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Vol.79.–No. 4.]


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PENNSYLVANIA say, I have no fancy for this ludy; this miss; and whenever I hear people complaining of misfortune bringing them to poverty, I am not content with the bare allegation : I like to have the particulars stated; and, in numerous cases, men are brought to poverty without any fault of their own; and, in some cases, their poverty is

produced by their virtues. So that each THE LIBELS.

case has its own particular facts and

circumstances, and these always ought In another part of the Register, the to be considered; and I myself have reader will find a report of a proceeding always considered them, and never in in the Court of King's Bench on the my life reproached a man on account of 18. instant. He will find a rule to his poverty or his bankruptcy. skow cause, granted, upon my affidavit, man honestly surrender his ALL, withagainst Baines of Leeds, and his son. out any consideration for future existNow that the affair is in the hands of ence, or for wife or children, God knows the law, there I shall leave it, and let the process is quite severe enough, the law with her leaden feet go on in without the addition of reflections and an uninterrupted course, having given reproaches, and without the still more positive and written instructions to my cruel addition of the coldness of those attorney, Mr. EDWARD FAITHFUL, to who have before called themselves make no coinpromise, to come to no friends; coldness which, I thank God, sort of arrangement, and not even to my heart was never cursed with. i enter into any parley with any of the was so completely stripped by the deeds numerous parties. It will be perceived, of the Parliament of 1817, that, after that the report states my affidavit to the bankruptcy took place, I was in a have alleged, that, through misfortune, hired lodging, without one single arI became a bankrupt in 1820. It is ticle of furniture of my own; and, the usual form made use of in such when we all got together in that lodgcases ; and it is very true, that I did ing, at BROMPTON, after having been, become a bankrupt through misfortune; for three years, dispersed, like a covey for a very great misfortune it was, to be of partridges when they have been shot compelled to flee to a foreign country, amongst by a double-barrelled-gun, all or to be compelled to hold my tongue, that we could muster out of all our or to go into a dungeon, and to be de- pockets, early in January, 1821, were prived of the use of pen, ink, and paper, three shillings and a few half-pence! and to be deprived of the sight of my No man to let me have paper to print wife and my friends; and this, too, for the next Register upon, without having no offence other than that of struggling the money first; no man to print that to obtain a reform in the Commons' Register, unless he had the money down House of Parliament. This was a very before he began to print, or unless he great misfortune; but I knew no misfor- had guarantee for that money from tune of any other sort. I possessed ample somebody besides me! A friend lent means for all purposes required by me, me twenty pounds to purchase the paper had it not beenfor this peculiar misfor- with, and the printing was done by tune. Misfortunes of any other sort some arrangement which I have now I have never known in my life, to any forgotten, and I have forgotten by serious amount. As the Quakers of whom. This was a season to try what



a man and his family were made of. said this, I shall not again make these Here, indeed, was fortitude required, libels a subject of observation in the not only on my part, but on the part of Register, but shall leave my calum every one of this family old enough to niators to be dealt with by law. think. Let any one go and ask Mrs. WILLIAMS, of BROMPTON, whether she ever lodged a more happy or cheerful TO THE RIGHT HON. THE family. Look at my prodigious labours

EARL OF RADNOR. (and, indeed, the labours of us all) since that time. Let him look at iny

LETTER II. fourteen copy-right books, written since Bolt-court, Fleet-street, Jan. 21, 1833. that day, and, amongst the rest, My LORD, -At the conclusion of my my

