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that the world should never end, that our tune to possess not only the published very margin of the sea, and terminating in soules transmigrated, and that even those intelligence of cur fellow-labourers in ridged, conical, or pyramídal summits; the of the most holy persons did pennance in the press, but some exceedingly curious dark rocks chequered with their burthens interpreted the banishment and salvage life original documents from the riyal Rus: der the density of a gloomy sky, forming a of Nebucodnezer ; that all the Jewes should sian voyage of discovery nosy prosecut- grand and impressive picture. Ite most rise againe and be leade to Jerusalem; ing in Behring's Straits, and from the remarkable inhabitant, the white or Polar thit the Romans only were the occasion of Journal kept by Saabye, the Dane, dur- bear, which also occurs on the ice, the feour Saviour's deaths, whom he affirm’d (as ing an eight years residence on that rocious, and apparently natural lord of those the Turks do), to be a greate prophet, but coast, which it will be the first object regions. He preys indiscriminately on quanot the Messias he told me that when the Messias came, all the ships,
druped, reptile, fowl, and fish; all behold of one of our Expeditions to explore.
him with dread, and flee his presence. barkes, and ressells of Holland should, by
Feeling, that with all these advantages The seals signify their fear of liın by conthe powre of certaine strange whirlc-winds we have by no means exhausted a sub- stant watching, and betake themselves prebe loosed from their ankers and transported ject which occupies so much attention, cipitately to the water on his approach* in a moment to all the desolat ports and we have proceeded to further researches; Carrion, therefore, (chiefly the carcass of havens throughout the world wherever the and shall, we trust, have a mass of gra- the whale at a certain season) affords him dispersion was, to convey, their brethren tifying matter to lay before the public, a passive, sure, and favourite food. His and tries to the holy Citty; with other collected not ouly froin very old and sense of smelling is peculiarly acute; in .
scarce publications, and those of the raises his head, and snuffs the passing fellow.
1st September. I went to Delft and greatest recent interest, but also from scent, whereby he discovers the nearest
The water affyrds the bed and partly the harnesse of a horseman.
Thus instructed. we shall at once materials for the most prodigious masses of In October Mr. Evelyn returned to enter upon the subject; and have only
ice. Its colour is peculiar. Ite products England, and, with his brother, took to state, for the satisfaction of our mysticetus, or whalebone whale, resides and
numerous and important. Here the huge arms for the King in the civil war friends, that we have taken such measures collects his food; sports and astonishes by which immediately ensued; but owing as almost ensure to the Literary Gazette bis vast bulk and proportionate strength; to the contiguity of their estate to the certainty of obtaining the earliest is the object of maritimet adventure and London, they were not allowed to con- accounts of the Expeditions, of the pro- commercial wealth. tinue with the army to bring destruc- gress of which we are pretty confident land, none excites so much interest and
Of the inanimate produrtions of Greention on their house without advantage we shall huve the pleasure of being the wonder as the ice in its great abundance to the royal cause. They retired there- first to lay a full und accurate Journal and variety, in the ice-islands, floating fore without being known as cavaliers. before our readers.
mountains, or ice-bergs, common to Davis' In 1643, 10th of March, he notices a
The name of Captain Wm. Scoresby, Straits. Yet the fielest of ice more pecusight which amazed them, “ viz. a junior, is familiar to all who have liar to Greenland are not less astonishing. shining clowd in the ayre, in shape re-taken an interest in the problem, the Their deficiency in elevation is sufficiently to the north; it was as bright as the His observations on a voyage, wherein served near a hundred miles in length, and se:ubling a sword, the point reaching solution of which is now attempting compensated by their amazing extent of moone, the rest of the sky being very he penetrated to a very high northern It began about 11 at night, latitude, may be considered as the foun
• We are assured by a Greenland captain, that and vanish'd not till about one, being dation for this attempt; and the paper he has seen the bear display astonishing proofs seen by all the south of England.” containing his remarks, read to the of sagacity. When wounded by a musket-shot,
On the 21 of May he saw the Wernerian Natural History Society, and they will apply ice to the wound with their furious and zelous people demolish that contained in the second volume of their fact our informant has been an eye witness.-Ed.
