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Hle likewise tells the story which Josephus has done of the crucifixion of the Jews before the walls of the city, five hundred in a day, and sometimes more, as Josephus says. But this author tells it very differently in this manner. Some 5 went out of the city with their wives, and sons and daughters, and little ones, to gather herbs for food; and the Romans slew all the young people, saying: let us kill these, lest they grow up and fight against us, as their fathers have - done. So the Romans acted from day to day, till the number of slain and hanged up amounted to five hundred. The like to this was done within the city by Simon, and Jolin, and Eleazar. They killed and hung up upon the walls all the Romans which they could catch, and all their own people who endeavoured to go out of the city, till they amounted also to the number of five hundred: which when Titus saw, he gave strict orders to all the men of his army not to kill any Jews that came out of Jerusalem. If any did so, they should be put to death. ' For his bowels yearned over Israel.
So says this fantastical writer.
He'computes the taking of Antonia to have been on the fifth day of Sivan, the third month, on the eve of the feast of weeks, or Pentecost; the fourteenth month from the coming of Titus to besiege Jerusalem. So at the end of ch. 91.
He proceeds, in the ninety-second chapter, to relate contentions and fightings of the Jews and Romans at the temple, or near it; which I need not rehearse particularly: especially, since it is not all exact truth or matter of fact, but exaggeration agreeable to this author's fancy.
At the beginning of the ninety-third chapter he tells the story of Mary, who, in the extremity of the famine, killed her only child, and dressed it, and ate a part of it. The same story that is told by Josephus: but their harangues upon the event are different.
İn the next chapter 8 the temple is on fire, and the doors of the house of the sanctuary were opened on the ninth day of the fifth month, the same day of the month in the which it had been opened in the time of the Chaldeans. The soldiers rejoiced greatly. But Titus was much concerned, and ran towards the temple, and did all in his power to have the fire extinguished, calling .aloud to his men, till he was hoarse, and persisting in his exclamations, as this author says, till he fell to the ground almost dead. And the priests at the temple fought as long as they were able; and when they saw the fire prevail, they threw themselves into it. As there remained no hopes of preserving the temple, Titus, before it was entirely consumed, went in, and greatly admired it Soon after that the Romans set up their idols and images in the temple, and offered sacrifices to them, and reviled the Jews, and blasphemed their law before their idols.
He now comes to the signs and prodigies, foresignifying the calamities that were coming upon the Jewish people, which also are mentioned by Josephus " in this same place, after the burning of the temple. • Nor · did the Jews attend to the words of the signs which happened i in Jerusalem, though they were very awful. For a year before Vespasian came, there appeared • over the temple a blazing star in the shape of a man, in whose hand were drawn swords. The
• De B. J. 1. 5. cap. xi. n. 1.
d P. 420-431.
e P. 431. Quando aliqui ab urbe exibant cum uxoribus, et filiis, et f De B. J. I. 6. cap. iii. sect. 4. filiabus, et parvulis suis, ut invenirent herbas, -Romani, & Postridie congregati Romani miserunt ignem in Sanctum qui illos inveniebant, jugulabant natos eorum, et dicebant: Sanctorum in circuitu.- -Mox incaluit aurum, et combusta Jugulemus hos parvulos, ne adolescant, et successu dierum sunt ligna valvarum, et ceciderunt in terram, et aperta fuit pugnent nobiscum, sicut patres illorum. Idcirco Romani domus Sancti Sanctorum in oculis omnium mense quinto, trucidabant intimam plebem, quotquot exibant ab urbe, et nonâ die mensis, eo ipso die, quo aperta fuerat domus Sancti suspendebant illos ad arbores ex adverso portæ Jerusalem. Sanctorum in diebus Chaldæorum. Et statim ut aperuerunt Sicque faciebant Romani quotidie. Pervenitque numerus oc- Romani portam Sancti Sanctorum, et ceperunt illud, tunc cisorum et suspensorum ad quingentas animas. Idem etiam vero vociferati sunt clamore magno mirum in modum præ faciebant Simon, Jehochanan, et Eleazarus, iis omnibus, quos lætitiâ Cucurrit auteni Titus totis viribus suis, ut extin-. capiebant ex cohortibus Romanorum, postquain illos per insi- gueret ignem-Ac tandem defessus defatigatusque corruit dias circumvenerant. Eodem modo animadvertebant in eos, ad terram viribus exhaustus- -Postquam itaque incensa fuit qui quærebant exire, ut perfugerent ad illos. Jugulabant domus Sancti Sanctorum, surrexit Titus, et ingressus in enim eos, et cadavera suspendebant super murum ex adverso Sanctum Sanctorum vidit gloriam domůs, et decorem ejus, Romanorum-Fuitque numerus suspensorum per manus
et splendorem illius- Nondum enim tota domus incendio latronum quingentorum virorum, tot scilicet numero, quot consumta erat, ut pulchritudinem illius, et majestatem ejus suspendebant Romani ex Judæis. Itaque Titus præcepit contemplaretur. Tunc dixit Titus: Nunc cognovi, quia nou omnibus viris exercitûs sui dicens: Quicumque interfecerit est bic aliud, nisi domus Dei. Hoc est habitaculum Dei aliquem ex iis qui egrediuntur de Jerusalem, morietur. Et cælorum, et tabernaculum ejus-Quia magna est majestas quidem ita fecit Titus, quia flagrabant viscera ejus super domus hujus, et magnus splendor majestatis templi ejus lunge Israël. cap. 86. p. 386.
