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3. He quotes the epistle to the Hebrews, as the apostle Paul's.
4. He likewise quotes the epistle of the apostle James, and the second epistle of the apostle
Peter, and the epistle of the apostle Jude, and also the book of the Revelation.
5. It is likely, therefore, that he received all the books of the New Testament, which we do,
and no other.
6. His general division of the books of the New Testament is, that' of gospels and apostles: for all which he has the greatest regard.
7. He quotes the epistle to the Ephesians with that title.
8. He cites Tit. ii. 13. after this manner: Looking, for the blessed hope, and the appearing of the glory of the great God, our Saviour Jesus Christ.
9. Facundus, citing the fifth chapter of the first epistle of St. John, does not mention the heavenly witnesses, but says, that the spirit' denotes the Father, the water' the Holy Spirit, and the blood' Jesus Christ.
1. ARETHAS,' says Du Pin, who wrote a Commentary upon the Revelation, extracted from
that of Andrew of Cæsarea, is placed in the sixth century, and reckoned to have been bishop of • Cæsarea; but there is no proof, neither of the one, nor the other.'
2. By Cave Arethas is placed at the year 540. And he is somewhat displeased with Casimire Oudin, for supposing him to have lived much later, about the year 920. Nevertheless " Fabricius favours Oudin's conjecture, that Arethas was a writer of the tenth century; however, he calls his Commentary upon the Apocalypse an excellent work.
3. Mill speaks of him, together with other writers, of the sixth century, about 540, and calls
a Sic etiam, cum Paulus ejus [Petri] coapostolus Christianis omnibus legitur, dicens : Obedite præpositis vestris.'... [Hebr. xiii. 17.] Facund. 1. xii. c. 3. p. 195. C. Paris. 1679.. ad Hebræos dicit apostolus. L. iii. c. 6. p. 47. D. et alibi.
b Jacobus apostolus dicit: Nolite plures magistri fieri.' [Cap. iii. 1.] L. x. c. 2. p. 151. C. Vid. et. 1. vi. c. 5. p. 93.C. Attendant, quod Petrus apostolus dicat: Dilectissimus 'frater noster Paulus, secundum eam, quæ data est illi, sa'pientiam, scripsit vobis.'... [2 Fet. iii. 15, 16.] L. xii. c. 2. P. 187. D.
• Quem Spiritum illi non habent, qui se ab ecclesia segregant, apostolo Judâ dicente: Hi sunt qui segregant semetipsos, animales, Spiritum non habentes.' [ver. 19.] 1. xii. c. 1. p. 186. B.
L. ii. c. 5. p. 30. ' A. et passim.'
f Evangelicæ et apostolica de Domino voces. L. i. c. 5. P. 17. B.
• Hanc autem reverentiam ipsi divinæ scripturæ deferimus, ut non credamus quod aliquid indigne laudavit. Et ideo cum audiamus apostolum inter alios justos Samson quoque laudantem, atque dicentem [Hebr. xi. 32.] intelligimus, quod... 1. xii. c. 1. p. 186. D.
h Audiant apostolum scribentem Ephesiis, 1. iii. c. 6. p. 48. C.
i... expectantes beatam spem, et adventum gloriæ magni Dei salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi. 1. i. c. 1. p. 3.
* Nam et Johannes in epistolâ suâ de Patre et Filio et Spiritu Sancto sic dicit: Tres sunt, qui testimonium dant ' in terrâ, spiritus, aqua, et sanguis; et hi tres unum sunt; in Spiritu significans Patrem, sicut Dominus mulieri Sa
maritanæ, secundum ipsius Johannis Evangelium, loquitur, dicens... [Joh. iv. 21... 24.] In 'aquâ' vero Spiritum Sanctum significans, sicut in eodem suo evangelio exposuit verba Domini.. [cap. vii. 37. ..39.] Insanguine' vero Filium significans, quoniam ipse ex Sanctâ Trinitate communicavit carni et sanguini. L. i. c. 3. p. 7. C.
Nam si ecclesia Christi... tres credidit et prædicavit, Patrem, et Filium, et Spiritum Sanctum, sicut testimonio Johannis supra docuimus, quo dictum est : Tres sunt, qui testi'monium dant in terra, spiritus, aqua, et sanguis; et hi tres unum sunt.' Ib. p. 8. C. D.
1 Bib. des Aut. Ec. T.
v. p. 74.
m Arethas, Cæsarea Cappadocia Archiepiscopus, claruit, uti vult Coccius, et post eum alii (qui tamen incertis prorsus nituntur conjecturis) circa annum 540. Longe vero recentior, si modo verum sit, quod vult Casimirus Oudin, eumdem seilicet fuisse nostrum cum Arethâ, presbytero Cæsariensi, qui circa annum 920, scripsit Translationem Euthymii Patriarchæ, C. P. apud Lippomanum Tomo 3 repertam. Verum id gratis affirmat Oudinus. Nec enim præsto ei est argumentum, quo sententiam suam confirmet. Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 520.