paws, in order to stanch the bleeding. Of this stately Crosse in Cheupside,” anil in the Memoirs, cannot fail to be reckoned + The perils of the whale-fishing fill the navi. month of July after, once more visited extremely important.
gator's life with “ moving accidents by flood," the Continent. But having now per
The following is its substance, and and their adventures are truly deserving of the
name of romantic, as well as of dangerous and formed our purpose of introducing this the only alteration we jak is that of tragical. Oue lash of the monster of the deep highly entertaining publication to our putting Captain Scoresby's information will dash their little boat in pieces, and break readers, we must, for the present, to into our own language, instead of copy- the limbs of men like the wheel, or crush them make room for various other matters, ing that of the literary gentleman who has young, she is particularly fierce, and requires dra sy our notes to a concision. prepared it for the Wernerian Society:
to be approached with caution; and her materGreenland is a country where every struck with the harpoon, she will not desert it,
nal fonduess is so grent, that if her offspring is THE ARCTIC EXPEDITIONS. object is strikingly singular, or highly mag, and the fishers are sure of the parent. It is a
nificent. The atmosphere, the land, and strange sight to see these unsrieldy creatures In our Numbers of the 28th Fe- the ocean, each exhibit remarkable or sub- with the young laid, as it were, across their tails, bruary and 141h Alarch, we laid before lime appearances.
sucking their “ mighty mothers." Boats are our re:uers some interesting informa- The atmosphere is dark coloured, sometiines carried through the spumy sea at the tion relative to the fri tic Seas, and to dense, frequently producing crystallized rate of fourteen miles an hour, by the harpooned the Expeditions which have now sailed snow in a wonderful perfection and variety whale, and many an instance occurs of their
never returning to join their vessels. There is on the project of approaching the North of form and texture, and remarkable for Pule, and passing from the Atlantic from foul to fair.
some resemblance to the magnificence of Eastern sudden transitions from calm to storm, and hunting in these exploits.-Ed.
1 A field is a continued sheet of ice, so large, into the Paeific Ocean by, a NE, or The land is a sublime object; its sty- that its boundary cannot be seen from the sum. NW. pa sage.
It was our good for- | pendous mountains rising abruptly from the I mit of a ship's uvast,
more than half that breadth; each consist- some larger mass; from beneath which it in the focus than for the space of a few ing of a single sheet of ice, having its sur- shews itself on one side. I have seen a seconds. In the formation of these lenses, face raised in general four or six feet above calf so deep and broad, that the ship sailed I roughed them with a small axe, which the level of the water, and its base de- over it without touching, when it might be cut the ice tolerably smooth; 1 then pressed to the depth of near twenty feet observed on both sides of the vessel at the scraped them with a knife, and polished beneath.
same time; this, however, is attended with them merely by the warmth of the hand, We shall now extract literatim Capt. considerable danger, and necessity alone supporting them during the operation in a Scoresby's excellent description of the warrants the experiment, as calves have woollen glove. I once procured a piece of various kinds of ice, which are met in not unfrequently (by a ship's touching, or the purest ice so large that a lens of sixteen the Northern seas.
disturbing the sea near them) been called inches diameter was obtained out of it. -.from their sub-marine situation to the sur
The most dense kind of ice, which is The ice in general, is designated by a face, and with such an accelerated velocity perfectly, transparent, is about one-tenth variety of appellations, distinguishing it as to stave the planks and timbers of the specifically lighter than sea water at a according to the size or number of pieces, ship, and in some instances to reduce the freezing temperature. Plunged into pure their form of aggregation, thickness, trans- vessel to a wreck.
water, of temperature 32°, the proportion parency, &c. ? perhaps cannot better ex
Any part of the upper superficies of a Aoating above, to that below the surface, plain the terms in common acceptation piece of ice, which comes to be immersed is as I to 15, and placed in boiling fresh amongst the whale-fishers, than by mark- beneath the surface of the water, obtains water, it barely floats. Its specific gravity ing the disruption of a field. The thickest the name of a tongue.
