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greater part of Englishmen to have has; each state has two houses of assembeen able to acquire, and to be able to bly; each passes its own laws, and cardo. I, therefore, think it my duty to ries on its own affairs; and the expense publish my opinions with regard to this of the governinent of each state is, on an great matter ; in the doing of which I average, less than the amount of the have taken the liberty to address myself county-rates in any one of the greater to you by name, first, because it will counties of England. But the governnecessarily cause that which I write to ment of the United States, or general be read with more attention and more government, can alone make war, make respect; and next, because, having con- peace, make treaties, or do any other stantly in my mind the recollection of thing relating to commerce, or other whom I am addressing myself to, 1 relationships with foreign nations, in shall be more scrupulous with regard to which respect the Congress is endued my statements, and more careful with with all the powers of the English Goregard to my language.
vernment, consisting of King, Lords, This affair will be eagerly laid hold and Commons; and the Congress conof by the enemies of parliamentary re- sists of the President, a Senate, and a form; that is to say, the enemies of House of Representatives. The Concheap government, as an argument gress can impose taxes of all sorts on against the reform which has taken the people of the whole country ; and place; against the extension of suffrage; though it has no municipal jurisdiction, against the ballot; against short par- except over a space ten miles square in liaments; and against, in short, every- the place of its sessions (which is at thing savouring of liberty enjoyed by present in Maryland), it has a jurisdicthe great mass of the people. I, there- tion extending over the whole country fore, make use of the True Sun evening with regard to all inatters relating to the newspaper, in order that no time may taxes imposed by it; relating to all be lost in anticipating, as far as I am matters on the high seas ; relating ta able, this argument, which I shall prove, all matters connected with commerce, not only to be worth not a straw; but, with war, and with everything arising I shall also prove, and that too, I trust, out of treaties. It has its judges, who as clearly as daylight, that this event in go the circuits regularly all over the the United States, furnishes the strongest country ; it has its law-officers ; and its possible argument in favour of a courts take cognizance of the violation thorough reform of Parliament, and in of any law of the United States; and, favour of that cheap and just govern- in matters of common law, its courts ment which is, I trust, to be the fruit take cognizance of all offences against of our reform.
the United States, just as our gentleTo do this in a manner in which it men of the long-robe do ; and, though ought to be done, I must first of all ex-officio informations are not in use, enter, pretty much at length, into a his- the attorney-generals make out bills of tory of the causes of the Carolinian re-indictment in most abusive and thunsistance, some of which are of distant dering style, always concluding (not bedates. I must begin, in order to give ing able to put in the word “ King') your Lordship a full view of the matter, with “ to the evil example of all others with a statement of a statistical nature. in like case offending, and against the There are
now twenty-eight states, peace of the said United States, their including three, which are as yet called sovereignty and dignity.” I used to tell territories, not 'et having population them that their abuse was not half şo sufficient to send members to the Con- sonorous and sublime as that of my nagress, agreeably to the constitution of the tive country; and that they ought to United States. Each siate has its own se- get a king again as soon as they could, parate government. At the head of which were it only to give a harmonious is a governor, who has his secretaries, rounding to the conclusion of their bills law officers, &c., just as the PRESIDENT of indictment, I remember seeing a
e ; and
6 if you
- man in jail in the little state of New South-WesTERN STATES. Kentucky. JERSEY (and he lay in that jail a good
Alabama while) for his hostility to the peace,
Mississippi. f-sovereignty, and dignity of the state of
Louisiania. New Jersey, which hostility he had ex
Arkansas territory -ercised in preaching an Unitarian sermon; such sermon being a breach of the Now, if your Lordship will please to common law, and also of the statutes of look at the map, which you will find at William the Third, some time King the head of my Year's Residence in of the said state.”..