Arethas, qui et ipse post Andream Cæsareæ ejusdem in Cappadocia Archiepiscopus fuisse traditur, forte haud diversus est ab Arethâ, qui adhuc presbyter Cæsariensis scripsit de translatione Euthymii C. P. A. C. 911. defuncti. Neque improbabilis hæc mihi videtur C. V. Casimiri Oudini conjectura ... ejus insigne in Apocalypsin opus prodiit, &c. Bib. Gr. T. vii. p. 791.792.
Proleg. n. 1007.
his work a chain, collected out of the Commentary of his predecessor Andrew, and the works of Irenæus, Hippolytus, Gregory Nazianzen, Cyril of Alexandria, and others.
4. Arethas, at the beginning of his Commentary, upon ch. i. ver. 1, 3, says, That some of "the ancients looked upon this book as spurious, and because it differed from the style of the beloved disciple in his other writings, ascribed it to another. But Gregory, called also the divine, reckons it among the genuine writings of the evangelist: and in the preface, agreeably 'to what had been before written by Andrew, he says, it had been received as inspired scripture by Basil, Gregory, Cyril [of Alexandria,] Papias, Irenæus, and Hippolytus, orthodox fathers; ' and, therefore, it ought to be received in a like manner by us.'
5. Possibly, some may think, that the writers here named, afford an argument, that Arethas did not live later than the sixth century.
6. I would briefly observe, that in this work are quoted most or all the books of the New Testament, particularly, the gospel of Mark, and the Acts, written by Luke; the epistle to the Hebrews as Paul's, expressly, and often; the epistle of James, and the second of Peter : he received all the three epistles of John; for he often quotes the first, and once in this manner: John' in the first of his catholic epistles. It is likely, therefore, that he received all the same books of the New Testament that we do; nor have I observed any marks of peculiar respect for any other Christian writings; and may I add here, though somewhat out of place, that this writer quotes Solomon's song.
7. Upon Rev. i. 5. « Unto him who loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood," he says, that was written two ways, in some copies washed,' in others' delivered' or 'redeemed.' Mill has taken notice of this place, and prefers the latter reading.
1. ARATOR,” at first an advocate, then a soldier, afterwards a' courtier, thought fit at length to retire from the world, and was appointed sub-deacon in the church of Rome.
2. He composed a work, entitled" The Apostolical History, in verse, in two books, composed out of the Acts of the apostles, which he ascribes to St. Luke.
3. In Acts xx. 28, he seems to have read the church of the Lord:' for he speaks only' of the church which Christ, the Lord and master, had purchased with the price of his blood. Arator
was an Homoüsian. If he had had in his copies, "the church of God," or had had ledge of that reading, he would not have failed to insist upon it.
1. JUNILIUS was an African Bishop, but of what place is not certainly known. Cave speaks of him, as flourishing about the year 550; Hody about 560. He is in Trithemius; and I transcribe his chapter below. Moreover Du Pin, and Fabricius have accounts of this bishop, which deserve to be taken notice of.
2. The only remaining work of Junilius, and the only work of his, which Trithemius, in the fifteenth century, had met with, intitled, Of the Parts of the Divine Law, in two books, is written by way of question and answer.
3. He has several ways of dividing the books of scripture. Some are of perfect, others of middle authority, others of none at all: and some are historical, some prophetical, some proverbial, some teach simply. So that to transcribe him at length requires more room than I can afford: I shall, however, take briefly what he says relating to the books of the New Tes
4. The historical books of the New Testament, of perfect and canonical authority, are the four gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, and the Acts of the apostles.'
5. Those 'books,' he says, teach simply, wherein we are plainly instructed concerning • faith and manners; and which do not relate history, nor prophecy, nor speak proverbially, but only teach plainly. The books that teach simply, are the epistles of the apostle Paul: to the Romans one; to the Corinthians two; to the Galatians one; to the Ephesians one; to the Philippians one; to the Colossians one; to the Thessalonians two; to Timothy two; to Titus one; to Philemon one; to the Hebrews one; one of the blessed Peter to the Gentiles; and the first epistle of the blessed John. To these many add five more; one epistle of James; the second of Peter; one of Jude; and two of John.' He also says, that "the Revelation of John was doubted of, generally, by the Christians in the east.' Which may imply, that it was generally received in Africa, as indeed it was.