is about 0.937. Fields, bergs, and other and strongest field cannot resist the power A bigħt signifies a bay or sinuosity, on large masses, chiefly consist of this kind of of a heavy swell; indeed, such are much the border of any large mass or body of ice. Brash ice likewise affords pieces of it, less capable of bending without being dis- ice. It is supposed to be called bight, the surfaces of which are always found severed, than the thinner ice which is more from the low word bite, or take in, or crowded with conchoidal excavations when pliable. When a field, by the set of the entrap; because, in this situation, ships taken out of the sea. current, drives to the southward, and, being are sometimes so caught by a change of deserted by the loose ice, becomes exposed wind, that the ice cannot be cleared on
Captain Scoresby states, that land is to the effects of a grown swell, it presently either tack ; and in some cases, a total not necessary for the formation of ice; breaks into a great many pieces, few of loss has been the consequence.
even in a rough state the ocean freezes, which will exceed forty or fifty yards in When salt-water ice floats in the sea at forming first detached crystals, the diameter. Now, such a number of these a freezing temperature, the proportion sludge of the sailors, and resembling pieces collected together in close contact, above to that below the surface, is as 1 to 4 snow when cast into water which is so that they cannot, from the top of the nearly; and in fresh water, at the freezing too cold to dissolve it. This smooths ship’s mast, be seen over, are termed a point, as 10 to 69, or 1 to 7 nearly. Hence the surface of the waters like oil, and pack.
its specific gravity appears to be about the congelation which ensues forms When the collection of pieces can be seen 0. 873. Of this description is all young ultimately into pieces called pancakes, across, if it assume a circular or polygonal ice, as it is called, which forms a consiform, the name of patch is applied, and it derable proportion of packed and drift ice of perhaps a foot in thickness, and is called a stream when its shape is more of in general ; where it occurs in Alat pieces many yards in circumference. In shelan oblong, how narrow soever it may be, commonly covered with snow, of various tered situations, what is termed bay ice, provided the continuity of the pieces is pre- dimensions, but seldom exceeding fifty forms more regularly and rapidly. Much served.
yards in diameter. Pieces of very large dimensions, but Fresh-water ice is distinguished by its
of this is formed in the bays and islands smaller than fields, are called floes ; thus a black appearance when floating in the sea, will not account for the immense fields
of Spitzbergen, but even this quantity field may be compared to a pack, and a and its beautiful green hue and transpafloe to a patch, as regards their size and rency when removed into the air. Large which abound in the Greenland Seas, external form.
pieces may occasionally be obtained, pos- and which evidently (says our authoSmall pieces which break off, and are sessing a degree of purity and transparency rity) come from the Northward, and separated from the larger masses by the equal to that of the finest glass, or most have their origin between Spitzbergen effect of attrition, are called brash-ice, and beautiful crystal ; but generally, its trans- and the Pole. may be collected into streams or patches. parency is interrupted by numerous small Ice is said to be loose, or open, when the globular or pear-shaped air-bubbles: these
With this important, and, for the pieces are so far separated as to allow a frequently form continuous lines, inter- Expeditions, rather unfavourable obship to sail freely amongst them; this has secting the ice in a direction apparently servation, we conclude for the present. likewise been called drifl-ice.
perpendicular to its plane of formation. A hummock is a protuberance, raised Fresh-water ice is fragile, but hard; the Memoires et Correspondance de Madame upon any plane of ice above the common edges of a fractured part are frequently level. It is frequently produced by pressure, so keen, as to inflict a wound like glass.
