Wash-
ington, from Morris's Eulogy, ii.
32 (note).

Fontanes, M. de, funeral oration on
Washington, i. 1.

Forbes, Geit., expedition against Fort
Duquesne, i. 90.

France, honors to Washington, i. 1;
view of Jumonville affair, 72;
treaty of alliance with, ratified by
Congress and celebrated by army,
234; declines to enter on a Canadian
campaign, 249; policy toward U. S.
after the peace, ii. 136; progress of
revolution in, and effect on public
opinion in U. S., 140, 143.

Franklin, Benjamin, gets wagons for
Braddock, i. 81; opinion of Howe's
taking Philadelphia, 214; national
in his feeling, 244; fears Constitu-
tion will not be made, ii. 35; Amer-
icanism of, 304; Washington's
friendship for, 358, 359.

Frederick the Great, opinion of Tren-
ton campaign, i. 178; of Monmouth
campaign, 232.

Freneau, Philip, editor of National
Gazette, ii. 223, 224, 234.

Gaoe, Thos., Gen., conduct at Boston,
i. 123; correspondence with Wash-
ington, as to prisoners, i. 142, 145.

Gates, Horatio, at Mt. Vernon, i. 129;
failure to come up at Trenton, 175;
appointed to northern department,
203, 204; neglect to inform Wash-
ington of Burgoyne's surrender,
206; most conspicuous in cabal,
210; correspondence with Wash-
ington, 215, 220; quarrel with Wil-
kinson, 217; sent to the north, 220;
sent to the south in command, 261;
defeated at Camden, 273, 286.

Genet, Edmond Charles, arrival in XJ.
S., ii. 146; journey north, 149;
notes to State Department, 150;
refuses to detain "Little Sarah,"
152; letter of a case determined on,
155; effects of his insolence, 156;
attacks Washington, 157; military
movements in west and south, 158;
arrival signal for party divisions,
233; originates democratic soci-
eties, 237.

Gerard, M., French minister, i. 239.

9ermantown, battle of, i. 194; effect
abroad, 195.

Gerry, Elbridge, conduct in France
disapproved by Washington, ii. 286.

Giles, W. B., attacks Washington, ii.

247.

Gist, Christopher, scout for Washing-
ton, i. 64, 66.

Graves, Admiral, defeated by De
Grasse, i. 303, 304.

Greene, Gen. Nath., ill with fever at
Long Island, i. 160; late at Ger-
mantown, 194; quartermaster-
general, 225; choice of Washing-
ton for southern department, 261;
sent to the south, 287; retreat be-
fore Cornwallis, fights at Guilford
and pursues Cornwallis, 294.

Green Springs, battle of, i. 299.

Grenville, Lord, denies Dorchester
speech, ii. 172; reception of Jay,
176; negotiation with Jay, 177.

Grimes, Miss Sally, early love affair
of Washington with, i. 92.

Guilford Court House, battle of, i. 294.

Hale, Nathan, compared with An-
dre, i. 280.

Half-King, opinion of Washington and
the French, i. 74.

Hamilton, Alexander, sent to Gates
for troops, i. 210; gets them, 212;
national interviews, 244; receives
papers taken on Andre- and informs
Washington, 276, 277; letters on
government and finance, 290;
storms redoubt at Torktown, 308;
urges release of Asgill, 321; efforts
to get justice for the army, 325;
letters on government and banks,
ii. 19, 20; speech on Constitution,
34; character of, 65; report on
public credit, 105; arrangement
with Jefferson on assumption, 106;
argument on bank, 108; report on
manufactures, 110; his protective
policy, 112; imposes excise, 120;
draws questions as to neutrality,
145; wrath against Genet, 151;
wishes to sink "Little Sarah,''
153; argument as to relations with
France, 167; withdraws as candi-
date for English mission, 174; be-
lief that he would have made a bet-
ter treaty, 180; stoned for advo-
cating treaty, 184; defends treaty
as "Camillus," 202; hostility of
Jefferson to, 220, 221; replies to
Jefferson's charges, 225; attacks
Jefferson in newspapers, 226; re-
tires, 230; made inspector-general,
281 ; effect of French revolution on,
289; affection of Washington for,
312, 356.

Hammond, George, British minister,
ii. 166; tone of, 171; gives Fauchet
letter to Wolcott, 192.

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