supra templum Romanorum, et omnia templa nationum, quæ c Ut autem vidit Titus turrim Antoniam esse in laqueum vidi-Deinde surrexerunt Romani, et, extincto incendio, Romanis, jussit Titus ut diruerent illam; quod quidem con- idola et imagines suas in Templo statuerunt. Et obtulerunt tigit in quintà in Sivan, mense tertio, in vesperâ festi Hebdo- eis holocausta, et probro affecerunt Judæos, et legem eorum. madarum. Ipse est mensis quartus decimus ab adventu Titi coram idolis suis blasphemârunt. cap. 94, p. 436-438. ad obsidendam Jerusalem, cap. 91. in fin.
h De B. J. 1. 6, cap. v. num. 3.
day in which this sign was seen, was the first of the feast of the Passover? and during the • whole night the temple was illuminated as if it had been day: and so it continued throughout • the seven days of the Passover.' Thus confounding, as it seems, the first two signs in Josephus, and making them one only, and likewise representing the blazing star somewhat differently from Josephus. Then follow in him the other signs taken from Josephus ; but I shall not rehearse them. He has, particularly, that of the man of low rank, who for several years travelled through the streets of Jerusalem, with his mournful denunciation of · Woe to the city;' whom he calls Joshua, son of Hananiah.
When the Romans had got possession of the temple, the Jews fled to mount Sion. Here our author useth a different style from Josephus, who has never used the word Sion in his writings, but always describes that part of the city by other names.
Now - some priests came to Titus entreating mercy; but he would not grant it, and ordered them to be put to death.
Now also John and Simon sent messengers to Titus, proposing to surrender to him, if he would grant them their lives; but Titus rejected their proposal, and reproached them severely.
Whereupon ' Titus ordered the war to be renewed, and carried on by his army with vigour.
At 5 this time Zarach (or Izates] of royal descent, and his brothers, came down from mount Sion, and surrendered to Titus, and were well received by him. Whereupon Simon and his adherents set fire to their goods and treasures which they had left behind them, that they might not come into the hands of the Romans.
Simon and John escape, and hide themselves in a cavern. Many Jews of good condition surrender to Titus, and he receives them favourably.
Joshua ' a priest, son of Shebuthi high-priest, comes to Titus, bringing with him two golden candlesticks, which were in the sanctuary, and golden tables, and divers other rich utensils of the temple, and vestments of the priests, and precious stones, all which he made a present of to Titus, who received him graciously.
At k this time also came out Gorion the priest, father of the writer of this history; and his • Neque Judæi animum adverterant ad verba signorum, quæ pertinebant ad filios Regis, et incenderunt domum, et quæ contigerunt in Jerusalem.Nam anno uno antequam omnes thesauros ejus combusserunt, ne acciperent eos veniret Vespasianus, apparuit super Templum stella quædam Romaniscintillans instar formæ hominis, in cujus manu gladii dis- h Tunc temporis fugientes Simon et Jehochanan, in qua. tricti. Dies autem, quo visum est signum illud, fuit primus dam latebrâ absconderunt se, quocumque se contulerint. ex diebus festi Paschatis; et totâ nocte illius diei Templum Cæteri vero eorum, qui erant cum eis, et principes Jerusalem, fulsit, et resplenduit tamquam lux diei; et ita factum est per et nobiles Juda, statim atque viderunt fugisse Simopeni totos septem dies Paschatis-Cap. 94, p. 438.