D'Epinay. 8vo. 3 vols. where one piece is squeezed upon another, The homogeneous and most transparent The state of society in the literary and often set upon its edge, and in that position pieces are capable of concentrating the higher circles in France, for the half likewise formed, by pieces of ice mutually derable intensity of heat. With a lump of century
preceding the Revolution, has crushing each other, the wreck being coa ice of by no means regular convexity, I always been represented as combining cervated upon one or both of them. To have frequently burnt wood, fired gun
all the charms of polished and elegant hummocks, the ice is indebted for its powder, melted lead, and lit the sailors' manners, of brilliant and elegant wit, variety of fanciful shapes, and its pictur- pipes to their great astonishment; all of and of profound and varied erudition. esque appearance. They occur in great whom who coulà procure the needful arti- of the accuracy of that description, the numbers in heavy packs, on the edges, and cles, eagerly flocked around me, for the numerous occasionally in the middle of fields and satisfaction of smoking a pipe, ignited by within the last few years appeared con
publications which have floes. They often attain the height of such extraordinary means. Their astonishthirty feet and upwards.
ment was increased, on observing that the nected with that subject, enable us to A calf, is a portion of ice which has ice remained firm and pellucid, whilst the form a judgment with some degree of been depressed by the same means as a solar rays emerging therefrom were so precision. We have always thought that hummock is elevated. It is kept down by Ihot, that the hand could not be kept longer this picture was much too favourably
drawn, and that opinion has been ever, gratified till two nights after- I lity of our ages, and my insufficiency of greatly strengthened by the perusal of wards, when on going to bed she found fortune, and as I felt perfectly happy as I the work before us. * Though this nar- upon her pillow a note from the Che was, I made an effort to conquer my scrurative of Madame D'Epinay's life is not valier de c... acknowledging him- ples, particularly as I knew that the cirentertaining from the variety or the self to be the unknown mask, and pro- by no means afluent. He began to make singularity of her adventures, yet it is fessing a most ardent passion for her. reflections, and I proposed that we should interesting, from the close and minute in relating this adventure tu her cousin, continue to live as we were, which he view which it affords us of the state of the wife of the President of M. ..., agreed to. I quitted my native province, society at that period, and curious, from Madame D'Epinay says,
and followed him to Paris : I need not tell the frankness with which she avows
He spends four You may well imagine how greatly this you how I live there.
days of the week in company with inc: at her intrigues, and from the high opi insolence displeased me. I reproved my other times we are content with hearing nion which she professes to entertain waiting-woman, and immediately carried of the propriety of her conduct and the the letter to my husband, not a little vexed from each other, unless when we happen to
We live happily for having opened it without his knowledge and contented; perhaps we might not be purity of her norals. It must be acknowledged in justice to Madame and confessed that he had himself dictated quite so happy if we were married. D'Epinay, that she commenced her to the Chevalier a portion of the discourse I am confounded at what you tell me, and career under unfavourable circum- which he addressed to me at the ball, I feel that it would be very long before I stances. She was married when very merely for the sake of diverting himself at could accustom myself to such notions.young to a man of large fortune, my astonishment; but that the rogue Not so long as you imagine, she replied ; whose understanding was contempti - these are the very words he used) had not I pledge niyself that you would soon find ble, and whose habits were dissipated ;
my morality simple enough : and you are and all her female friends (we believe timents, nor his intention of writing to me.
born to enjoy it. we may speak almost without excep whom Madame D'Epinay had selected
Unluckily, the President of M.'s wife,
Of Madanne D'Houdctot, Madame tion) were as sentimentally profligate,
D'Epinay's sister-in-law, it is unnefor her confidante upon this occasion, and as philosophically shameless, as the new lights which were then begin. was the mistress of this identical Che- cessary to speak ; her intrigues with
the Marquis de St. Lambert, and others, ning to illumine France could make valier de C....!! Want of chastity, them.
