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you to insert, before you insert my re- any unfair influence; for of six newspapers marks, the article of which I have just published in Hauche:ter, five were bit:erly spoken ; but, without this, the remarks and this affurus a proof that those who attrimust necessarily lose a great part of bute omnipotence to the press, forget that the their force; and, besides, it has always press is powerful goly in the proportion in been my practice, to let
which it espouses the good cause. readers see
The elecmy both sides fairly and fully. At the sanje that they can think for themselves. The elec
tors of Mauchester, at all events, have proved time, let me observe, that I shall not be tors of Manchester were not only assailed by either offended or disappointed, if you their owo wewspapers, bu: strong recommendshould, for any reason whatever, not atious of Mr. Loyd appeared in our own think it proper to comply with this re
columns, and also in the columns of our con
temporaries, the T'imes and Gl be. The truth quest. The article, to which I allude, is, we believed Mr. Loyd to be an able and is as follows :
conscieutious reformer, and we were aware at The dinner given on Thursday last to the the time neither of the prevalenc? of the wish two representatives for Manchester, Mr. Pliil- 10 return Mr. P. Thomson, nor of the importlips and Mr. Poulett Thomson, is, in many ance which they attaclied to his return, as a respects, deserving of attention. Such ai triumph of sound principles. Neither bad we assembly is not certaiuly of every-day occur- been inade acquainted with the influence which rence. On this occasiou 1,300 gentlemen, all the appearance of a conservative candidate in possessed of some property, many were wealthy, Manchester had ou the liberalism of Mr. Loyd. all distinguished for their respectability and if ever, therefore, a candidate appeared under intelligence, were united under one roof. circumstances little calculated to aid the cause With the exception, too, of eight visiters, they on which isis claims rested, it was the Vice-Prewere all electors of the borough. It is unsident of the Board of Traile. All the other necessary for us to observe that Manchester is candidates had completed their carvass before now the acknowledged commercial metropolis he was thought of, and Mr. Loyd had even enof the world, that it is the centre of that which joyed the advantage of the strong newspaper gives to ihis country its distinctive character recommendations to which we have alluded, —our manufacturing system. We deem thc and the recommendations of many respectaapprobation by the merchants aud manu'ac
ble friends in Manchester, and the support of turers of Manchester of the principles acted all the influence of the Bank establishment. on by Mr. Poulett Thomson, as of unspeakable And yet the Nianchester electors, judging and importance. Here are the men who have the acting for themselves, were steady to their purdeepest interest in the commercial prosperity pure, and in the couiest for the principles of Mr. of the country, and who, by their knowledge P.Thomson, obtained a triumph without incurand skill, are best acquainted with the sources ring any other expeuse than that of a few plaof our commercial greatness, and the means cards and advertisements. Mr. Thomson was by which it can be preserved and advanced, completely a strunger in Manchester ; and we not satisfied with a cold approbation of the have been assured by i most respectable merpublic conduct of Mr. THUMson, but in oriler chant of that city, that there were not perhaps to mark their peculiar sense of the importance twenty people in it who could say they had to the country of the course he is pursuing, ever set eyes on bim. We yesterday gave a soliciting him, though a stranger, and without brief extract of the proceedings at the dinner. solicitation on his part to represent them the We this day give from The Manchester Chrovery moment the suffrage was coinmuvicated nicle what appears to be a pretty full account to them. Mr. Poulett Thomson was known of the speech of Mr. Pouleit Thomson, which to the Maochester electors principally from will deservedly be the subject of much discushis connexion with the question of free sivu throughout the country. The very great
His general political charac-length of the report in the Manchester papers ter is iu perfect accordance with the politics of
-iliat in The Manchester Times extending to the mass of the educated population of Mau- ten ciosely-printed columns—will not allow us chester; but that alune, wuch as they were