et Jehochananem, tunc descenderuptet venientes ad b Porro quatuor annis ante hæc signa fuit vir quidam in Titum, procubueruet ante faciem ejus in terram- - Et Titus Jerusalem, de populo terræ, seu plebeius, nomine Jehoshua, benigne excepit illos ib. p. 442. filius Chananiæ, et cæpit clamare voce magnâ die ipso festi Sub id tempus venit ad Titum Jehoshua, sacerdos, filius Tabernaculorum Oderunt autem illum omnes cives urbis, Shebuthi, Sacerdotis Magni, et attulit secum duo ex cande&c. Ibid. p. 439.
labris aureis, quæ fuerant in Sanctuario. Avexit autem secum Postquam itaque ingressus fuit omnis exercitus Romano- omnes mensas aureas, et omnia vasa aurea, ---et crateres, et rum in Templum, diffugerunt Judæi ad montem Sion. Cap. acerras, - et scutellas, ac etiam vestes ministerii, et vestes 95, in. p. 440.
sanctitatis ccopertas auro, et circumcinctas lapidibus pretiosis, Postquam autem libaverunt Romani coram Domino suo cum magnâ copiâ gemmarum Quæ omvia donavit Tito, Tito, ecce pars Sacerdotum, qui capti fuerant juxta Templum, a quo benigne acceptus est -Ib. p. 442. deprecati sunt Titum, ut seipsos vivos servaret, neve interfi. Tunc temporis egressus est Gorion, sacerdos, pater
- Tunc Romani irruerunt in illos, et mortui sunt Josephi Sacerdotis, auctoris historiarum libri hujus, de carcere omnes. Cap. 95, p. 440:
suo, de turri videlicet domûs Simonis latronis, cum uxore sua, e Simon autem et Jehochanan miserunt ad Titum sermones et cum filio Bonian. Is erat frater Josephi Sacerdotis natu pacis, et deprecationis, vrantes pro seipsis, ut vivos servaret minor. Iste quoque Bonian fuit sapiens, magnus, et sacerdos -Ibid. 440.
Nam reliquit eum Titus in Jerusalem, neque ab* Tunc jussit Titus Romanis instaurari bellum cum princi- ductus fuit ab eo, quemadmodum Josephus. Vixit autem pibus latronum Jehochanane et Simone, quandoquidem se pater Josephi postquam capta est Jerusalem, viditque Joseiam pertinaciter gerebant-lb. p 441.
phum filium suum, per viginti menses, et mortuus est. Tunc & Eo tempore surrexit Zarach, qui quidem erat de filiis etiam temporis captus est Phinehas Sacerdos, custos cellarum Regum, de monte Sion, cum fratribus suis, et cum omnibus sacrarii, in quas contulerat omnes thesatiros sacerdotum, et filiis seminis regii, - et venerunt ad Titum, qui excepit illos vestes sacerdotum sanctas, et dedit Tito thesauruin nuguenti curo honore, et benigne tractavit. Cum ergo vidissent optimi, et aromata, et vestes purpureas, quibus sanctificaveJochanan et Simon principes latromm abiisse Izatam cum rant Sanctuarium Reges domus secundæ, et omnia vasa aurea, cæteris filiis Regis, ---abierunt ipsi, et combusserunt omnia, quæ apud se habebat de vasis domûs Jehovæ. Ib. p. 443,
mother, with their son Bonian. They came out of the house of Simon, in which they had been kept prisoners. Gorion · lived twenty months after taking the city of Jerusalem. Bonian was a wise and good man. Titus did not take him to Rome with himself, as he did Joseph, but left him to preside over the priests in that country. Now also Phineas, a priest, brought more of the holy things out of the temple to Titus. But our author blames both these priests for delivering such things into the hands of an enemy of the people of God. However, I do not perceive him to make any mention here of the book of the law.