are well known. This is the lady, a Madame D'Epinay assures us
indeed, in a female, appears not then to that her attachment to her husband have formed any obstacle to her admis- fair specimen of that class of French
society, whom Grimm says, was at first of the warmest, and indeed sion into society. Madame D'Arty, one of the most romantic kind, but it of Madame D'Épinay's early friends, is public qui juge séverement ne voit thus described by Rousseau :
pas seulement en elle une mauvaise very soon subsided into the most per
iête mais une femme sans pudeur et fect indifference, and after the birth of The natural daughter of the rich Samuel
sans modestie." Bernard : her second child they agreed to a sepa- her gentleness and benevolent disposition,
: a woman equally estimable for
The negotiation which preceded her ration a Thoro though not a Mensd ; they the charms of her understanding, and the marriage, affords a curious specimen of lived together in the same house, she unalterable gaiety of her temper. She was the manners of the times, but is too receiving her lovers and her philoso- the mistress, or rather the friend, the only long for our present Number. phers without any restraint, and he oc- friend, of the Prince de Conti.—(Rousseau's casionally availing himself of the supe- Confessions, Book VII.) riority of her taste in the choice of Indeed, this lady seemed to think The Hill or Caves, with other Poems, lace and other articles as presents for that so little disgrace attached to her
By Wm. Read, Esq. his mistresses. It is impossible to give situation, or rather, was so proud of an abridgment of this most extraordi- her prostitution, that she dates one of
We have in latter times received from nary piece of auto-biography; but we her letters in the following manner :- Ireland sunie very noble contributions will select a few anecdotes, to shew that “ A six heures du matin en rentrant de to the mind and the glory of the emwe have not spoken with unwarrantable Chez le Prince de Conti.”
pire. She has supplied us with great harshness of this lady's husband or her
Another early friend of Madame
orators, vigorous statesmen, and disfriends. D'Epinay's, Mademoiselle D'Ette (to tiveness seenis to have fallen into the
tinguished soldiers. But her producVery soon after her marriage, Ma- whom she was introduced by her husdame "D'Epinay went to a masqued band,) thus describes herself ::
wane, and, with the exception of one ball, where she entered into conversa
name now first of the first in soldiership, tion with a person who appeared to be About ten years ago, when I lost my Ireland has given no tribute to the so perfectly acquainted with every inci- mother, I was seduced by the Chevalier de mighty struggle in which the world has dent of her donjestic life, that she be- Valory, who had known me from my
child- been involved and shaken. We hear came extremely anxious to know who confidence I reposed in him, prevented me nothing from her beyond the victories he was : her curiosity was not, how- at first from suspecting his designs. It was of petty faction and personal discon
long before I perceived them, and when tent, the boastings of suspicious paThese Memoirs were originally written in his intentions were no longer doubtful
, I triotisın, and the menaces of vulgar inthe form of a Romance, with fictitious names, had conceived such an attachment for him, surrection. and are alluded to by Grimm, in his Correspond- that I was unable to resist him. Some the crime or the folly by which such a
This is all melancholy; D'Epinay enabled her to associate with the scruples arose in my mind, but he overcame state of things has been produced, may acquaintance of most of the literati of the day, deed made several endeavours to that ef- yet, and with no long interval, deepen she had all the means of making a faithful por- fect; but observing that his family op
into fearful and tempestuous agitation. trait.
posed our union on account of the inequa- | But there are still manly minds and ho
nourable hearts in Ireland. The poems Ere eve, the breeze which blew so fair,
She is borne from the prison; their to which we are about to refer are the Was hushed; the sails flapped loose, as tossed The galley idly in the air;
flight is perceived, and they are forced work of a man of talents and principle. The shadow of a tempest crossed
to fight their way. If there is a feature which attracts us The troubled deep; and, passing by, additionally to these poems, it is the Each gust was like a spirit's sigh!
They now had gained the gentler slope part of Ireland in which they were writ
Extending downwards to the deep, ten. Belfast, with a certain literary On ocean's breast a moment's brightness, Then burst the cloud which o'er them hung ;
Supporting that faint maid with hope,
They ceased to feel. From steep to steep spirit, has unfortunately intermixed Flashed far ; the pealing thunder rung
Far-flaming torches wildly leap, with this claim on history, some less 'Thwart Heaven ; each forehead reel'd with As meteors fire the midnight sky;
lightnessrespectable distinctions; and the tone
Their splendour broke the eagle's sleep,
He fled his crag, and seem'd on high of her pamphleteers and poets has been an instant roll'd each eye-ball sightless ; And darkly now, and fiercely, speeds
Some Spirit poised on dusky wing not , unfrequently tinged, at least as The impetuous blast; in foamy whiteness
In the Moon's circle hovering! much with French republicanism as Leap the mad waves, like battle steeds,
They reach the water's side; the with English loyalty. The philosophy Whose silver manes toss high and far
princess is placed in the bark, but they which in England has been so long de- Amid the sable storm of war !
