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remaining. These recruits, however, are very willing to engage with the Jews and out of the vast numbers of fresh men, supposed to be capable of doing more than the Romans, who were fatigued and worn out, and discouraged with the fatigues of a long siege, were selected, eighty thousand men, Macedonians, Britans, Syrians, Africans, Burgundians, Persians, Chaldeans. All these, without any Romans joined with them, marched in order toward Jerusalem, and encamped near it. And then they began to attack the wall, and to fight with the Jews that were upon it.
Now the three leaders within the city, John, and Simon, and Eleazar, consult together "between themselves, and with their friends, what was best to be done. It was agreed that two should go out of the city, and the other abide within. John then and Eleazar went out, having with them fifteen hundred of the most valiant of their men. They prevailed and slew their enemies with the edge of the sword from morning to evening. The day on which this battle was fought,' he says, was the ninth day of the month Thebet, which was the tenth "month from the arrival of Titus before Jerusalem. And they slew of the hosts of the Gentiles seven-and-fifty thousand and five hundred. They took captive three thousand of their chiefs, putting the rest to flight. Of the Jews there fell on that day seven men. And they brought "off their dead and their wounded to Jerusalem: where they buried their dead, that the uncir cumcised might not insult them.'
Whereupon John and Eleazar returned to Jerusalem with their brethren, singing a hymn "of triumph, and offering praises to Jehovah. The rest of those nations returned to the camp of Titus in shame and confusion. The day after, the robbers took the three thousand chiefs, "whom they had brought captives, and put out an eye of every one of them, and also cut off one of their hands, and so sent them back to the camp of Titus.'
All fiction, surely; without any ground or authority from Josephus, or any other ancient writer that we know of! We here plainly see that the author was an artful man. He knew how to flatter and please his own nation. And he has obtained his end. He is in admiration with them.
At that time Titus consulted with his generals and soldiers, and his whole army, that it might be determined what was best to be done, especially considering the strength and fortitude of the Jewish people. After a long consultation, the opinion of Titus, which he was resolved to adhere to, was, that the siege of the city should be continued without making any attacks upon it. For,' says he, their provisions fail already, and will be all speedily consumed. Moreover, they will quarrel among themselves, and thus hasten their ruin; and we shall overcome."
And indeed,' says this writer, the famine prevailed greatly. And if it had not, the city ⚫ could not have been broken up nor taken for ever: for the valiant of Israel were "swifter than eagles, and stronger than lions," 2 Sam. i. 23. But the famine consumed them. The streets sibi venerant in auxilium, ea omnia, quæ sibi contigerant dum oppugnavit Jerusalem-Narravit etiam, quomodo perdiderant milites suos, et principes suos, -omnesque machinas suas dirutrices, et omnia instrumenta belli, quæ secum habebat, corruperant. cap. 88, p. 393. 394.
Electi sunt itaque ex turmis nationum illarum octoginta millia virorum, scilicet decem millia Macedonum, viginti millia virorum Britanniæ, quinque millia Syrorum, decem millia virorum Africæ, decem millia fortissimorum ex viris Borgoniæ, quinque millia de filiis Cedar, decem millia militum ex fortissimis Persarum et Chaldæorum. Et progressi sunt eo ordine, quo venerunt; neque unus Romanus ex illis, Abierunt autem in planitiem, quæ erat e regione Sepulcri Jehochanan, sacerdotis magni. Et cœperunt miscere prælia cum Judæis, qui erant super murum, et admovere scalas, cum instrumentis ligneis quibus tegebantur, ut ascenderent ad eos supra murum. Ib. p. 394, 395.
Egressi sunt ergo Jehochanan et Eleazarus cum mille et quingentis fortissimis latronum, et percusserunt turmas gentium plagâ gladii,- a mane diei pugnæ usque ad vesperam. Quod quidem contigit nonâ die mensis Thebet, qui fuit decimus ab adventu Titi in Jerusalem; et prostraverunt ex turmis gentium illarum quinquaginta septem millia cum quingentis. Et ceperunt ex eis vivos ter mille principes, cæteris in fugam conjectis. Ex Judæis autem ceciderunt illâ die septem viri; et vulneratos suos secum extulerunt latrones, ut illos sepelirent, ne insultarent eis incircumcisi. Ib. p. 395..