At b that time therefore was taken Jerusalem, with all its desirable things: and then Titus went up to Mount Sion and took it, and ordered that the wall of the city of Sion should be demolished. And three days after that, John, one of the princes of the robbers, being pinched with hunger, came out of his hiding place, and surrendered to Titus, begging mercy of him; but Titus commanded him to be bound with heavy iron chains, and gave orders that he should be led about before his soldiers to be derided and insulted by them, and after seven days he was hanged. And now also immediately in the same connection, he relates the appearance of Simon, though it could not be till some while afterwards. He was first brought before the Roman general Rupha, or Rufus, and then before Titus: who commanded him to be bound, and to be led round the whole army, to be exposed and insulted by them, as John had been: after which he was beheaded, and his body was cut to pieces, and thrown to the dogs.
Moreover, as he goes on, the number of the people that were slain, so far as could be found, who were killed by the Romans, or the robbers, of all the people of the Jews, who, from the neighbouring country, or from far off, had come up to Jerusalem to the feast, the feast of the Lord, and were shut up in the city by the siege, was eleven hundred thousand, beside many others whose number was not found, and beside those who died with Eleazar, after the death of John and Simon.
The number of the people of the Jews who were taken captive by Titus, and carried with him to Rome, he says, were sixteen thousand. He also took with him to Rome Joseph the priest; but Bonian, his brother, he left to preside over the priests in that country; but as for those whom he took captives, he says that Titus put to death at Jerusalem all, and every one of them, in an ignominious manner, excepting only such as he reserved to take with him; and them he caused to die in a very ignominious manner : for in all the cities, where he made any stay, in his return to Rome, he ordered some of them to be thrown to lions, and other wild beasts, until all whom he had taken were destroyed.
* According to Josephus, Gorion was put to death by the nos, sive per latrones, ex populo Judæorum, sive qui de proxizealots, before the siege of the city began: see above, p.510, mo, sive qui de longinquo venerant ad festum, festum scilicet and De B. J. l. 4, cap. vi. sect. 1. What therefore this Jehovæ in Jerusalem, et restiterant illic propter obsidionem, author says of his father and mother must be all fiction and cornieruntque gladio; numerus, inquam, fuit millia millium, falsehood.
et centum millia: præter illos, qui quidem occisi sunt, sed 1 Tunc itaque temporis capta fuit Jerusalem, cum omnibus cognosci non potuerunt, ut numerarentur. Illi enim tantumrebus desiderabilibus ejus. Deinde ascendit Titus in montem modo numerati sunt, qui sepulti et cogniti fuerunt. Qui Sion, et cepit illum. Jussit autem destrui murum civitatis autem cognosci non potuerunt non recensiti sunt in numerum. Sion. Jam vero elapso triduo, deficiebat anima Jehochananis Præter eos quoque, qui postea mortui sunt cum Eleazaro, principis latronum, præ fame. Surrexit itaque de loco ubi filio Anani sacerdotis, post mortem Jehochananis, et Simonis, satebat, et egressus inde abiit ad Titum, et corruens ante fa. latronum et tyrannorum crudelium. ciem ejus, et deosculatus pedes ejus dixit ei: Serva, quæso, Numerus autem pópuli ex Judæis, qui abierunt cum Tito Domine mi Rex. Tunc jussit illum Titus constringi vinculis in captivitatem, et quos abduxit secum Romam, sexdecim ferreis gravissimis, et abduci illum, et circumvebi per totum millia. Et abduxit quidem Romam Josephum Sacerdotem: exercitum suum, atque ignominiose tractari-tandem post Bonian vero, ejus fratrem, reliquit in antistitem super Sacerseptem dies mortuus est strangulatus-Postea' egressus est dotes, qui remanserunt in Jerusalem. Ita enim deprecatus etiam Simon latro, homicida impius, de loco latebræ suæ, fuerat Josephus frater ejus; et suscepit faciem ejus, et ita quia fames graviter premebat illum-Tunc dixit eis: fecit. Nam quoad cæteros ex eis, quos Titus cepit viros, Venite, et vocate mihi ducem, et tradam me illi Et voca- ne unum ex eis vivere passus fuit: sed omnes latrones resiverunt Rupha, qui tunc erat Rector seu præfectus militiæ duos, quotquot vivos comprehendit, interfecit Titus morte Romanorum--Et sic fecit ille, deduxitque eum ad Titum. probrosâ, et ignominiosà in Jerusalem. Quosdam tamen ex Statim autem ut vidit Titus Simonem, jussit illum vinculis eis secum superstites asservavit, ut contumeliâ eos afficeret constringi, -et abduci, et circumvehi per totum exercitum per singulas urbes transitûs sui, cum contenderet Romam. suum, et ignominiose tractari, et subsannari, quemadmodum Cum itaque profectus est Titus de Jerusalem, accepit eos fecerant Jehochanani. Erat autem vinctus catenis æreis. Tum secum, et abduxit etiam secum reliquum populum captivitatis, denique jussit Titus interfici illum in vinculis. Itaque ampu- quem captivum fecerat ex Judæis : cumque morabatur in taverunt illi caput antequam moreretur. Tum dissecuerunt singulis urbibus transitûs sui, dum iter faceret Romam, in eum in partes, et projecerunt membra cadaveris ejus canibus. quâcumque urbe ubi castra metabatur, educebat quosdam ex Ib. p. 443, 444.