America, which (as Lord MOUNTNORRIS Not to wander further, such is the used to tell his friends in his anonydivision of the governing powers of that mous pamphlets), is the best thing you great country: and now, as to the divi. ever read in your life sion of its territory, its resources, and its have not got it, I advise you to get it interests. I observed before, that there “ directly," which you can do at the were eight-and-twenty states, including price of only five shillings; if your territories. Ten of these states lie be- Lordship will be pleased to look at that tween 39 and 45 degrees of north lati- map, you will perceive in the first tude; with some little exception, the place, that the northern states are a rest between 39 and 29 degrees of mere little patch, compared with north latitude. The former I will call the whole of the territory of the the northern states, and the latter the United States; and then, you will southern states, though some parts of be pleased to bear in mind, which them are more northern than 40 de- will be more fully hereafter exgrees; but then they have the same plained, that the TARIFF-LAWS, interest with the southern states, hav- which have stirred up the present reing no maritime outlet, except the Mis-sistance, are advantageous to those SISSIPPI and MissOURI, down their se-northern states only, and
that the veral branches, and out of the mouths of burden which they impose falls printhe monstrous Mississippi, which cipally upon the rest of the Union. empty themselves into the Gulf of Such is the division of the mere terMexico. The following is a list of the rilory; but your Lordship will now states, taking them in their order from please to observe, that the products of north to south.
the northern states amount to a mere
nothing compared with those of the NORTHERN STATES...... Maine.
southern and western states, New Hampshire.
look into Mr. Meưisu's description of Vermont
the United States, which is a very use, Massachusets.
ful book (which I sell too), you will find Rhode Island,
a vast deal of useful information,
over the whole country. I forget how
Delaware. SOUTHERN ATLANTIC
many thousand and thousands of miles,he ATLANT } Maryland, STATES
told me that he travelled, in order to Virginia.
get his information. He got a great North Carolina,
deal, at any rate, and if your Lordship Sonih Carolina.
will look at page 447 of his book, you Georgia. Florida.
will find, that this Souto CAROLINA, NORTH-WESTERN STATES. Michigan territory, which is now in a state of rebellion,
and, which contained, when Mr. MsColumbia territory, Lisu wrote his book, a very little more Obio, in parte
than half a million of people, exported Indiana, in part.
to Britain (for a Scotchman very proIllinois in part.
perly never says England,) in the year
1921, domestic produce to the amount drinkables, must go in at the mouths of 6,868,000 dollars; while the great of that river; and your Lordship will, state of PennsYLVANIA, which is larger therefore, see, that all these southern than six of the other northern states outof and western states, are, commercially the ten, exported of domestic produce, speaking, closely connected with Birto the same Britain, to the amount of MINGHAM, Sheffield, MANCHESTER, only 2,832,000 dollars. Cotton, one of and LEEDS; that they have the great products of the southern such connexion with the northern states, has increased most enormously states; and that there is no tie whatsoin its exports to this kingdom ; and ever to bind them together, except that your Lordship is aware, I suppose, that which is of a mere political nature. of the total exports of the United States, For, that, as to defence, in case of war, of domestic produce, about three-fourths the western states can receive no aid come to this same Breetan,” and her whatsover from the northern states; West India colonies. All the cotton they must rely entirely upon their own comes, at any rate. So, that the pro- arms ; and we remember, very well, ducts of the Atlantic southern states, that it was the militia of TENNESSEE, cotton, tobacco, rice, almost all come and, under the command of this very hither; for, in the other countries of President, too, who defeated our army Europe, they grow tobacco themselves. at New Orleans, and drove them back Now, then, if you would please to look into the sea. The predominant inte,
at the map again, you will see, that rests of these states, therefore, is wholly : * MARYLAND, VIRGINIA, NORTH and different from that of the northern