French Grammar," my Pro- former letter (published in the last Retestant Reformation," my Wood- gister), I observed, that I would, lands," my English Gardener.” my “ spectful!y offer your Lordship a few Advice to Young Men," either of " observations on my formerly delivered which would be sufficient to render any“ opinions on American manufactures, man famous for industry, at any rate. " and on the American

navy ;” because, Let him look, too, at the travels and I was aware, that I expressed my pleathe books of my sons; bet himn look at sure at the passing of the heavy tariffmy own travels about my own country; law, and that I repeatedly called upon and at my proceedings during those the Americans to build ships and cast travels; let him look at the pains and cannons ; and because I was aware also, time and expense that I have bestowed, that, here, the old, and ten thousand in introducing, with the assistance of times refuted charge of inconsistency" one son, the manufacture of the straw. might be again conjured up. plat with such success, and of intro- Now, my Lord, with regard to the ducing, at the instance of another son, inconsistency, there would be none that prodigious benefit to the country, even if I were to confess, that I gave. Cobbett's corn, which is already sold at this advice, and expressed the pleasure Mark-lane for from forty to fifty with no feeling other than that of a deshillings a quarter, while the American sire to promote the good of the United corn, in the same market, sells at from States, for, there may have arisen cirtwenty-seven shillings to thirty-two cumstances to make me change my shillings a quarter ; let the reader look opinion as to these matters; and I know back to the year 1821, and the three of no rule, divine, moral, or legal, that shillings and a few copper pennies; let makes it faulty in me to change my him think of all these prodigious la- opinions more than any of the rest of bours, exclusively of twenty four half- mankind. Not, however, putting foryearly volumes of the Register; let ward this defence at all, I might, in the him look at all this, the work of twelve first place, call upon your Lordship to years, and, then, let him say, whether recollect, that the giver of the advice is the people of OLDHAM are to be called an Englishman, and not an American, fools for having intrusted the guardian- and that I, who was that giver, was by ship of their liberty, their honour, and no means bound to give the rivals of my their interests, to me, and whether I own country good advice ; and that it ought, especially when I am become is quite enough for me to show, that the guardian of that liberty, that honour, the advice had rationally for its object, ar those interests, to be held forth to to produce good to my own country. the world, as a base, an insolvent, and And, what have I more to do than to even a fraudulent debtor. Justice to state the plain truth, which is this : myself and my virtuous family; and namely, that I wished the Americans to especially justice to the people of Old- cramp the import of English manufacHAM, demanded that I should say this tures; that I wished them to build much upon the occasion ; and, having ships, cast cannons, and make a formi

dable navy; that I wished them to do tion of the House of Commons. Iinanything, and to do everything,calculated variably told those with whom I con to induce the people of England to de- versed, that if the boroughmonger sway mand a reform of the Parliament, by were put an end to in England, their making them see and feel the conse- boasted naval power must soon hide its quences of being governed by a Parlia- head; and that, for ny part, whenment consisting of nominees.

ever a reform of the Parliament should Aye! but some one will say, “Where take place, I, as far as any particle of was your sincerily then? And had power that might be lodged in my you a moral right to give this advice hands might go, would compel them to to the Americans from such a motive put a stop to that navy, which was maas this? And did you act the part of nifestly intended to join France and a friend to mankind, and especially of Russia, and any other powers, in order

a friend to the Americans, whose cha- to wrest from England her ancient, her "racter you have so much praised, and rightful, her just, her reasonable, and “ whose hospitality and friendship to- (for the rest of the world, as well as for “ wards yourself you have so much ex- herself) her necessary and salutary dom “ tolled ?" My Lord, I am not so en- minion of the seas. To hundreds of larged of soul as to be able to extend men, and in scores of public companies, either my personal or political affec- I have made this declaration, and in tions to all the nations of the earth. It every city and town of America in which was my lot to be born in this clump of I happened to be. little islands; and I never have been So that, my Lord, my views as to able, rationally speaking, to extend my this matter are by no means new, nor affections one inch beyond their con- have they ever been disguised in one fines. So that I look upon myself as single instance. Foreseeing the possiunder no sort of obligation to do any- bility that I might be so placed, one thing, or to say anything, in behalf of day or another, as to make me a real any other country or people, unless I actor in the great affairs of my own can do it, or say it, without the smallest country, I beg your Lordship to obrisk of diminishing either the happiness, serve, how scrupulously I avoided doing the power, or the renown of my own anything that might, in such. poscountry; and this, as your Lordship sible case, operate as a tie upon me not well knows, has always been my pro- to pursue the exclusive interests of my fession of faith, as far as this matter own country. I was in the United goes.