to do more than extract the speech ot Mr. satisfied with bim is that respect, would never Thomson ; but as it is of immense importance have caused him to be even thought of, had it that he mo:ives of the Manchester electors in not been combined with his bold and enlight- this selection should be properly appreciated, ened opinions on trade. It was to strengiben we niust here avail ourselves of the following and encourage him in his career, to silence passage in the very able speech of Mr. Shuttlethe curs who were perpetually snarling at him worth, -it was to give a demonstration which could tot he challenged, ibat he had the eulightened Now, Sir, the object of this article commercial world on his side, that the elec- clearly is, to cause it to be believed that tors of Manchester were chiefly auxious to Mr. Thomson is really and truly the connect hiin with them as their representa-, tive. His election cannot be said to he the free choice of the people of Manchester; work of any delusion fostered by the press or, at least, of all that which is here
called, in the true Castlereaghan style, (openly said words to that effect; and “ the respectability and intelligence of Dick actually had his canvassing cards Manchester ;” and this being the object, printed. Their feelers on their brother nothing was ever more destitute of truth radicals having convinced them that this than the fact, and few attempts were would not do, they all agreed to bring ever more destitute of political honesty, forward Mr. Paillips, just from the or (and the editor of the Chronicle may same sort of motive that the rival cartake his choice) more deeply marked dinals brought forwards Sixtus V. with political ignorance.
There was little to object to in Mr. The facts relating to Mr. Poulett PHILLIPS, who was soon brought to Thomson's election are these : that he give all the pledges on which the radiwas at Manchester a little while before cals insisted ; and, therefore, the Pothe was put in nominatiou; that he went ters and Co. set on foot and perfected on to Glasgow and GREENOCK, and a most scrutinizing and successful canthat he spelled for a seat at the latter vass, getting promises from a very large town, where he found the door closed part of those electors, who promised or against any placeman; that, after this, intended to vole for me, as well as from he was nominated for Manchester, those who promised to vote for Mr. ostensibly by one Dyer, a Yankee Lord. Mr. Hope's supporters would alien, a card-machine-maker ; but that, hold no communication with them ; and, secretly, by the whole of the committee really, this was very much to their hoof Mr. Phillips. There are five men nour. They cheated Mr. Loyd out of at MANCHESTER; the two Porters, his seat; but Mr. Hope's adherents dealers in cotton goods; one SHUTTLE- were resolved, at any rate, that they WORTH, a cotton-dealer or agent; one would not put trust in these men, nor BAXTER, lately a merchant; and the hold any terms with them, be the conaforesaid Dyer. These men all belong, sequences what they might. I believe, to a new sort of banking Having secured a great majority for affair, and are great sticklers for what Mr. Phillips, a part of the committee they call
opening the trade of bank- of Phillips swarmed off, and became a ing;" or, in Dyer's own phrase, “ free committee for Thomson, Dyer, the trade in banking,” to obtain which, is, Yankee, being at the head of the swarm; doubtless, one of their great objects. and, denying, on both sides, with the
These men have been called radicals most solenn asseverations, that there for many years. They were the motion- was any coalition, or connexion, bemakers and speech-makers at all public tween them. Thus they engrafted their meetings, for several years, and, indeed, canvass for THomson upon that for until the month of June last, when each PullIPS; and, asserting, at the same of them began to conceive the fatal time, with the most profligate effrontery, notion that he was to be member for that I was not to go to the poll, OLDHAM Manchester, and began to smell from being sure for me, they got great part of afar the sweets of honours and emolu- their votes for Thomson by mere dint of ments. They then, as it were by in- lying, in which there is no instance of stinct, became less radical. However, anything to surpass them. they had done no overt act to show These, then, were the means made to the people that their views were use of, so far, to obtain the votes. Bechanged; and their old character stuck sides which, the crew pledged themto them, until just before the election selves that Thomson was for the BALtook place. There could not be five LOT, and they placarded the whole members for Manchester; and as to town with “ Vote for THOMSON and three yielding their pretentions to the the BALLOT." Then, before the other two, that was out of the question. middle of the first day's polling, they The two POTTERS were actually pre- placarded the town with “Mr. Cobbett
. paring for the thing : Tom said openly, • is returned for Oldham ; vote for that he intended to be one, or at least, " Thomson to keep out the Tories." And yet, the Chronicle tells its readers, that December, to which, Sir, I beg your the choosing of him was the voluntary act attention : of the people of Manchester, judging “ MR. Poulett TOMSON.—We beand acting for themselves and that this " lieve that there is hardly a body of triumph was obtained without any ex- men to be found in the island, except pense, “other than a few placards ! " those who have made Mr. Poulett And, that there was no other influence, “ Thomson member for Manchester, who of any sort, exercised !