SOUTH CAROLINA, GEORGIA, and the states. FLORIDAS, are all to the south of the These latter have a much greater line above-mentioned, and all lie upon population in proportion to their extent; ) the Atlantic. While the north-western their soil, generally speaking, is, beyond and south-western states, have the great all measure, inferior to that of the other rivers for their outlet into the Atlantic. states; their climate more variable and
Next, we are to consider the interests less certain as to the crops. In the five of the states; and your Lordship will New England states, New York, Vérez 11
soon find how the tariff-laws operate mont, and even New Jersey, the sumin favour of the northern group, while mers are sometimes too cold' for the they are prodigiously injurious to all the thorough ripening of Indian corns rest. The Southern-Atlantic states have whereas, in the southern and southall their fine ports and harbours; and western states there is no such tisadthe sea always open to convey away vantage ; the cultivation is carried on their produce. With regard to the at a great deal less expense of labour,) north-western and south-western states and the products are beyond all meaand territories, their outlet is the mouths sure finer, even of the same sorts of of the MississippI; and your Lordship grain. But the great difference in ther will perceive that they have no other interests of the two sets of states arisest outlet. You will perceive that the Ohio, from these circumstances; that the the ILLINOIS, the Missouri, the Arkan-northern states are already sufficiently
sas,'the White, the Red, and all the peopled ; that the good land is ievėry= to other innumerable rivers that': run where settled and cultivated;i that they
through these western states and terri- are cultivated almost entirelysbyi whites tories, all fall into the Mississippi ; and people, and without slavery; that thei that every ounce of produce raised in capital of rich men is employed in shipthese states must come out of the building, navigation and external como mouths of the Missi$BIPPI, if intended meree; that they are the carriers for the for exportation, and that every article southern, issouth-western, and northof clothing, every lock and key, every western states, was far as that work is knife and fork'; and, in short, every carried on: on the seas; that,having necessary of life, except eatables and hands to spare for such purposes, they,
and they alone, have established manu- | berland as acutely as in Cornwall itself. factories; and that, in short, they are Divers causes have contributed to make aiming to become the rivals of Eng. Englishmen in particular attached exland, in commercial tonnage, as well as clusively to their own small country. in manufactured goods.
In all the countries of Europe, except Your Lordship will want nothing more Russia and Switzerland, there may be to enable you to perceive that here is a said to be the patriot-passion in existnatural division of interests, and of in- ence; but nowhere anything like so terests so powerful, too, as not to be ardent as in this kingdom, and particucounteracted by anything that man can larly in England; and, if it be found to do. The heavy duties imposed by the be more feeble in some of the Scotch Congress upon British manufactured and some of the Irish, the difference has goods, is neither more nor less than so arisen from the unjust colonial, or sort many millions a year taken from the of pro-consular, governments which southern and western states and given have been carried on in those parts of to the northern states, where the effects the kingdom ; and, if the Parliament of the unjust boon show themselves in had been wise and just when the legislofty chimneys with thick smoke going lative union with Ireland took place, all out of their tops, in immense buildings the English laws, English courts, Enwith endless windows, in power-looms, glish everything, would have been exin all the appearances of this kind, and tended to both those countries, and the particularly in the establishment of those whole kingdom would have been called deadly and accursed instruments of ENGLAND. I said this at the time usury and monopoly, banks, paper- when the union took place; and I remoney, and accommodation-notes, which commended at the same time that the (as I have told the Americans a thou- established church should be so changed sand times) were the sure forerunners as to leave no part of the kingdom reaof the breaking-up of their Union, or of son to complain: and if this had been the introduction of slavery.
