« ZurückWeiter »
IV. A word or two will suffice, for shewing the respect which he had for the sacred books of scripture. It appears, in what has been already transcribed, where he speaks of the Holy Spirit as their author, they having been written by inspired prophets and apostles; and he expressly says, that they contain the precepts of life, and the rule of faith. Moreover, I shall refer to a chapter in the first book of sentences; where he says, that by the law, rightly understood, we come to Christ; and he shews, that the scriptures may be profitably read by all sorts of men.
V. 1. In his Chronicle, under the reign of the emperor Caius Caligula, who died in the beginning of the year 41, Isidore says, At this time the apostle Matthew wrote, the first, his gospel in Judea.'
2. Under the reign of Claudius, who died in the year 54, he says, In his reign the apostle Peter went to Rome to oppose Simon Magus. The evangelist Mark also preaching Christ at Alexandria, wrote his gospel:' nevertheless, before he said, that Mark wrote in Italy.
3. Under Nero, whose reign ended in 68, he says, In his time Simon Magus, who had 'proposed a dispute with the apostles Peter and Paul, and had promised to fly up to heaven, at the prayers of Peter and Paul was, at noon day, thrown down by the dæmons who had carried · him up into the air: on account of whose death, by order of Nero, Peter was crucified, and • Paul beheaded.'
4. I must not stay to make many remarks: I only observe, that this must be reckoned by all very inaccurate, and also inconsistent. Peter, as before said, went to Rome in the reign of Claudius, to oppose Simon Magus. Here the dispute with Simon Magus, and his death, are placed in the reign of Nero, and near the end of it; for about that time the martyrdoms of the two forementioned apostles are supposed to have happened.
5. Of Domitian, whose reign is computed from 81 to 96, he says, He raised a persecution against the Christians. In his time the apostle John, having been banished into the island Patmos, wrote the Revelation.'
1. LEONTIUS was for some time an advocate at Constantinople, and is generally supposed to have been a native of that city: he afterwards retired from the world, and lived a monk in Palestine. By some he is reckoned a writer of the sixth, by others of the seventh century; or g said to have lived partly in the one, partly in the other. Cave placeth him as flourishing about the year 590; Fabricius at 610, to whom I refer for accounts of his works.
2. Though he be so late a writer, he deserves our notice, as he has left a complete catalogue of books of scripture, received by Christians in that part of the world where he lived.
3. The books received by the church, says he, are the books of the ancient, and of the
Via per quam itur ad Christum, lex est, per quam vadunt ad eum hi, qui, ut est, intelligunt eam
Scriptura sacra pro uniuscujusque lectoris intelligentiâ variatur, sicut manna, quod populo veteri pro singulorum delectatione varium dabat saporem. Juxta sensuum capacitatem singulis sermo Domini congruit. Sentent. 1. 1. c. 18. And see Ja. Basnage Hist. de l'Egl. I. 9. ch. 3. sect. 11.
Matthæus apostolus evangelium primus in Judæâ scripsit. Isid. Chr. p. 268.
Eo regnante, Petrus apostolus, contra Simonem Magum, Romam pergit. Marcus quoque evangelista, Alexandriæ Christum prædicans, evangelium scripsit. Ibid.
• See p. 367.
virtutem esse Dei magnam, medio die dum ad patrem volare promittit in cœlum, a dæmonibus, a quibus in aëre ferebatur, adjurante eos Petro per Deum, Paulo vero orante, dimissus crepuit. Ob cujus necem a Nerone Petrus crucifigitur, Paulus gladio cæditur. Ib. p. 268.
His post Neronem secundus, superbiâ exsecrabilis, Deum se appellari jussit, Christianos persequi paganis instituit. Sub quo apostolus Joannes, in Pathmon insulam relegatus, Apocalypsim scripsit. Ibid.
8 Vid. Du Pin. Bib. des Aut. Ec. T. v. p. 85. Hody de Bibl. Text. Orig. p. 648. J. Ens. Biblioth. Sacr. p. 169. h S. Basnag. Hist. de l'Eglise, 1. 8. c. x. p. 445.
i H. L. T. i. p. 543.
* Bib. Gr. T. vii. p. 451.
....τεως αριθμησωμεθα τα εκκλησιαςικα βιβλια. Των τοινυν εκκλησιαςικών βιβλίων τα μεν της παλαιας εισι γραφής,
1 Hujus temporibus Simon Magus, cum altercationem pro
posuisset cum Petro et Paulo, apostolis, dicens se quamdam
new scripture. The ancient scripture is that written before the coming of Christ, the new since. Of the ancient scripture there are two and twenty books; some historical, some proé phetical, some moral and poetical.