" would not feel some degree of shame there a greater libel on a town, or on " and compunction at the present moany body of persons in the whole world ! ment. The mode of his introduction His election was the result of a deep- " into Manchester, showed on their part laid scheme of a few very crafty men, a consciousness of guilt. Mr. Poulett trading upon the popularity that they “ Thomson, the popular Whig member, hadacquired by professions ofreform, and “ has not yet dared to address the by their prominence at public and po- "inhabilants, or even the electors of pular meetings. Never was there a “ Manchester. He came into the town more impudent string of falsehoods than on Monday, in a close carriage, to this that is here put forth by the Morn- “ address a body of his supporters got ing Chronicle; and, I pray you, Sir, " together in the following manner :let the mis-represented people of Man." His committee hired the dining-room chester owe the exposure of these “ of the Exchange, and issued tickets of falsehoods to you. Let them see, that “ admission with the most guarded cirwe are to have, at least, ONE London "
cumspection. To one gentleman who daily paper, not sold to corruption. applied for a ticket, they replied by
Thus far, Sir, as to the causes of " the mouth of a fellow of the name of Thomson's being elected. Now, let us " Chapman, an attorney as we are told, see how subsequent transactions con- that they wondered that he should firm this statement. At the nomination," have the impudence to apply, as he had DYER, who proposed him, was assailed " not voted for Poulett Thomson. This with every mark of public scorn from " is the language which was used by rich as well as from workiny people. an authorised servant of the parties He stood half an hour, stunned with “ associated under the name of the
Off! off! off! no Yankee's placeman! " committee of Poulett Thomson.' In no tax-eating candidate! yet away! “ the same spirit, if not in the same “ hide your head!" The reprobation - terms, they met the applications of was louder, more scornful, and more several other parties, declining to give unanimous, than any that I ever “ admittance to any but their own before heard in my life. Was this a “ friends. Notwithstanding this, a very mark of that public and unsought ap- “ general impression prevailed that the probation of which the Chronicle is “ meeting was to be a public one; and, corrupt enough to talk? But, since“ indeed, some placards were issued the election, he has appeared at Man- “. stating that this was the case. Accordchester in person; and how has that
ap- ingly a considerable crowd assembled, pearance and low have the conse- “ who, while the public entrance to the quences of it tended to make good the “ room was kept closed, had the mortiassertions of the Chronicle? The “ fication to see the room gradually PRIGS (for that is the name of his “ filling by ticket admissions at a side little faction at Manchester) did not “ door. This naturally produced a great dare to bring him out before the inha-“ irritation of feeling; and when the bitants; and yet they wanted to have it “ doors were opened, the crowd, which to say that he had addressed the people, was mixed of all ranks, proceeded at in some way or other. They, there." once to hoot the member off the stage; fore, hired the place which is described " and to their indignation he was obin the following account taken from “ liged to yield, after an attempt to adthe Manchester Advertiser of the 29. " dress the meeting in a speech, no part
of which was audible even to the re- In July last a public meeting was held ; be“porters."