have not yet escaped from the Druids, tected as the mere trick of fools and Borne wildly on the tempest's wing,
who purslie them into the waves. The villains to disguise projects of absur. The groaning pinnace rides the wave; triumphant catastrophe is told with dity and blood, is still absolutely good Now sweeps the cloud with rapid swing- great animation and picturesque power : for something in the lips of those re
Now plunges to a gulphing grave:
And, though the mariners were brave, mote and simple people; and so slow is When Death thus made his visage bare,
That host was rushing thro' the water, the travel of common sense in the And fainting Hope saw nought to save
As rose the galley's swelling sail,
With blades which thirsted for the slaughter, world, that the hapless fate of Napo- The boldest eye-the sternest there
And torches waving in the gale. leon continues to be quoted as an in- Seen in the lightning's passing blaze, Looked frozen in its fixed amaze!
Kind Heaven !—they may not now avail ! stance of the cruelty of Fortune. They
But, lo! careering towards the shore,
xx111. have now however sent out a Poet, All, save young Irial's ;-sternly bright,
In white plum'd crest and glittering mail,
His charger's flank embossed with gore,and, unquestionably, the ablest their As lion's glance at hunter's spear,
A warrior madly wroth, draws near, town has produced, though he has had His seemed to catch a bolder light
And fiercely shakes his flashing spear. no tears to shed over the exile of St. He felt that feeling was not fear
From that which fir'd the hemisphere ! Helena, and no ambition to exercise in Each coming billow might o'erwhelm :
'Twas stern Siornab, Ullin's king : taking the lead in factious foolery. The When sunk the pilot in despair,
Quick seized the Bard his bow, and drew
An arrow to its point,--the string
Snapped ere the winged avenger flew;
Not so the Tyrant 'scapes his due !
A chord rent swiftly from the barp
The vessel is driven on the Irish Now twangs upon the sounding gew; train of moral sentiment with descrip-shore, where they find the Druids offer- The shaft is smooth--the steel is sharption singularly clear and characteristic.
ing up a human sacrifice. They are No more that Chief thro' blood shall roam, Two striking tales are introduced, with received with hospitality, and suffered His own is on the white sea-foam! which we commence our extracts, less to enjoy the stranger's privilege, of not
The poem closes with a farewell of from their intrinsic beauty than from being questioned of their friendship or the Bard to the country which he was their facility of separation from the body of the work.
enmity for three days. But a nobler thus forced to abandon.
We may at a future time give further
perish is in the Druid's power, and extracts. How much is it to be desired OTHAL, who swayed the Western Isles,
“ Lismora's lovely daughter” must die, that the fine mind of Ireland should Which stud like gems the ocean foam,
to give success to an expedition then more generally be turned into this diHad turned his plumed and plaided files preparing. Her story is strikingly dis-rection ! how infinitely preferable is From Norway's hills victorious home;
closed, and the young hero determines this single effort of a man of genius, to And trophies shone in tower and dome, to liberate her.
the whole mass of her giddy hurangues And chiefs and bards were gathered far,
and paltry pamphleteering ! how much And Beauty came, in rosy bloom, 'To blush beneath the Northern star: “ Now to the prison-cave we fly."
more healthful and noble the glow As Irial and the Bard drew near, One youth from rocky Albin steers,
of this enthusiasm, than the perpetual Iler sceptre's hope of future years.