· The historical books are twelve: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy: ' and of these books, called the Pentateuch, Moses is universally allowed to be the author: but 'the names of the writers of the books, which follow next, are unknown. The sixth is the book ' of Joshua the son of Nun: the seventh is called the book of the Judges: the eighth is the book of Ruth: the two next contain the history of the kingdoms; they are really four books, but are • reckoned two only; the ninth and tenth then are the books of the Kingdoms: the eleventh is the Remains, so called, because it contains things omitted by the writers of the books of the
Kingdoms: the twelfth is Ezra [meaning our Ezra and Nehemiah], containing the history of the
⚫ return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, in the reign of Cyrus. These are the his
. 6 torical books.
· The prophetical books are five: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and the book of the * twelve Prophets.
The moral and poetical are also four: Job, by some supposed to be written by Joseph: the Proverbs, the Ecclesiastes, the Canticles, which three were written by Solomon: after them is 'the Psalter. These are the two and twenty books of the ancient scripture.
The books of the New Testament are six: the first two of which contain the four evangelists; the first Matthew and Mark, the second Luke and John: the third is the Acts of the apostles: the fourth the catholic Epistles, being seven in number; the first is the epistle of
• James, the second and third are the epistles of Peter, the fourth, fifth, and sixth, the epistles of
• John, the seventh is the epistle of Jude; they are called catholic, because they are not written 4 to one nation, as Paul's epistles, but in general to all: the fifth book is the fourteen epistles of Paul: the sixth is the Revelation of John. These are the ancient and the new books, which ⚫ are received in the church as canonical: all the ancient are received by the Jews.'
4. I shall add a passage, which is not far below, in the next section, where he says, 4 Again the times from Christ to Constantine have a threefold division: the first is from the nativity of • Christ to his ascension; the next is after his ascension, of which the Acts of the apostles treat; the third is from that period, and the death of the apostles, to the reign of Constantine; the • affairs of which have been related by several ecclesiastical historians, as Eusebius Pamphili, and Theodoret, whom we are not obliged to receive; for, beside the Acts of the apostles, no such writings are appointed to be received by us.'
5. This shews the great regard which was paid to the book of the Acts of the apostles.
6. I scarce need to make any remarks upon the catalogues above transcribed; every one perceives how clear they are. The catalogue of the books of the Old Testament is exactly and completely the canon of the Jews, except that the book of Esther is not mentioned. Here is no notice taken of those books of the Old Testament which protestants generally call apocryphal; and it affords a strong argument, that those books never were reckoned to be of authority.
7. The catalogue of the books of the New Testament contains all which are now generally received by us, and no others: here is no notice taken of the Constitutions, or Recognitions, or any other Christian writings; the books above named were all which were esteemed canonical by that part of the church with which this writer was acquainted.
τα δε της νεας. Παλαιαν δε λεγομεν γραφήν την προ της παρεσίας το Χρις8, νεαν δε την μεία την παρεσίαν. Τῆς μεν εν παλαιας βιβλια εισιν κδ', ὧν τα μέν εισιν ίςορικα, τα δε προφήτικα, τα δε παραινελικα, τα δε προς το ψαλλείν γενομενα ... Τα τοινυν ίςορικά βιβλια εισι 15'. . . Και ταυτα μεν ίςορικα. Προφητικα δε εισι πενίε, ὧν πρωίον εσιν ὁ Ησαΐας, δεύτεξον ὁ Ιερεμίας, τρίῖον ὁ Εζεκιήλ, τε]αρίον ὁ Δανιήλ, πέμπτον το δώδε κατροφηἷον λεγομενον, ἐν ᾧ δώδεκα προφητων κείται προφητεια. Παραινέζικα εισι βιβλια δ'.... Εισι δὲ ταυία τα τρία βιβλια Σολομωνίας. Μετα ταυτα εςι το ψαλτήριον. Και ταυτα μεν εισι τα κ5 βιβλια της παλαιας. Της δε νέας εξ εισι βιβλία: ὧν δυο περιέχει τις τεσσαρας ευαγγελίσας. Το μεν γαρ εχει Μαίθαιον και Μαρκον, το δε έλερον Λακάν και Ιωάννην. Τρίτον εσιν αἱ Πράξεις τῶν αποςόλων. τελατίον αἱ καθολικαί επισολαι, εσαι ἑπία, ὧν πρώτη το Ιακωβε εξιν, ἡ Ε', και ἡ γ' Πείρα, ή δ',
και ε, και 5, το Ιωαννg· ἡ δε ζ' τε Ιεδα. Καθολικαι δε εκλήθησαν, επειδαν ο προς εν εθνος εγράφησαν, ὡς αἱ τε Παυλό, αλλα καθόλο προς πανία. Πέμπλον βιβλιον αἱ δ' το άγιο Παυλο επισυλαί. Ἑκλον εςιν ἡ Αποκάλυψις τε ἁγιε Ιωανν8. Ταυία εςι τα κανονιζόμενα βιβλία εν τη εκκλησία, και παλαια και νέα· ὧν τα παλαια πανία δεχονται Ἑβραιοι. Leont. Advocat. Byzant. de Sectis. Act. ii. Ap. Bib. PP. Paris. 1644. T. xi. p. 496....498. Conf. Bib. PP. Lugdun. Τ. ix. p. 662, 663.