tween two and three thousaud persons atAnd this is the man whom the Chro- unanimously to demaud certain pledges of any
tended; it was then and there determined nicle holds up as having been elected caudidate who night be brought forward in purely on account of the respect which the room of the right hon. Robert Grant, the the people of Manchester had for him! late representative; it was also determined As to the DINNER, few would pay ten municated to William Eagle, Esq., of the
that ihe result of the meeting should be comshillings for the pleasure of hissing and Temple, and that he should be invited to be. hooting; and as to the numbers present, come a candidate for the representation of every one is pretty sure that they, for this city. By some error in the direction, the the far greater part, cost Thomson or arrive at its destination uutil several days had
letter containing this communication did not Dyer a pound a pair! In short, it was elapsed. In the mean time another party, just such another affair as a purity. not sanctioned by any public meeting, invited dinner at Westminster has been for Herry Bellendin Ker, Esq., to Norwich; and many years past. But (and here is the Mr. Ker being in Norwich, publicly addressed
the electors in his own person, while the adsore place for the PRIGS and Thomson) dress from Mr. William Eagle, acceping the this farce is never to be played again at pledges agreed to be required at the public Manchester ! Never are the PRIGS meeting, was being circulated by the parties again to show their faces at a public passed at the public meeting. The friends of
who acted in pursuance of the resolutions meeting in that really enlightened and Mr. Ker, men of great induence, ou this compublic-spirited town. Tory, or radical, menced a generai and immediate canvass, or anything else; all detest the intrigue which proniised every prospect of success. by which Manchester has been dis. The friends of Mr. William Eagle were not
contented with Mr. Ker, who seemed not ingraced, by returning a placeman as one clined to pledge himself; and the subsequent of its members; and a placeman, too, visit of Mr. William Eagle to Norwich sealed so feeble in intellect, and so shuffling the unpopularity of Mr. Ker. But Mr. William as to principles. The PRIGS hope, Lagle, a true reformer, perceiving that the through the means of this man, to ob- cluded the probability of success on this oc
steps taken by the friends of Mr. Ker, pretain an extension of their " improved casion, as a real reformer, uuwilling to divide system of b'inking.” Pour soul! He reformers, declared his intention to forego bis no more dares make a proposition of claim to the support of the Norwich electors, the sort, than he dares vote for the stantial reform, by which the millions would be
provided measures of beneficial reform, subballot, in the face of Stanley's mani- raised from misery, poverty, and starvation, festo. It is what the negroes call a should he secureil, to be advocated by Mr. souley; that is, a poor, feeble thing ;
Ker. But the friends of Mr. Ker, placing and the PRIGS will be impatient! He
too great !epeudence on the word Reform,
puffed up overweeniugly by success, trusting has his first and his last of Manchester ; to the popularity afforded them by the proand for the correctness of this predic-mised support of the Political Uniunists, of tion, I would, Sir, pledge the life of whom few are electors, unheeded the offer
måde until the eleventh hour; consequently your most obedient servant,
Mr. Wm. Eagle till that hour kept the field, Wm. COBBETT.
and every exertion was made by the friends of that gentleman to raise him in the estimation of the electors. Whig inconsistencies
were pointed out and not spared. The enNORWICH ELECTION. forcement of an old disfranchising clause
by a provision of the Reform Bill, affecting
several hundred honest Norwich electors To the Editor of the Commercial Gazette.