Her lily check and earthward eye
disfiguring inflammation, that only be-
trays the morbidness within, poverty O'er billows kissed by morning's dies, Like radiance breaking thro' a cloud,
of spirit, and dissoluteness of principle! With broad wings spread upon the breeze,
Rich tresses shed their sunshine there,
As wildly, mocking bands, they flow'd;
An Essay on the Origin and Operation of
the Dry Rot, with a view to its PreShall glad our sight, when Othal's towers
vention or Cure. To which are annexed, Ring loud to love and valour's praise ; The Virgin turn'd, with timid eye,
Suggestions on the Cultivation of Fo.. And harps are sweet in ladies' bowers!! Snatched quick the lamp that near her shone,
rest Trees, and an Abstract of the seveThus Irial said, az o'er the sea
Flung back her braids of orient dye,
ral Forest Laws, from the Reign of Which shrinks from all it looks upon :
Canute to the Present Time. By Ro-
bert M Williams, Architect. 4to. But winds and waves are faithless ever,
Her father's best-loved Bard-was thrown,
the first importance to us as a commercial
nation. The disease, which it is the object they decompose its fibre, and render it use then lay each brick on a pure clean surface, to prevent, or cure, makes annually the less. These plants are of various descrip- cover each with a glass jar, and place both greatest ravages in our shipping, and tions and sizes ; from a mucor, or mould, in a situation a little shaded from the solar houses, and may be considered as the bane to the large and most vigorous boletus lachry- rays, where the temperature may be from to our prosperity. This will hardly be mans. To illustrate this point we cannot do 45 to 60', taking care to supply a sufficient thought asserting too much, when it is better than to give the following extract: quantity of distilled water to each, to keep stated, that at the present time there are “ The fungi on timber, that constitute up the proper degree of moisture; in a several ships of the line, and from 20 to 30 our present subject, are very easily propa- very little tiine, that which was moistened frigates, in which it has made the most de- gated either by seed or root. The roots with the vegetable juice or stagnant water, structive progress. It has been reckoned, shooting in various directions will lay hold will be covered with a fine mould, which that the annual expense to the government, of the timber, and penetrate into the fis- will be thick or thin, tall or short, in prooccasioned by the destruction of timber, sures or cracks; in a thin substance, such portion as the water, with which it was first and the loss of labour in the necessary re- as a board or plank, they will shoot in on moistened, had been impregnated with repairs, was not less than from two to three, the side in the form of roots, and come out getable matter ; while the other, which was and to the whole nation, from four to five on the other as a new plant distinct from moistened with pure water, will remain for millions sterling
the original. In this they seem to resem- any length of time without the least apUnder such circumstances it was to be ble the willow and other plants, which will pearance of mould.” p. 67. expected that many should have turned send out roots or branches from either end. Frequently the disease is communicated their attention to the subject, and accord- This is very common with the fungi. By to louses from the improper construction ingly many cures have been proposed. In the seed it propagates very rapidly on al- of drains or cesspools, into which vegetaparticular cases they may have been useful; most any vegetable substance, as may be ble matter is thrown—and all means of but like the domestic practice of popular seen and clearly proved in many different cure until these be altered, can only promedicines for diseases of the body, whilst ways. Take common earth, and bring it duce a temporary benefit. Sometimes it is the physiological structure and principles to a red heat in a crucible, so as to burn introduced into a house with saw-dust, or of action were not understood, frequent and destroy all particles of seeds that may even with the corks of bottles. An example failures necessarily followed. It is altoge- be supposed to be contained in it; then let is given in page 87 of this having taken place ther in vain to hope hy means of nostrums it cool, and lay it on a plate of metal, or a in two houses near Berkeley Square. The tu eradicate so great an evil. We are happy plain stone, adding to it a portion of mois proprietors had both purchased wine from a to observe the author of this Essay fully iure; divide it in two parts, and cover each wine merchant whose cellars were affected persuaded of this fact. He has applied him with a glass jar : upon one part strew the with the disease. The author remarks :self to investigate the economy of nature in seed or dust from the top of a fungus, “This disease is very advantageous to wine the production of vegetables ; he examines and leave the other without any further