latronibus illis, et jubebat illos objici leonibus, et feris pesPorro numerus totius populi eorum, qui occisi sunt, quà. simis, ut devorarent los, donec consumpti sunt omnes latenus potuerunt cognosci tunc gladio cecidisse sive per Roma- trones, quos secum habebat. Cap. 95, p. 444, 445.
So says our author. The number of the captives, according to Josephus [De B. J. 1. 6. ix. 3.), were ninety and seven thousand; many of whom, according to him, were sold for slaves : but this, so far as I see, is quite omitted by our author, as also the triumph of Vespasian and Titas for their conquest of Judea.
But why does he omit these things ? To me it seems to be owing to the pride of his heart. The temple had been burnt, Jerusalem was destroyed; the whole country of Judea had been subdued by the Romans, uncircumcised and idolatrous people: facts which he could not deny, or disown, however dishonourable and reproachful to his nation; and he has himself related these events in his way and manner. But yet he was, as it seems, desirous to save his nation from some circumstances of reproach and dishonour; he therefore forbore to say any thing of the triumph of Vespasian and Titus, though performed in the metropolis of the vast empire of the Romans, and published and recorded in public and durable monuments, as well as in writings of the best credit. From the same principle of pride and vanity, he forebore to say that at this time many Jews, the people of Israel, had been sold for slaves, to live in slavery to uncircumcised Gentiles: so it seems to me.
And I think it may deserve to be taken notice of by us, that in the fictitious history which he has given of his journey to Rome, and the inauguration of Vespasian there, he has mentioned a particular, somewhat resembling this : For after the coronation of Vespasian, and the death of Agrippa, • and his son Monbaz before mentioned, when Vespasian began to shew favour to Joseph, and * ordered his chains to be struck off, Joseph ^ presented a petition to Vespasian in behalf of all
sons of Israel, who were then in prison at Rome, entreating that they might be set at liberty ; * and upon that condition promising that he would for the future be a faithful counsellor to the
emperor, and serve him according to the utmost of his ability:, which petition was granted by • the emperor; and all Israelites who had been bound at Rome, were set at liberty. Which must be allowed to be one of the fictitious events of that voyage to Rome, which is throughout the fiction of this writer's fertile invention, who says what he pleaseth.
After this our author 6 tells the story of Eleazar, and his men at Massada, but somewhat differently from · Josephus. He does not say that they determined to kill themselves and one another: his account is, that after the speech of Eleazar, they killed their wives and daughters, that they might not fall a prey into the hands of the enemy: and then the men went out of the city and fought with the Romans: of whom they slew very many, till they were themselves all killed. • And,' says he, here end the wars of the second house.'
After which follows this author's final lamentation, and in a rhythmical sort of poesy, as Gagnier observes, very different from that among the Hebrews at the time when their temple was destroyed.
• Woe is now unto us?