6. It may be here asked by some: How could Junilius, an African, know the sentiment of Christians in the east, concerning the book of the Revelation? And how comes it to pass, that he speaks as he does of the catholic epistles? I answer, that in the preface or dedication of his
Personas tres esse Deum:
L.'i. p. 128. D. Vid. et G. H. L. T. i. De Biblior. Text. Orig. p. 653. d Junilius, episcopus cujusdam urbis in Africâ, (nomen autem urbis invenire non potui) vir certe in sacris scripturis valde doctus, et in secularibus disciplinis, meo judicio, sufficienter instructus, sensu profundus, eloquio dulcis et ornatus, multa dicitur conscripsisse opuscula. Sed ego tantum vidi opus insigne, quod scripsit ad Primasium supradictum episcopum, quod prænotavit, De Partibus Divinæ Legis. Claruit, A. D. 540. Trithem. de Script. Ec. cap. 155.
Bib. des Aut. Ec. T. v. p 81.
De Veritat. Relig. Christian. p. 255.
De Partibus Divinæ Legis. Libri duo. Ap. Bib. PP. Max. T. x. p. 340.... 350.
Discip. Quomodo divinorum librorum consideratur auctoritas? Mag. Quia quidam perfectæ auctoritatis sunt, quidam mediæ, quidam nullius. D. Qui sunt perfectæ auctoritatis? M. Quos canonicos in singulis speciebus absolute enumeravinus. D. Qui media? M. Quos adjungi a pluribus dixi
mus. D. Qui nullius auctoritatis sunt? M. Reliqui omnes. L. i. c. 7. p. 341. G. H.
i Disc. Species dictionis quot sunt? M. Quatuor. Nam aut historica est, aut prophetica, aut proverbialis, aut simpliciter docens. L. i. c. 2. p. 340. F.
k... Evangeliorum quatuor: secundum Matthæum, secundum Marcum, secundum Lucam, secundum Johannem : Actuum apostolorum. Ib. c. 3. p. 340. G.
D. Quæ est simplex doctrina? M. Quâ de fide aut de moribus in præsenti tempore docemur. D. Quare hoc nomen accepit? M. Quia.... neque historiam texit, neque prophetiam, neque proverbialiter loquitur, sed tantum modo simpliciter docet. D. Qui libri ad simplicem doctrinam pertinent? M.... Epistolæ Pauli apostoli ad Romanos, 1. ad Corinthios, 2.... Beati Petri ad Gentes, 1. et beati Johannis prima. D. Nulli alii libri ad simplicem doctrinam pertinent? M. Adjungunt quamplurimi quinque alias, quæ apostolorum canonicæ nuncupantur: Jacobi 1. Petri secundam, Judæ unam, Johannis duas. Ib. c. 6. p. 341. F.
m Cæterum de Johannis Apocalypsi apud Orientales admodum dubitatur. Ib. c. 4. p. 341. B.
work to Primasius, he says, he had been acquainted with Paul, a Persian, a learned man, who had been educated in the school of the Syrians at Nisibis. From him, it is likely, he received, this information, as indeed he there intimates.
7. And in what he says of the Catholic epistles there are two things somewhat remarkable. First, that he supposeth the first epistle of Peter to have been written to Gentiles; and consequently the second also, if it be Peter's: for, very probably, the two epistles were sent to the same people. Secondly, of the seven catholic epistles he reckons two only of perfect canonical authority: the other five are only of middle authority, rejected by some, and received by others. If Junilius has here given a true account of what he heard from the above named Persian, it may be argued, that there were some in the east, who rejected or doubted of the epistle of James, as well as the other four: which indeed appears to me very probable.
8. In another place he mentions the books of the New Testament in this order: the four gospels, the apostolical epistles, and the Acts.
9. He puts the question; How do we know the authors of the books of scripture? The answer is: Some are known by the titles, and introductions, as the books of the prophets, in the Old Testament, and the epistles of the apostles, in the New. Some are known by their titles, only, as the gospels; some by tradition from the ancients, as the five books of Moses. Of some books the authors are unknown, as those of Ruth, the Judges, and the Kings.'
10. He likewise puts the question: How do we know the books of our religion to be written by divine inspiration? I transcribe his answer below, though it be somewhat long; where he also says, that miracles were wrought till the scripture (or the Christian religion) was received by the Gentiles: but now it is sufficient, that it is universally received; which may ⚫ be considered as a standing miracle.'
11. Before I conclude this chapter I should refer to James Basnage, who has observations upon this writer's catalogue of the books of scripture, that part especially, which concerns the books of the Old Testament.
MAGNUS AURELIUS CASSIODORIUS SENATOR.
I. His time. II. Three catalogues of the books of the Old and New Testament inserted by him in his Institution; Jerom's, Augustine's, and that of the old Latin version. III. General Remarks upon those catalogues, as here rehearsed. IV. An account of his Complexiones, or short commentaries, and extracts from them.