States, the first time, eight years, I And, as to my sincerity with regard saw thousands of loyal Englishmen, to the United States, I have a hundred amongst whom, I believe, were two times over declared, in print, that I gentlemen of the name of BARING; I would, if I had the power, prevent them saw thousands of these persons become from having any maritime force beyond what they call “ citizens” of the United what was barely necessary to protect States, and making and causing to be their own coasts against pirates or pi- recorded a solemn declaration to that ratical enterprises ; and I have never effect. There was no crime in this, done any one act, in the whole course of either legal or moral; it was done by my life, to prevent me from having a numerous persons, as worthy as ever moral as well as a legal right to cause lived in the world; it did not invalidate such prevention. When I was in that any of their rights at home as English country last, I, upon all occasions, subjects; while, at the same time, the openly declared that their navy had Americans received them with a greater been created, was creating, and was degree of cordiality ; and while it resuffered to exist, only by imbecility of moved many little obstacles to the deal mind and of action, which had arisen ing in lands, and the carrying on transout of the misgovernment of England, actions in commerce and trade; and it and particularly out of the ill-constitu- also gave certain political and civil

rights which could not be enjoyed with- “ thing to do, in the adoption of meaout it. I was in very considerable bu- sures hostile to the United States. I siness for eight years ; and to adopt “ shall be bound to assist in enforcing this · measure, which others did, would " those measures if I shall deem them have been very convenient to me, but I " necessary to the interest and the ho. never did it; not because I had at that " nour of England ; I think it very time the smallest idea of its ever inter-1“ likely that such necessity inay arise ; fering, by any possibility, with the per-“ it is possible that it may be my duty formance of any duty towards my own “ to take a part in that necessity, and it country, but because it seemed to look never shall be said of me, that I, being like an act either of perfidy or of hypo-l" here especially, ever uttered a word crisy; an act, either of abandoning my or did an act which would amount to a own country or of pretending to aban- “ sort of promise on my part not to give don it. I was many and inany a time" my support to such hostility.” In his pressed by my friends to do

to do it ; sleeve, I dare say he laughed at me; but I always answered, that I belonged and, if Mr. Fearon had heard me, he to England and England partly be- probably would have laughed still more, longed to me, and that I would never as, in his book, he did, at the idea of my do

any act which should only seem to thinking myself (as he said I did) “ the say that I abandoned my duty or Atlas of England ;" I, never having ingave up my rights as an Englishman. terfered with Mr. Fearon in any way When I was in America the last time, whatsoever, and now unreluctantly circumstances had very much changed ; leaving him to dispense gin upon Holand, as every friend there concluded, born-Hill, while I steadily pursue my naturally enough that I must be sick of quiet course, serving my constituents England, I was still more pressingly and my country to the best of my ability, urged to become a citizen, as it is So that, my Lord, there never has cal ed, and to make a declaration, first been any disguise, on my part, with reof my intention, afterwards of the fact, lation to this matter. Numerous were that I owed allegiance to the United the “ fierce contests” (to borrow a States of America. But this, however, I phrase from the Right Hon. Secretary not only did not do; but I avoided, with at War) which I had to carry on, and the greatest care, going near any person especially with the Scotch and English in public authority. The governor of and Irish citizenized gentlemen, who the state in which I resided, the Presi- seemed, and who are ten thousand times dent of the United States himself when more bitter against their native country he came to New York, both desired to than the Americans themselves. These see me, in order to show me a mark of renegadoes (as I used abusively to call their hospitality. I was very much them) never pronounced the name of obliged to them ; I felt the invitation England unaccompanied with execraas an act of great goodness, and I retain tions. This is the old story: none are the recollection of it with great grati- so bitterly hostile as deserters : none so tude towards them both. But I obsti- bitterly hostile, none so unforgiving, nately refused to do even this, lest it none bear so deadly a weapon as deshould be interpreted into an overt act serters. This term does not apply to of preference given to that country over men whose wants have driven them to my own; and, to the gentleman who America, and who have, in fact, gone came from New York to press me to go thither to preserve their wives and famiand see the President, I made my objec- lies from starvation, or from the loss of tion in something very near to the fol- what little property they had; but, to lowing words: “ This present state of men of considerable property it does " things must change in England; I apply : and they ought to have remained