• Venerunt itaque Jehochanan et Eleazarus in Jerusalem cum fratribus suis, cantantes hymnum, et gratiarum actiones Jehova. Reliquiæ autem fugientium ex turmis nationum illarum reversæ sunt ad castra Titi cum ignominia-Postridie Latrones acceperunt tria millia principum, quos comprehenderant vivos, effoderunt unicuique eorum oculum, manumque amputaverunt, atque ita remiserunt eos ad castra Titi, ut ipsi essent dedecori et opprobrio. Ib. p. 395.
Eo tempore Titus consilium inivit cum principibus et militibus suis, et cum filiis populi sui Romanis, et cum populo omnium nationum, quæ cum eis convenerant, dicens: Quid faciemus contra Israëlem, et contra fortitudinem ejus ?
At consilia eorum omnium contemtui fuerunt coram Tito -Dixit ergo eis Titus. Hoc est consilium meum, quod me ipso juxta rectam rationem profertur, neque ab eo recedam. Cedo, teneamus urbem hanc obsessam, neve oppugnemus illam amplius. Victus enim et commeatus eorum omnino defecerunt, neque cibus est apud illos. Haud dubium, quin fames illos consumtura est: neque etiam dubium est, quin, quando viderint nos non amplius miscere prælia cum illis, ipsi prælia misceant inter se, unusquisque adversus fratrem suum- -Ib. 395, 396.
e Porro, nisi grassata fuisset fames in Jerusalem, nunquam perrupta fuisset urbs, neque capta in æternum. Fortes enim Israël erant velociores aquilis, et fortiores leonibus. Ib. p. 396.
⚫ were filled with dead bodies; nor were there any to bury them. And when Titus saw the
dead cast out from the city, like dung upon the earth, he was much affected at the sight;
• and, lifting up his hands to heaven, he fell down upon his knees and said: "This is not my 'work." He had desired peace: but the people would not accept of it.'
In the following, the eighty-ninth chapter, is an account of several acts of cruelty committed by Simon in putting to death Amittai, or Matthias, and others.
In the mean while, as he says in the nineteenth chapter, Gorion the priest, father of Joseph,. who wrote this book for Israel, to be a memorial and testimony to them, was a prisoner in one of the towers upon the wall, bound in iron fetters. Joseph came near to the place hoping to see his aged father: but the Jews cast stones at him, and wounded him. And now likewise, he at length gets a sight of his mother. She was not bound with chains, though she was kept prisoner in the house of Simon. But she got upon the wall to see her son and make her lamentations to him. His father was about one hundred and three years of age, and his mother eighty-five.
It is observable that about this time, after the slaughter of Amittai, or Matthias, and his sons, by order of Simon, Josephus also makes mention of his father and mother, as being in Jerusalem. And about this time also Josephus was wounded: not for attempting to see his father or mother, but as he was going round the city near the walls of it, proposing arguments to the people within to surrender to Titus for their benefit.
The famine being very severe in the city, many Jews in good circumstances went out in order to go over to the Romans. But it being found that some of them had gold and jewels hid in their bowels, they were ripped up by the Arabian and Syrian soldiers which were in the army. of Titus. Some of the Roman soldiers did the like. In this practice the Arabians and Syrians killed a thousand Jews. When Titus heard of it he was exceedingly grieved and provoked.. And he gave orders that all who had done this thing should be put to death, and that their goods should be given to living Jews, heirs of the dead. Upon this occasion six thousand Arabians and Syrians suffered death.
A most unlikely thing, and mere romance! No general would shew such favour to a resolute. people, whom he was besieging with an army. Josephus says that two thousand of the Jews were thus cruelly destroyed by the Syrian and other soldiers for the sake of the gold hid in their bodies. He also says, Titus was much displeased, and would have ordered his horse to surround. the criminals and kill them with darts; but he considered that the number of the guilty exceeded that of the slain. He therefore was obliged to content himself with forbidding that cruelty for the future, upon the pain of heavy punishment.