1. MAGNUS AURELIUS CASSIODORIUS SENATOR is placed by Cave as flourishing in the year 514, when he was consul: but as I am to quote his works, written after his retirement from
præceptorum, modus locutionis sine ambitu, puritasque ver-
f Vid. Cav. H. L. T i. p. 501. Du Pin Bib. des Aut. Ec. T. v. p. 63. Fabric. ap. Bib. Ecc. ad Honorii Aug. 1. xiii. cap. 21. Trithem. de Scr. Ec. cap. 212. Le Long Bib. Sacr. p. 670. Vit. Cassiod. a Garetio conscript. Pagi Ann. 493, n. iii. 514. n. i. 562. n. iv. S. Basnag. Ann. 534. n. ii. 535. n. x. 562, n. i.
• Senator absque collegâ annum aperuit, ut habent omnes
the world, particularly his Institutions of sacred Letters,' or Theology, written in 556, or thereabouts, I place him at that year. He lived to a great age: but the time * of his death is not certainly known. I beg leave to refer to some places in this work, where this writer has been already mentioned.
II. Cassiodorius, in that work, has put down three Catalogues of the books of the Old and New Testament.
1. The first he calls Jerom's: what was St. Jerom's catalogue or canon of the books of the Old Testament, is well known from his Prologus Galeatus, still extant, and transcribed formerly: his canon was the same with that of the Jews; and there can be no mistake about it. But the catalogue, as published in Cassiodorius's work, is not exact: for the book of the Kings, which should follow after Samuel, is wanting: and instead of Ecclesiastes, is put Ecclesiasticus. Upon this part of the Catalogue, as published by Garetius, Martianay made some free and just remarks, which I place below for the sake of curious readers. The remainder of the catalogue, consisting of the books of the New Testament, is thus: The evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John. After them follow the epistles of the apostles; two of Peter; fourteen of Paul; three ' of John; one of James; one of Jude; one book of the Acts of the apostles by Luke; one book of the Revelation of John.'
2. The next is called the Division of the Divine Scripture according to Augustine. We have already considered very largely Augustine's testimony to the scriptures: nevertheless I shall here transcribe the titles of the books of the New Testament, as enumerated by Cassiodorius. The New Testament consists of one-and-twenty epistles of apostles, that is, one epistle of the apostle Paul to the Romans: to the Corinthians, two; to the Galatians one; to the Ephesians one; to the Philippians one; to the Thessalonians two; to the Colossians one; to Timothy two; to Titus one; to Philemon one; to the Hebrews one; two epistles of Peter, 'three of John, one of Jude, one of James; the four gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; one book of the Acts of the apostles; one book of the Revelation.' And having put down this catalogue, Cassiodorius refers to Augustine's second book of the Christian doctrine : nevertheless he does not transcribe exactly. And the books of the New Testament are here rehearsed in a different order from that in Augustine, as any one may perceive by comparing i
3. The third catalogue is called the Division of Sacred Scripture, according to the ancient translation meaning, I suppose, the ancient Latin translation of the Old Testament from the Greek of the Seventy, which was in use before Jerom made a translation from the Hebrew. And for the New Testament, meaning the old Latin translation from the original Greek, which had been in use before Jerom corrected it. I intend to transcribe this catalogue at length. The holy scripture, according to the ancient translation, is divided into two Testaments, the
est Garetius noster, qui in ultimâ Cassiodori operum editione hos non emendârit codicum, seu editorum, seu manuscriptorum, errores, &c. Martian. Prolegom. iii, n. i. in Divin. Bib. Hieron.
In evangelistas, qui sunt Matthæus, Marcus, Lucas, Johannes. Post hos sequuntur epistolæ apostolorum, Petri duæ, Pauli quatuordecim, Johannis tres, Jacobi una, Judæ una, Actuum Apostolorum Lucæ liber unus, et Apocalypsis Johanuis liber unus. De Institut. Divin. Lit. cap. 12.
In epistolis apostolorum viginti una, id est, Pauli apostoli ad Romanos una, ad Corinthios duæ, ad Galatas una, ad Ephesios una, ad Philippenses una, ad Thessalonicenses duæ, ad Colossenses una, ad Timotheum duæ, ad Titum una, ad Philemonem una, ad Hebræos una, Petri duæ, Johannis tres, Judæ una, Jacobi una: In evangeliis quatuor, id est, secundum Matthæum, secundum Marcum, secundum Lucam, secundum Johannem: In Actibus apostolorum liber unus. In Apocalypsi liber unus. Beatus igitur Augustinus... secundo libro de Doctrinâ Christianâ Scripturas Divinas septuaginta unius librorum calculo comprehendit. Ib. c. 13. p. 516.
i See before, vol. ii. p. 578, 579.
* Scriptura sancta, secundum antiquam translationem, in Testamenta duo ita dividitur, id est, in Vetus et Novum. In Genesim, Exodum, Leviticum, Numerorum, Deuteronomium, Jesu Nave, Judicum, Ruth, Regum libros quatuor, Paralipo