* Dixit, vero Josephus: Nonne opprobrium mihi est rese. runt multos ex eis absque numero. Ac tandem pugnantes rari a me catenas ferreas, et interim vincula filiorum Israël, Judæi contra proprias ipsorum animas, donec omnes absumequi mecum sunt Romæ, non etiam reserari tuo jussu ? Si ergo rentur in prælio illo mortui pro Jehovâ, et pro sanctuario nunc audieris me, quandoquidem inveni gratiam in oculis ejus. Huc usque desinunt bella domus secundæ. Cap. 97, tuis, solves, quæso, vincula omnium Israëlitarum, qui mecum sunt Romæ; et ero tibi consiliarius fidelis omnibus diebus, et iTunc lamentatus fuit Josephus, Sacerdos Dei, lamentas inimicus ero inimicis tuis, et adversabor adversariis tuis. Fecit tionem hanc p. 452. itaque Vespasianus secundum sermonem Josephi, et solvit 6 Lamentatio Ben Gorionis ultima, eaque Rythmica, quam, omnia vincula omnium vinctorum filiorum Israël, qui erant ut Leoninæ cujusdam inter Judæos specimen poëseos non in. cum Josepho Romæ. Lib. 6. cap. 78. p. 346.
jucundum, hic Hebraïce subjunximus. Et credat Lector, si Cap. 96, p. 447, 488, et cap. 97, p. 452.
potest, sine risu, banc ab ipso Flavio Josepho compositum « Vid. de B. J. 1. 7, cap. viii. ix.
fuisse tempori templi excidii. Gagnier Not. p. 452. d Tunc surgentes viri uxores suas et filias suas accersunt, Væ nunc nobis ! quas osculati et complexi, ita alloquuntur. Melius est in Quia desolata est civitas gloriæ nostræ, oculis nostris, ut moriamini in terrâ vestrâ cum sanctitate et Et eversa est Domus Sanctuarii nostri, honore, quam ut eatis in captivitatem, et cum opprobrio in In quo posita fuit spes nostra, terram inimicorum vestrorum, et cum idolis gentium, et
Et omnia desideria cordium nostrorum. contumeliâ moriamini. -Cap. 97, p. 452.
Et incensum est Templum nostrum; e Postea egressus est Eleazarus Sacerdos cum omnibus viris Et migravimus de terrà nostra, bellatoribus qui secum erant ex urbe, et miscuerunt ingentem Et ex hæreditate patrum nostrorum ; pugnam cum multitudine exercitûs Romanorum, et occide- Neque ad Deum (extendimus] manus nostras,
And the house of our sanctuary is thrown down.
And our apostasies have brought us down to the earth.
And will cast down our enemies,
And will humble those who hate us.
· And will restore us, as at the beginning.' Here, beside other things which an attentive reader will observe, he expresseth his expectation of the rebuilding the temple at Jerusalem. So likewise, when he gave an account of Herod's building, or repairing the temple, he describes the rejoicings made upon that occasion: • For * the building,' says he, of the house of the Lord, which we have seen both built and * destroyed; but it shall be raised a third time in honour and glory, and shall be established for .ever.' And in like manner in another place. He is therefore a good witness to the destruction of the temple at Jerusalem, which had been raised after the return from the Babylonish captivity; in which, as we say, the prophets had foretold the Messiah would make his appearance: see Hag. ii. 6-9, and Mal. iii. 1.
After his lamentation this author adds, · But · Titus left a remnant of Israel in the land of • Israel, in the city Jabne, and its towns, and in the city Bether, and in its towns, and in Osha,
and its towns.' Of all which cities, as Gagnierd in his notes observes, there is no notice taken by Flavius Josephus; though there is in the Talmudical writings; and he refers to Lightfoot's works such as are inquisitive.
Ut liberaremur de exiliis nostris,
Cap. 97, p. 452, 453.
» Et laudaverant Jehovam cum gaudio-propter ædificium Domûs Jehovæ, quam vidimus, et ædificatam, et devastatam. Sed adhuc reædificabitur tertio cum laude, et celebritate, et gloriâ; et firmabit eam Jehova in æternum. 1 6, cap. 55, p. 243.
b Cap. 65, p. 288, sub fin. et p. 289.
? Reliquit autem Titus Israëlis reliquias in terra Israel, in urbe Jabne, et in oppidis ejus, in urbe Bether, et in oppidis ejus, et in Osha, et oppidis ejus. Cap. 97, p. 454.
d Tres illas urbes, viz. Jabneh, Bether, et Oshah, hoc loco commemorat Ben-Gorion noster, non ex Josepho auctore suo, qui nihil hic habet de hac belli Judaïci coronide, sed ex Pandectis Talmudicis, ubi frequentissima illarum mentio occurrit. De quarum urbium situ et celebritate maxime post eversa Hierosolyma, consulenda est doctissimi Lightfooti Chorographia Terræ Israëlis. Cap. xv. lii. et lxxxiv. Gagn. Not.