This author moreover says, that strict inquiry was made by Titus after the Romans who had been guilty of the like action; and they were found to be three hundred and twenty men,. whom Titus ordered to be burnt to death in one pit or cistern.. After which all Jews who came over to Titus were treated by the soldiers very civilly, and they lived very quiet and unmolested in his camp. All fiction from this author's fruitful invention! And the story is made out, as it seems, to do honour to his nation, at the same time that their city was falling into ruin,, and they going into captivity!.
a Cap. 89, p. 397-406.
Interea Gorion sacerdos, pater Josephi sacerdotis, qui scripsit hunc librum Israëli, ut esset illis in testimonium, et in memoriale, tunc erat vinctus catenis ferreis, et in vinculis æreis in una e turribus Jerusalem. Ipse autem senex processerat in diebus, natus scilicet centum et trium annorum Eo tempore venit Josephus, filius ejus, versus murum e regione turris, in quâ erat pater ejus Gorion sacerdos, tunc illic vinctus-cap. 90, p. 406, &c.
De B. J. 1. 5, c. xiii. numb. 1, 2, 3.
d Porro Judæi, qui egressi fuerant de Jerusalem ad castra Romanorum -deglutierunt aurum et argentum, et gemmas, et lapides pretiosos--Cumque animadvertissent nonnulli ex Syris et Arabibus illos ita facere, indicavit rem unusquisque socio suo Tum apprehenderunt illos, et scissis eorum visceribus, invenerunt intra viscera aurum, et lapides pretiosos -Factusque numerus scissorum per manus Syrorum et Arabum mille animarum, Cumque audivisset Titus rem.
illam pessimam,indignatus est, et accensus est furor ejus
Fuitque numerus eorum, qui reperti sunt, tum eorum qui fecerunt, tum eorum qui noverant, trecentorum et viginti virorum. At jussit Titus servis suis, ct combusserunt omnes in medio cisternæ unius. Et deinceps Judæi cum fiduciâ in. castris Titi degebant, neque ultra fuit adversarius, aut incursus malus. Sed quotiescumque Romanus inveniebat Judæum aliquem perplexum aut errantem extra 'castra procul, clamı illum deducens comitabatur usque dum ad castra incolumem,. et tranquille, et cum securitate bonâ reduxisset. cap. 91, p. 413.
He likewise tells the story which Josephus has done of the crucifixion of the Jews before the walls of the city, five hundred in a day, and sometimes more, as Josephus says. But this author tells it very differently in this manner. Some went out of the city with their wives, and sons and daughters, and little ones, to gather herbs for food; and the Romans slew all the young people, saying: let us kill these, lest they grow up and fight against us, as their fathers have done.'. So the Romans acted from day to day, till the number of slain and hanged up amounted to five hundred. The like to this was done within the city by Simon, and John, and Eleazar. They killed and hung up upon the walls all the Romans which they could catch, and all their own people who endeavoured to go out of the city, till they amounted also to the number of five hundred: which when Titus saw, he gave strict orders to all the men of his army not to kill any Jews that came out of Jerusalem. If any did so, they should be put to death. For his bowels yearned over Israel.
So says this fantastical writer.
He'computes the taking of Antonia to have been on the fifth day of Sivan, the third month, on the eve of the feast of weeks, or Pentecost; the fourteenth month from the coming of Titus to besiege Jerusalem. So at the end of ch. 91.
He proceeds, in the ninety-second chapter, to relate contentions and fightings of the Jews and Romans at the temple, or near it; which I need not rehearse particularly: especially, since it is not all exact truth or matter of fact, but exaggeration agreeable to this author's fancy.
At the beginning of the ninety-third chapter he tells the story of Mary, who, in the extremity of the famine, killed her only child, and dressed it, and ate a part of it. The same story that is told by Josephus: but their harangues upon the event are different.