driven by need to seek parochial assistance, Sir,-This affair has ended, and Messrs. The preserence over them given to 101. houseGuruey and Ker, the reform candidates, are bulders; the public capacity in which Mr. in the minority! Several reasons may be Ker has been and is placed - the assistance assigned for this result; but I trust this event atfuriled by him iz framing this very bill; will become a powerful argment for “vute all these circumstances added to the enforceby ballot;' and theu REAL REFORM will be ment of inhabited house duty ou the new aided by the present defeat of reformers iu electors, the receut enforcement of duty on Norwich. This prospect may afford sume con- wooden-spring carts, and the hesitation of solation, yet it canuot reconcile defeat, which Mr. Ker tu pledge himself specifically to may be thus accounted for :
move the repeal of any tax, or to move or
support that essential measure " vote by 1. In order to do justice to this great subject :
ballot,” created such lukewarmuess towards in order to treat it with perfect fairness, and in i him, that the anti-reformers aware of all a magner becoming of ine and of you, I must
this, alive to their own interest, leaving no take the authorities on both sides. There are stone unturned, using the most barefaced some great lawyers who have contended that bribery, and other meuns, found such easy the starving man is still guilty of felony or access to electors, that neither the pledges larceny, if he take food to satisfy his hunger ; given by Mr. Ker at the eleventh hour, and, but there are a great number of uther, and the retirement of Mr. Eagle, nor the exertions still greater, lawyers, wbu maiutain the conof all reformers then in his behalf, availed. trary. The general doctrine of those who
The capise of anti-reform has been triumph- maintain the right to take, is founded on the ant, and Lord Stormont and Sir James Scar. law of nature ; and it is a saying as old as the lett, are declared to be our representatives. hills, a saying in every language in the world, Many cases of clear bribery it is reported can t.bat“ self-preservation is the first low of nabe proved, which may tend to set aside this lure.” The law of nature teaches every creaelectiou ; but if not, this event must of ne- ture to prefer the preservation of its own life cessity show the vast importance of tbe imme. to all otier things. But, in order to have a diate recourse to “ vote hy ballo:;" for it fair view of the matter before us, we ought to canuot be that the name of Gurney has sunkinquire bow it came to pass, that the laws were in public estimation, vor is it true that the ever made to punish men as criminals, for cause of reform does not grow bere ; but gold taking the victuals, drink, or clothing, that bas lost no power, and against its influence they might stand in need of. We must recol“ vote by ballot," is the only security. lect, then, that there was a time when no such
laws existed ; when men, like the wild animals in the fields, took what they were able to take, if they wanted it. In this state of tbings, all the land and all the produce belonged to all the people in common. Thus men were situae ted, when they lived uvder what is called th
law of nature; when every one provided, as COBBETT'S
he could, for his self-preservation.
2. At length this state of things became POOR MAN'S FRIEND;
changed: niea eutered into society; they made laws to restrain individuals from follow
ing, in certain cases, the dictates of their own OR, A DEFENCE OF THE RIGHTS OF will; they protected the weak against the
THOSE, WHO DO THE WORK AND strung; the laws secured men in the possesFIGHT THE BATTLES.
sion of lands, bouses, and goods, that were called THEIRS; the words MINE and
THINE, which mean my own and thy own, WORKING MEN OF SCOTLAND.
were invented to designate what we now call a property in things. The law necessarily
made it criminal in one man to take away, or London, 29. Dec, 1832.
to injure the property of another man. It · MY FRIENDS,
was, you wili observe, even in this state of na
ture, always a crime to do certain things When I was at Glasgow, on the against our neighbour. To kill him, to wound 30. October last, I, during a lecture to him, to slander him, to expose bim to suffer the Trades' UNION of that hospitable from the want of food, or raimeut, or shelter. and populous city, promised, that, as a
These, and many others, were crim s in the
eye of the law of nature ; but, to take share mark of my gratitude for the kindness of a mau's victuals and clothiug; to go and which I had experienced there, I would iusist upon sharing a part of any of the good send, as soon as I conveniently could, thing; that he bappened to have in his possesfive thousand copies of my little work, sion, could be no crime, because there was no called the Poor Man's Friend, to be itself. Now, civil suciety was formed for the
properly in anything, except in man's body distributed gratis amongst the working benefit of the whole. The whole gave up their people of Glasgow and its environs. natural rights, in order that every one might, This promise I have now fulfilled ; and, for the future, enjoy his life in greater secuthat the facts and arguments contained the state of man for the better. Before this
rity. This civil society was intended to change in this little work may be known to the state of civil society, the starving, the hungry, opulent as well as to the working peo- the naked mau, baid a right to go ar:d provide ple of this kingdom, I here insert a
himself with necessaries wherever he could
find them. There would be sure to be some copy of the work.
such necessitvus persons in a state of civil soWar. COBBETT. ciety. Therefore, when civil society was es
ADDRESSED TO THE