α...οι δε απο της αναλήψεως, περι ὧν διαλαμβανεσιν αἱ Πράξεις των αποςόλων· οἱ δε απο της περιοδο και τελευτης των αποσόλων, αχρι της αρχής της βασιλειάς Κωνσαντιν8. Περι ὧν διαλαμβανεσι τινες εκκλησιαςικοι ισορικοί. ὃς εξ αναγκης ου δεχομέθα. Μεχρι γαρ των Πράξεων των αποσυλων κεκανοις αι δέχεσθαι ἡμᾶς, Act. 3. p. 503. A. B. C.
8. However, he presently afterwards mentions many teachers and fathers, as Ignatius, Irenæus, Justin, and others, before and after Constantine: but their writings were not of authority; they had not been transmitted down from the beginning with that character.
9. It is observable, that Leontius divides the scriptures of the New Testament into six books: this is a particularity; nevertheless, we saw a like division formerly in the Synopsis ascribed to Athanasius: the only difference is, that there the four gospels are each reckoned one book; and the catalogue of Gelasius, bishop of Rome, about 496, very much resembles, in this respect, that in the Synopsis.
10. It should not be entirely overlooked by us, that this writer says, After the return to Jerusalem, Ezra, perceiving that the sacred books had been burnt in the time of the captivity, it was reported, that he wrote them again out of his own memory, even all the two and twenty books of the ancient scripture before mentioned.' Theodoret speaks to the like purpose: some other learned Christian writers in former times have been of the same opinion; which may be seen, examined, and confuted, by Dr. Prideaux, ' in his Connection of the History of the Old and New Testament.
11. I shall put down but one select passage only, in which Leontius says, that our Lord was baptized when he was thirty years of age, and having wrought many miracles, and taught the Jews, he was crucified in the thirty-third year of his age.' Whence it may be argued, that he computed not more than three passovers in our Lord's ministry, according to St. John's gospel.
1. VE ENERABLE Bede is placed by Cave as flourishing about the year 701. He was born in England, in the county of Durham, in 672, as some say; in 673, or 674, as * others: he died
2. Bede, beside many other works, wrote Commentaries upon all the books of the New Testament, now generally received.
3. He seems not to have had in his copies the doxology, which we now have at the conclusion of the Lord's Prayer in St. Matthew's gospel; for he has twice" explained every other part of the prayer, without taking any notice of it.
4. Cave, in his article of Bede, has published, from an ancient manuscript, a prologue to the seven catholic epistles, wanting in all the editions of Bede's works.
Εγενοντο δε εν τοις χρόνοις τοις απο της γενέσεως τε Χρισε μέχρι της βασιλειας Κωνσαντινε διδασκαλοί και πατερες οἶδε. Ib. Act. iii. p. 503. C.
See vol. ii. p. 404.
5. Bede there enumerates the seven epistles in the order now used by us: he says, that "
See in this volume, ch. 145. p. 42.
d 'Ο δε Εσδρας συνεγραψαίο την επανοδον αυτων. Και ελθών εις τα Ιεροσόλυμα, και εύρων, ὅτι πανία τα βιβλια ησαν καυθενία, ήνίκα ηχμαλωτίσθησαν, απο μνήμης λεγεται συγγρα ψασθαι τα κ5' βιβλια, άπερ εν τοις ανω απηριθμήσαμεθα. Αct. 2. fin. p. 502. D.
e See ch. 131. p. 10. in this volume.