In the next chapter the temple is on fire, and the doors of the house of the sanctuary were opened on the ninth day of the fifth month, the same day of the month in the which it had been opened in the time of the Chaldeans. The soldiers rejoiced greatly. But Titus was much concerned, and ran towards the temple, and did all in his power to have the fire extinguished, calling aloud to his men, till he was hoarse, and persisting in his exclamations, as this author says, till he fell to the ground almost dead. And the priests at the temple fought as long as they were able; and when they saw the fire prevail, they threw themselves into it. As there remained no hopes of preserving the temple, Titus, before it was entirely consumed, went in, and greatly admired it-Soon after that the Romans set up their idols and images in the temple, and offered sacrifices to them, and reviled the Jews, and blasphemed their law before their idols.
He now comes to the signs and prodigies, foresignifying the calamities that were coming upon the Jewish people, which also are mentioned by Josephus in this same place, after the
• De B. J. 1. 5. cap. xi. n. 1.
Quando aliqui ab urbe exibant cum uxoribus, et filiis, et filiabus, et parvulis suis, ut invenirent herbas,- -Romani, qui illos inveniebant, jugulabant natos eorum, et dicebant: Jugulemus hos parvulos, ne adolescant, et successu dierum pugnent nobiscum, sicut patres illorum. Idcirco Romani trucidabant infimam plebem, quotquot exibant ab urbe, et suspendebant illos ad arbores ex adverso portæ Jerusalem. Sicque faciebant Romani quotidie. Pervenitque numerus occisorum et suspensorum ad quingentas animas. Idem etiam faciebant Simon, Jehochanan, et Eleazarus, iis omnibus, quos capiebant ex cohortibus Romanorum, postquam illos per insidias circumvenerant. Eodem modo animadvertebant in eos, qui quærebant exire, ut perfugerent ad illos. Jugulabant enim eos, et cadavera suspendebant super murum ex adverso Romanorum-Fuitque numerus suspensorum per manus latronum quingentorum virorum, tot scilicet numero, quot suspendebant Romani ex Judæis. Itaque Titus præcepit omnibus viris exercitûs sui dicens: Quicumque interfecerit aliquem ex iis qui egrediuntur de Jerusalem, morietur. Et quidem ita fecit Titus, quia flagrabant viscera ejus super Israël. cap. 86. p. 386.
Ut autem vidit Titus turrim Antoniam esse in laqueum Romanis, jussit Titus ut diruerent illam; quod quidem contigit in quintâ in Sivan, mense tertio, in vesperâ festi Hebdomadarum. Ipse est mensis quartus decimus ab adventu Titi ad obsidendam Jerusalem. cap. 91. in fin. p. 420.
d P. 420-431.
f De B. J. 1. 6. cap. iii. sect. 4.
8 Postridie congregati Romani miserunt ignem in Sanctum Sanctorum in circuitu.- -Mox incaluit aurum, et combusta sunt ligna valvarum, et ceciderunt in terram, et aperta fuit domus Sancti Sanctorum in oculis omnium mense quinto, nonâ die mensis, eo ipso die, quo aperta fuerat domus Sancti Sanctorum in diebus Chaldæorum. Et statim ut aperuerunt Romani portam Sancti Sanctorum, et ceperunt illud, tunc vero vociferati sunt clamore magno mirum in modum præ lætitia-Cucurrit autem Titus totis viribus suis, ut extin-. gueret ignem Ac tandem defessus defatigatusque corruit ad terram viribus exhaustus-Postquam itaque incensa fuit domus Sancti Sanctorum, surrexit Titus, et ingressus in Sanctum Sanctorum vidit gloriam domûs, et decorem ejus, et splendorem illius- Nondum enim tota domus incendio consumta erat, ut pulchritudinem illius, et majestatem ejus contemplaretur. Tunc dixit Titus: Nunc cognovi, quia nou est hic aliud, nisi domus Dei. Hoc est habitaculum Dei cœlorum, et tabernaculum ejus-Quia magna est majestas domus hujus, et magnus splendor majestatis templi ejus longe supra templum Romanorum, et omnia templa nationum, quæ vidi- -Deinde surrexerunt Romani, et, extincto incendio, idola et imagines suas in Templo statuerunt. Et obtulerunt eis holocausta, et probro affecerunt Judæos, et legem eorum. coram idolis suis blasphemârunt. cap. 94, p. 436–438. h De B. J. 1. 6, cap. v. num. 3.