pre- merchants, as it soon covers the bottles minutely the structure of the fir and oak, paration; in a day or two, that on which with its mouldy appearance, and consumes with which we are most concerned in build- the seeds were sown, will appear as if over the external parts of the corks, so that ing, and traces the various causes from v:hich spread with a fine cobweb, when seen with a trifling operation on the bottles, diseases originate, and endeavours, upon through a magnifier, and in a few days after they are filled, and then deposited in fixed principles, to prevent the evil, or to more this will be seen to the naked eye, cellars pretty strongly affected with the dryarrest its progress after it has begun. while there will be no such appearance rot, they can send out wine as having been
The Author's plan has swelled his volume on the other, even after standing for seve- bottled 'in cellars for seven or eight years, to a great bulk, but it will be found to con- ral weeks. This experiment satisfied me before it has in fact been there so many tain a mass of matter interesting and enter- of fungi being propagated by seed. Spal- months.” taining to the general reader, as well as to lanzaní tried a similar experiment by cut- The most important part of the inquiry ship-builders, or to gentlemen of fortune, ting two slices of bread, putting them under relates to the means of cure. Here the who are more immediately concerned. jars in the same way, and found double the common mistake has been to endeavour to
In the explanation of the growth of quantity of mould on that slice of bread on discover a panacea or universal remedy. plants, we observe him ascribing to a change which he had strewed the dust or seed." This is no less absurd than the preposterous of temperature, the principal cause of the p. 59.
attempts made to find such a medicine for rise of the sap. The air in tlie tubes being Matter containing the seeds of fungi is the human frame. It is necessary to asexpanded rises up, and forces the sap be- often brought in the form of rubbish in con- certain the cause of the contagion, and to fore it; and there being innumerable valves tact with the bricks or wond of a building. remove it, in order to prevent a recurrence to prevent its return, the process goes on. In the mixing up of mortar, water is often of the same evil. When the disease has
In opposition to Sir Humphrey Davy, brought from stagnant pools ; and one pail originated in the materials, as the bricks Mr. Knight, and indeed to most preceding full may contain millions of particles, sus- and timbers, and has' not made great prowriters, our author denies any specific ef- ceptible of germination, when deposited on gress, the infected parts must be removed, fect from light in producing vegetation, and a favourable soil. Such seeds after lying and sound materials introduced. contends, with a considerable show of rea- dormant for many years may be made to “ Where the cause is putrescent vapour son, and from a number of experiments, vegetate.
from other corrupting matter, such matter that in all cases where light has been sup- The seeds of fungi are embodied in other must be removed, and the situation thoposed to have effect, it arises entirely from vegetable matter, which our author proves roughly cleansed, and the air rendered pure, à change of temperature produced by the by the following experiment:
dry, and susceptible of continual motion, solar rays; and he maintains, that if an “ Take two well-burnt bricks from the or passing in a current through every part equal degree of heat, with an equal supply interior of a brick kiln, when no vegetable of the building. And it is of the first imof fresh air, could be afforded, the effect matter can have come in contact with them portance, that in all cases, edifices be conwould be the same. Our limits will not since they were thoroughly burnt; to one structed in such a manner, as to admit of permit us to enter into the details, and we of these add a portion of distilled water the common air shifting its place with faci. must refer to the work itself.
sufficient thoroughly to moisten the whole lity, that it may not by being stagnant acThe great enemy of timber, whether brick; let the other brick be moistened quire a fermenting heat, or accumulate vagrowing or cut down, is a numerous tribe with the juice of any vegetable, such as po'ır impregnated with particles of the surof plants, denominated Fungi : equally pa- that of cabbage leaves, either green or rounding materials.” rasitical with the more celebrated misletoe boiled, or lay it for a few minutes on the The position of the fireplace, particularly of the Druids, they fix their roots in the edge of such a pond as before mentioned, in the lower parts of the building, is a matsubstance of the wood, and drawing from it that it may receive the stagnant water to ter of great consequence, in order to produce a constant supply for their own growth, moisten it equally with the other brick; 1 an uniform circulation of air. In the con