hope to live to see that change; if I here, to labour, according to their “ do live to see it, I shall, by possibility, means, for the deliverance of their “ have something to say, if not some country.

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During these contests, one of which I the power, or powers, that are at war remember to have had, of a most fierce with us. In short, not to go on till one character, with that Mr. Melist, whose bursts with indignation; only want name I mentioned in my former letter ; very modestly to take from us all the during these contests, they used to talk sources of our strength and our wealth in a very high strain, about “equal It is very plausible, to be sure, to call rights on the seas; a doctrine which the seas, as JEFFERSON,

and JEFFERSON, MADDISON, and many MUNROE, did,

“ the highway of naothers, used to put forth as so much tions ;” but, my Lord, it is plausible gospel, and in which they were backed ouly with shallow minds. Very easy to by all the fellows, calling themselves call them the "highway ;” and, then, jurisconsults, on the continent of Eu- to apply to it all the rules of the Highrope. To be sure! Where are there a way Act; but not quite so easy to make parcel of poor weak fellows in the out any analogy in the two cases : and, whole world, who do not want to share above all things, not so easy to produce in the powers of a rich and strong fel. any water Highway ACT, or tell us of low? The doctrine, however, is per- anybody that ever had authority to pass fectly innoxious without an attempt to such an act. It is at this point where put it in practice; but, we must have all such reasoners must stop. It is a been paying about two hundred and question to be tried by the reason of the fifty thousand pounds, in salaries to case itself; and, still more, a question a secretary for foreign affairs, and about to be settled without any arbiter whatsix millions of money to ambassadors, soever : and, if there be any sense in envoys, consuls, and the like, and about the words, equal right on the seas, three millions more to defray the con- they mean neither more nor less, than tingent expenses of their severaloffices; this, that every nation is to have right we must, within the last forty years, in just and due proportion to its power. have been paying this enormous sum of To give your Lordship an idea of the money, to very little purpose, if our foaming rage of my opponents, when I Government do not know (and they used to talk in this strain, is quite out appear to know nothing of the matter), of my power ; but, when they used to that this American

navy was, and ask this question, “ Why should not we is, intended to be the heart and soul of have a navy as well as you,” I used to a combination between Russia, Sweden, answer, “Why should not your country Denmark, Holland, and France; for “ be an island as well as mine? Why pulling down, on the first fair occasion, are not you an ancient people, instead the power of Great Britain on the seas, of being a parcel of colonists planted Nothing can be more crafty than the" by England ?" But my great quespretences on which this scheme will tion always was, " What do you want a proceed. The Americans are animated navy for?” They did not dare say, to by no ambitious views : oh, no! They, humble England,for that would have quiet innocent souls ! only want to been my argument for putting a stop to carry on their traffic quietly; only want, it; and then, giving them no time for in the most innoffensive and fairest deliberation, I used to proceed : manner possible, to carry the produce “ have been very happy for a hundred of France, Holland, Denmark, and“ years without any navy at all; and Sweden, to and from their colonies, you may continue so if you like for a while they are at war with us! Only thousand years longer; whereas, if want to preserve the strictest neutrality you attempt to rival England, or to by covering the property of our enemies, plot against her with the despots of and carrying it all about the world! Europe, however you may embarrass, Only want to sail in safety all over the “ her for a little, she will finally beat world, while our ships and goods must you, and break up your Union. You . be insured at an enorme

mously high rate, “ do not want cannons and ball-cartridge: being constantly exposed to seizure by “ to carry on commerce with. Go on.

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