e P. 431.
burning of the temple. Nor did the Jews attend to the words of the signs which happened in Jerusalem, though they were very awful. For a year before Vespasian came, there appeared ' over the temple a blazing star in the shape of a man, in whose hand were drawn swords. The day in which this sign was seen, was the first of the feast of the Passover? and during the whole night the temple was illuminated as if it had been day: and so it continued throughout the seven days of the Passover.' Thus confounding, as it seems, the first two signs in Josephus, and making them one only, and likewise representing the blazing star somewhat differently from Josephus. Then follow in him the other signs taken from Josephus; but I shall not rehearse them. He has, particularly, that of the man of low rank, who for several years travelled through the streets of Jerusalem, with his mournful denunciation of Woe to the city;' whom he calls Joshua, son of Hananiah.
When the Romans had got possession of the temple, the Jews fled to mount Sion. Here our author useth a different style from Josephus, who has never used the word Sion in his writings, but always describes that part of the city by other names.
Now some priests came to Titus entreating mercy; but he would not grant it, and ordered them to be put to death.
Now also John and Simon sent messengers to Titus, proposing to surrender to him, if he would grant them their lives; but Titus rejected their proposal, and reproached them severely.
Whereupon Titus ordered the war to be renewed, and carried on by his army with vigour.
At this time Zarach [or Izates] of royal descent, and his brothers, came down from mount Sion, and surrendered to Titus, and were well received by him. Whereupon Simon and his adherents set fire to their goods and treasures which they had left behind them, that they might not come into the hands of the Romans.
Simon and John escape, and hide themselves in a cavern. Many Jews of good condition surrender to Titus, and he receives them favourably.
Joshua a priest, son of Shebuthi high-priest, comes to Titus, bringing with him two golden candlesticks, which were in the sanctuary, and golden tables, and divers other rich utensils of the temple, and vestments of the priests, and precious stones, all which he made a present of to Titus, who received him graciously.
At this time also came out Gorion the priest, father of the writer of this history; and his
• Neque Judæi animum adverterant ad verba signorum, quæ contigerunt in Jerusalem-Nam anno uno antequam veniret Vespasianus, apparuit super Templum stella quædam scintillans instar formæ hominis, in cujus manu gladii districti. Dies autem, quo visum est signum illud, fuit primus ex diebus festi Paschatis; et totâ nocte illius diei Templum fulsit, et resplenduit tamquam lux diei; et ita factum est per totos septem dies Paschatis-Cap. 94, p. 438.
b Porro quatuor annis ante hæc signa fuit vir quidam in Jerusalem, de populo terræ, seu plebeius, nomine Jehoshua, filius Chananiæ, et cœpit clamare voce magnâ die ipso festi Tabernaculorum Oderunt autem illum omnes cives urbis, &c. Ibid. p. 439.
Postquam itaque ingressus fuit omnis exercitus Romanorum in Templum, diffugerunt Judæi ad montem Sion. Cap. 95, in. p. 440.
d Postquam autem libaverunt Romani coram Domino suo Tito, ecce pars Sacerdotum, qui capti fuerant juxta Templum, deprecati sunt Titum, ut seipsos vivos servaret, neve interficeret Tunc Romani irruerunt in illos, et mortui sunt omnes. Cap. 95, p. 440*
• Simon autem et Jehochanan miserunt ad Titum sermones pacis, et deprecationis, orantes pro seipsis, ut vivos servaret -Ibid. 440.
Tunc jussit Titus Romanis instaurari bellum cum principibus latronum Jehochanane et Simone, quandoquidem se tam pertinaciter gerebant-Ib. p. 441.