done, how diifferent would have been But, it will be said that, the north our state at this day ! and the south and the west are all one This patriot-passion, which makes all COUNTRY ; that every man in the coun- men, the poor as well as the rich, and try is an American; that we, in England, which I have always seen stronger in do not grumble at a tax, because it the breasts of the poor than in the tends to favour one part of the kingdoni breasts of the rich; this passion, strange more than another; and that, though as it may seem, has not the smallest the tariff burden happens to fall upon existence in the United States, with the the southern and western states, they, exception of the states of New England; doubtless, perceive that this burden is namely, Connecticut, Rhode-Island, necessary to the safety and the great- Massachusets, New Hampshire, and ness of the whole country, and that, the little state of Maine; and these therefore, they, considering their coun- people take excellent care to preserve try as a whole, as we do in this kingdom, their name of New Englanders; and those that bear the tariff burden can they are distinguished from all the other hardly have an objection to it on ac- people of that continent by their induscount of its unequal pressure, seeing try, their intelligence, the neatness of that it is an indirect and impartial tax their houses and their dresses, by their in itself. Ah! my Lord, we must not“ steady habits” (their country is called reason in his way: when estimating “the land of steady habits”), by their feelings of this character in America, coolness, their slowness to anger, their we must not take our own country as perseverance, their punctuality in mataffording us an argument of analogy. ters of business, their bravery, and, Here we are one ; here every man calls above all things, by their maritime the whole kingdom his home : a wound skill, hardihood, and enterprise. These inflicted on Cornwall is felt in Northum- people have great attachment to country: they are the object of envy with and monopoly and every thing included, the rest of the Voion, who call them twice as much as they would otherwise Yankees; and this envy is one of the have to pay; and, not being able to distant causes of the strenuous opposi- perceive that they derive any compention to the tariff in the south. The satory advantage from the imposing of great commercial port of New York is, those duties, they have always protested in fact, an appendage to New England. against them. The general government Nine-tenths of the commercial marine very judiciously chose this mode of taxis, I should suppose, the property of the ation ; because it was imperceptible, New Englanders. The tariff, your and kept the odious tax-gatherer out of Lordship will perceive, tends to give the sight. As long as the burden was light, northern states a monopoly of tonnage though it was not unheeded, it was as well as of the benefits of manufac- borne without open resistance; but, turing The southern and western when it was made su heavy as it is states, in estimating the interests of now; when a coat or a gown was made different parts of the country, by no to cost (monopoly and all) twice as means view those parts as a whole ; but much as it would have cost without the louk upon the tariff as a robbery of them tariff-duties, this was not to be endured committed for the benefit of the states without a great deal better reasons than of the north.
any that could be offered for it. Besides Besides the manufacturing for sale, this, the southern and south-western the northern states provide themselves states were the great exporters to Engwith a very large part of their wearing land, and they could not fail to perceive apparel from the truly domestic manu- that the tariff-duties tended to create facture of the farm-houses. They spin a preference to cotton and rice coming and weave their own cloth for coats, from other parts of the world. This and the like. I was at a horse-race was their great market, as well as the once in Long Island, at which there great place for supplying their wants in were about two thousand men and boys exchange, and, therefore, they could (women in America do not go to such not fail to see that their interests were places); and, except about a dozen sacrificed, for the sake of aggrandizing Englishmen and others that had come the maritime and manufacturing people up from New York, I did not see one of the north. single person that was dressed in any The American nary too. Circumcloth but home-spun, which is all stances arose to make the Americans
nearly of one colour, being a sort of proud of this navy; to cause its great % russet-grey.
They make their own increase to be approved of, and to make linen for sheeting, for shirting, and for it a favourite with the country; but sacking; they make their own ticking English statesmen ought to know a litfor beds and for mattresses ; they pur- tle more about this affair than the flashy chase fineries for the women, but they Mr. Canning seemed to know when he, make their fiannels, their blankets, their after a visit at Liverpool to an American winter gowns, and those other parts of frigate, put forth, at a dinner with an their dress which the extreme delicacy Anierican consul, one of his boardingof this modest age prevents me from school-girl-like figures about the " naming; but they make their own win-ther and the daughter.” This navy, from ter cloaks and their own bonnets of the laying down of the keel of the very various descriptions.
first frigate, was an object of jealousy Now, please to observe that the with the southern states. Its very exsouthern and western states do nothing istence was strenuously opposed by Mr. of this sort; that every thing they want Jefferson, Mr. Maddison, and many in the way of dress must come from other very eminent nien; and, it may without; and that they well know be said to have been created by the just that the tariff-duties make them pay indignation of the people of the United for those things, expense of collecting States, at the numerous and wanton