f See part i. book v. at the year before Christ, 446. * Ετέχθη γαρ.. και ηύξησε, και γενομενος ελων λ' εβαπα λίσθη, και μετα το βαπτισμα ήρξαίο σημεία ποιειν, και διδασκειν Tes I8dales, xai Tw λy εTEL εsαupwin, x. λ. Ib. Act. i. p. 495. C. Vid. Cav. H. L. L. E. Du Pin Bib. T. vi. et Bedæ Hist. Ec. a Jo. Smith. Cantabr. 1722. ¡Cav. ubi supra.
n Jacobus, Petrus, Joannes, Judas, septem epistolas edide runt, quas ecclesiastica consuetudo catholicas, h. e. universales, cognominat. In quibus ideo prima epistola Jacobi ponitur, quia ipse Jerosolymorum regendam suscepit ecclesiam....vel certe quia ipse duodecim tribubus Israëlis, quæ primæ crediderunt, suam epistolam misit, merito prima poni debuit. Merito Petri secunda, quia ipse electis advenis' scripsit, qui de Gentilitate ad Judaismum, de Judaismo ad electionis evangelicæ gratiam, conversi sunt. Merito Johannis epistolæ tertio loco sunt positæ, quia his scripsit ipse, qui de Gentibus crediderunt, cum nec professione exstitissent. Denique multi scriptorum ecclesiasticorum, in quibus est S. Athanasius, Alexandrinæ præsul ecclesiæ, primam ejus epistolam scriptam ad Parthos esse testantur. Merito Judæ posita est ultima, quia, quamvis et ipse magnus est, tribus tamen præcedenti
the epistle of James is placed first, either because he was bishop of the church of Jerusalem, where the gospel was first preached, and from whence it was spread over the whole world; or else, because the epistle was written to the twelve tribes of Israel, who were the first believers. Peter's epistles,' he says, are placed next, because he wrote to the 'elect strangers,' that is, to • such as had been proselyted from Gentilism to Judaism, and after that were converted to the Christian religion; and,' he says, that John's epistles are fitly placed after the foregoing, because he wrote to believers from among the Gentiles, who before were not the people of God, neither by nature, nor by profession: moreover,' as he adds, many ecclesiastical writers had said, that his first epistle was written to Parthians. The epistle of Jude is placed last; for though he was great, he was inferior to the three forementioned apostles; and besides, their epistles having been first placed, his comes last of course.' Bede proceeds, and says, 'It is certain, that James completed his testimony in the thirtieth year after our Lord's passion: Peter • suffered in the thirty-eighth year, that is, the last year of Nero; and in his second epistle he
speaks of his death as then approaching; whence it appears, that epistle was written a good
⚫ while after the death of James; his two epistles could not be separated from each other, since
they were written to the same churches: and long after this John wrote his epistles, and his
gospel, all about the same time; for after the death of Domitian, being returned from his exile, 'he found the church disturbed by heretics, which had arisen in his absence, whom, in his 'epistles, he often calls antichrists.'
6. I would add, that the late Dr. Humphry Hody has distinctly considered Bede's testimony to the books of the Old Testament.
I. His time. II. A catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testament. III. Remarks upon itIV. Select passages and observations, shewing his respect for the scriptures.
I. JOHN OHN DAMASCENUS,' descended of a good family at Damascus, and, in the latter part of his life monk and presbyter, flourished about the year 730.
II. In a work, entitled of the Orthodox Faith, he has a chapter concerning scripture; where he has inserted a catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testament. It is to this purpose: There is one God declared by the Old and New Testament......It is to be observed, then, that there are two and twenty books of the Old Testament, according to the letters of 'the Hebrew language; for they have two and twenty letters, five of which are written two ways, so as to make seven and twenty...... According to this method of computing, the books ⚫ are reckoned 22 in number, but are really 27, for five of them are double: Ruth, joined with the Judges, is reckoned one book by the Hebrews; in like manner the first and second of the Kingdoms are one book; the third and fourth of the Kingdoms also are one book; the first and
bus apostolis minor est; vel quia..... Constat enim quia beatus Jacobus tricesimo post passionem Domini anno suum consummavit martyrium. Petrus tricesimo octavo, hoc est, ultimo anno Neronis, passus est, et ipse in secundâ suâ scripsit epistola: Certus sum'... [Cap. i. 14.] Unde patet, quia imminente passione hanc scripsit epistolam, cum multo ante Jacobus migravit ad Christum. Neque vero conveniebat ejus epistolas ab invicem separari, quas iisdem scripsit ecclesiis. Porro Joannes multo post tempore suas epistolas simul et evangelium scripsit, qui post occisionem Dominican [Domitiani] reversus de exilio turbatana se absente per hæreticos
reperit ecclesiam, quos in suis epistolis percutiens sæpe cog-
b Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 624. Oudin. de Scrip. Ecc. T. i.