Eo tempore surrexit Zarach, qui quidem erat de filiis Regum, de monte Sion, cum fratribus suis, et cum omnibus filiis seminis regii, ‚— et venerunt ad Titum, qui excepit illos cura honore,et benigne tractavit Cum ergo vidissent Jochanan et Simon principes latronum abiisse Izatam cum cæteris filiis Regis,- abierunt ipsi, et combusserunt omnia,
quæ pertinebant ad filios Regis, et incenderunt domum, et
h Tunc temporis fugientes Simon et Jehochanan, in quâ-
iSub id tempus venit ad Titum Jehoshua, sacerdos, filius Shebuthi, Sacerdotis Magni, et attulit secum duo ex candelabris aureis, quæ fuerant in Sanctuario. Avexit autem secum omnes mensas aureas, et omnia vasa aurea,et crateres, et acerras, et scutellas, ac etiam vestes ministerii, et vestes sanctitatis coopertas auro, et circumcinctas lapidibus pretiosis, cum magnâ copiâ gemmarum - Quæ omnia donavit Tito, a quo benigne acceptus est · -Ib. p. 442.
Tunc temporis egressus est Gorion, sacerdos, pater Josephi Sacerdotis, auctoris historiarum libri hujus, de carcere suo, de turri videlicet domûs Simonis latronis, cum uxore suâ, et cum filio Bonian. Is erat frater Josephi Sacerdotis natu minor. Iste quoque Bonian fuit sapiens, magnus, et sacerdos sanctus Nam reliquit eum Titus in Jerusalem, neque abductus fuit ab eo, quemadmodum Josephus. Vixit autem pater Josephi postquam capta est Jerusalem, viditque Josephum filium suum, per viginti menses, et mortuus est. Tune etiam temporis captus est Phinehas Sacerdos, custos cellarum sacrarii, in quas contulerat omnes thesauros sacerdotum, et vestes sacerdotum sanctas, et dedit Tito thesauruin unguenti optimi, et aromata, et vestes purpureas, quibus sanctificaverant Sanctuarium Reges domus secundæ, et omnia vasa aurea, quæ apud se habebat de vasis domûs Jehova. Ib. p. 443,
mother, with their son Bonian. They came out of the house of Simon, in which they had been kept prisoners. Gorion lived twenty months after taking the city of Jerusalem. Bonian was a wise and good man. Titus did not take him to Rome with himself, as he did Joseph, but left him to preside over the priests in that country. Now also Phineas, a priest, brought more of the holy things out of the temple to Titus. But our author blames both these priests for delivering such things into the hands of an enemy of the people of God. However, I do not perceive him to make any mention here of the book of the law."
At that time therefore was taken Jerusalem, with all its desirable things: and then Titus. went up to Mount Sion and took it, and ordered that the wall of the city of Sion should be demolished. And three days after that, John, one of the princes of the robbers, being pinched with hunger, came out of his hiding place, and surrendered to Titus, begging mercy of him; but Titus commanded him to be bound with heavy iron chains, and gave orders that he should be led about before his soldiers to be derided and insulted by them, and after seven days he was hanged. And now also immediately in the same connection, he relates the appearance of Simon, though it could not be till some while afterwards. He was first brought before the Roman general Rupha, or Rufus, and then before Titus: who commanded him to be bound, and to be led round the whole army, to be exposed and insulted by them, as John had been: after which he was beheaded, and his body was cut to pieces, and thrown to the dogs.
Moreover, as he goes on, the number of the people that were slain, so far as could be found, who were killed by the Romans, or the robbers, of all the people of the Jews, who, from the neighbouring country, or from far off, had come up to Jerusalem to the feast, the feast of the Lord, and were shut up in the city by the siege, was eleven hundred thousand, beside many others whose number was not found, and beside those who died with Eleazar, after the death of John and Simon.
The number of the people of the Jews who were taken captive by Titus, and carried with him to Rome, he says, were sixteen thousand. He also took with him to Rome Joseph the priest; but Bonian, his brother, he left to preside over the priests in that country; but as for those whom he took captives, he says that Titus put to death at Jerusalem all, and every one of them, in an ignominious manner, excepting only such as he reserved to take with him; and them he caused to die in a very ignominious manner: for in all the cities, where he made
According to Josephus, Gorion was put to death by the zealots, before the siege of the city began: see above, p. 510, and De B. J. 1. 4, cap. vi. sect. 1. What therefore this author says of his father and mother must be all fiction and falsehood.
Tunc itaque temporis capta fuit Jerusalem, cum omnibus rebus desiderabilibus ejus. Deinde ascendit Titus in montem Sion, et cepit illum. Jussit autem destrui murum civitatis Sion. Jam vero elapso triduo, deficiebat anima Jehochanahis principis latronum, præ fame. Surrexit itaque de loco ubi latebat, et egressus inde abiit ad Titum, et corruens ante faciem ejus, et deosculatus pedes ejus dixit ei: Serva, quæso, Domine mi Rex. Tunc jussit illum Titus constringi vinculis ferreis gravissimis, et abduci illum, et circumvehi per totum exercitum suum, atque ignominiose tractari-tandem post septem dies mortuus est strangulatus Postea' egressus est etiam Simon latro, homicida impius, de loco latebræ suæ, quia fames graviter premebat illum-Tunc dixit eis: Venite, et vocate mihi ducem, et tradam me illi-Et vocaverunt Rupha, qui tunc erat Rector seu præfectus militiæ Romanorum- -Et sic fecit ille, deduxitque eum ad Titum. Statim autem ut vidit Titus Simonem, jussit illum vinculis constringi,- -et abduci, et circumvehi per totum exercitum suum, et ignominiose tractari, et subsannari, quemadmodum fecerant Jehochanani. Erat autem vinctus catenis æreis. Tum denique jussit Titus interfici illum in vinculis. Itaque amputaverunt illi caput antequam moreretur. Tum dissecuerunt eum in partes, et projecerunt membra cadaveris ejus canibus. Ib. p. 443, 444.
Porro numerus totius populi eorum, qui occisi sunt, quâ. tenus potuerunt cognosci tunc gladio cecidisse sive per Roma
nos, sive per latrones, ex populo Judæorum, sive qui de proximo, sive qui de longinquo venerant ad festum, festum scilicet Jehovæ in Jerusalem, et restiterant illic propter obsidionem, corrueruntque gladio; numerus, inquam, fuit millia millium, et centum millia: præter illos, qui quidem occisi sunt, sed cognosci non potuerunt, ut numerarentur. Illi enim tantummodo numerati sunt, qui sepulti et cogniti fuerunt. Qui autem cognosci non potuerunt non recensiti sunt in numerum. Præter eos quoque, qui postea mortui sunt cum Eleazaro, filio Anani sacerdotis, post mortem Jehochananis, et Simonis, latronum et tyrannorum crudelium.
Numerus autem populi ex Judæis, qui abierunt cum Tito in captivitatem, et quos abduxit secum Romam, sexdecim millia. Et abduxit quidem Romam Josephum Sacerdotem: Bonian vero, ejus fratrem, reliquit in antistitem super Sacerdotes, qui remanserunt in Jerusalem. Ita enim deprecatus fuerat Josephus frater ejus; et suscepit faciem ejus, et ita fecit.Nam quoad cæteros ex eis, quos Titus cepit vivos, ne unum ex eis vivere passus fuit: sed omnes latrones residuos, quotquot vivos comprehendit, interfecit Titus morte probrosâ, et ignominiosâ in Jerusalem. Quosdam tamen ex eis secum superstites asservavit, ut contumeliâ eos afficeret per singulas urbes transitûs sui, cum contenderet Romam. Cum itaque profectus est Titus de Jerusalem, accepit eos secum, et abduxit etiam secum reliquum populum captivitatis, quem captivum fecerat ex Judæis: cumque morabatur in singulis urbibus transitûs sui, dum iter faceret Romam, in quâcumque urbe ubi castra metabatur, educebat quosdam ex latronibus illis, et jubebat illos objici leonibus, et feris pessimis, ut devorarent illos, donec consumpti sunt omnes latrones, quos secum habebat. Cap. 95, p. 444, 445.