· Είς εςιν θεος, ὑπο τε παλαιας διαθήκης και καινης κηρυτίοMevos. &c. De Fide Orthodoxa, 1. iv. c. 17. in. T. i. p.
• Ισεον δε, ως εικοσι και δυο βιβλοι εισι της παλαιας διαθήκης, καλα τα στοιχεία της Εβραϊδος φωνης. Ib. p. 253. C.
second of the Remains, one book; the first and second of Ezra, one book: so that there are ⚫ four pentateuchs, and two over, which are in the canon, [or, in the Testament']; and they are these: Five of the Law; Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; that is the ⚫ first pentateuch, called the Law: then five more, sometimes called Hagiographa [or sacred writings']; Joshua the son of Nun; Judges, with Ruth; the first and second of the Kingdoms reckoned one book; the third and fourth of the Kingdoms one book; and the two books of the Remains, also reckoned one book: that is the second pentateuch. The third pentateuch contains the books written in verse; the book of Job; the Psalter; the Proverbs of Solomon ; the Ecclesiastes, of the same; the Song of Songs, of the same. The fourth pentateuch takes in the prophets; the twelve Prophets, one book; Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel; then the book of Ezra, two joined in one book; and Esther: the book of the Wisdom of Solomon, and the Wisdom of Jesus, which the father of Sirach published in Hebrew, and his grandson, Jesus, ⚫ the son of Sirach, afterwards translated into Greek, are excellent and useful; but they are not • numbered with the former, nor were they placed in the ark.'
The books of the New Testament are these: the four gospels, according to Matthew, ' according to Mark, according to Luke, according to John; the Acts of the apostles by the evangelist Luke; seven catholic epistles, one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude; fourteen epistles of the apostle Paul; the Revelation by the evangelist John; the canons of the holy apostles by Clement.'
III. Upon this we may make a few remarks:
1. This author, though a native of Damascus, wrote in Greek, and is supposed to represent the sentiment or doctrine of the Greek church of his time.
2. His catalogue of the books of the Old Testament, as has been already observed by learned men, is the same with that of Epiphanius in his book of Weights and Measures, of which we took notice formerly; and it is very agreeable to that which Melito brought with him from Palestine, of which we also took some notice formerly; not now to mention any other.
3. J. Damascenus speaks only of two books of a secondary order, in the Old Testament; the book of Wisdom, and Ecclesiasticus: he does not mention any other, no not so much as the books of Maccabees. The book of Wisdom he calls Solomon's, though he did not think it to be his, in compliance, it is likely, with frequent custom at that time.
4. His canon of the New Testament is the same with that now generally received by Christians in this part of the world; except that here is added the Apostolical Canons by Clement, which seems to be a singularity. What Mill says relating to this in his Prolegomena I place below: I shall also transcribe below the note of Lequien, editor of Damascenus, upon this place; which, I believe, will be acceptable to my readers, on account of some observations relating to the Apostolical Canons.
And I beg leave to observe farther myself: Damascenus's catalogue of the books of scripture is very different from that in the 85th Apostolical Canon; in that are inserted Judith, and the books of Maccabees, which are quite omitted by Damascenus: moreover he receives the book
(seu arbitrio suopte, seu etiam jussu superiorum) canonicis. libris isti adnecterentur, tamquam ejusdem, si placet, cum reliquis juris et auctoritatis. Et talem quidem nactus jam videtur Damascenus. Proleg. n. 1027.
Horum canonum auctoritas adstructa fuerat can. 2 Trullano. At viris critica artis incuriosis satis erat præfixum canonibus, qui magnæ dudum in Oriente ponderis erant, apostolorum nomen; cum tamen nihil aliud essent, nisi priscæ Orientalium disciplinæ præcipua capita, quorum auctores genuini ignorabantur. Jam dixi, eorum quosdam conditos esse post exortam hæresim Anomæorum. Beveregius collectionem primam istorum Canonum a Clemente, non Romano, sed Alexandrino factam, quem Eusebius 1. vi. Hist. c. 23. Hieronymus de Scr. Ec. et Photius cod. cxi. wepi navorwv EXXÀY,σIASIXWv volumen edidisse testantur. Sed ex horum auctorum inspectione manifestum fit, eos non de hac collectione canonum loqui, sed de libro, in quo, adductis canonibus, seu regulis ecclesiasticis, illos impugnabat, qui Judaicis legibus et institutis adhærescerent. Lequien ad J. Damasc.