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But it may not be amiss for me to give my readers some farther insight into this work, by reciting an article of Dr. Prideaux in his Connexion of the History of the Old and New Testament. He observes how the number of Jewish traditions had increased: · And thus,' says he, • it went on to the middle of the second century after Christ, when Antoninus Pius governed " the Roman empire, by which time they found it necessary to put all these traditions into
writing: for they were then grown to so great a number, and enlarged to so huge a heap, as to * exceed the possibility of being any longer preserved by the memory of men.
And therefore there being danger, that under these disadvantages they might be ali forgotten and lost, for the • preventing hereof it was resolved that they should be all collected and put into a book; and • Rabbi Judah, the son of Simeon, who, from the reputed sanctity of his life, was called Hakka• dosh, that is, the Holy, and was then rector of the school which they had at Tiberias in Galilee, * undertook the work, and compiled it in six books, each consisting of several tracts, which all
together make up the number of sixty-threeThis is the book called the Mishna; which • book was forth with received by the Jews with great veneration throughout all their dispersions, "and hath ever since been held in high esteem among them-And therefore, as soon as it was
published, it became the object of the studies of all their learned men; and the chiefest of • them employed themselves to make comments upon it: and these with the Mishna make up • both their Talmuds, that is, the Jerusalem Talmud, and the Babylonish Talmud. These "comments they call the Gemara, that is, the Complement; because by them the Mishna is
fully explained, and the whole traditionary doctrine of their law and their religion completed: • for the Mishna is the text, and the Gemara the comment, and both together is what they call • the Talmud. That made by the Jews of Judea is called the Jerusalem Talmud, and that made by the Jews of Babylonia, the Babylonish Talmud. The former was completed about the year of our Lord 300, and is published in one large folio; the latter was published about two • hundred years after, in the beginning of the sixth century, and hath had several editions since • the invention of printing: the last, published at Amsterdam, is in twelve folios. And in these • two Talmuds is contained the whole of the Jewish religion that is now professed among them: * but the Babylonish Talmud is that which they chiefly follow.'
The same learned author again afterwards computes that the Mishna was composed about the one hundred and fiftieth year of our Lord, the Jerusalem Talmud about the three hundredth year,
and the other Talmud about the five hundredth year of our Lord.
And Wagenseil observes, that · Rabbi Jehuda was contemporary with Antoninus the pious. Mr. Lampe, speaking of several of the Jewish rabbins celebrated about this time, says that R. Jehuda, author of the Mishna, died about the year of Christ 194, or according to others in the
Dr. Lightfoot, [Fall of Jerusalem, sect. vii. vol. i. p. 369,] says that · R. Judah outlived • both the Antonines, and Commodus also.' And afterwards, in the same page: · He com
piled the Mishna about the year of Christ 190, in the latter end of the reign of Commodus; or, * as some compute, in the year of Christ 220, an hundred and fifty years after the destruction of • Jerusalem.'
I do not take upon me to contest at all what Prideaux says of the times of the two Talmuds: but I must say a few things about the time of the Mishna. I allow that Rabbi Jehudah, the composer of it, was contemporary with Antoninus the pious; though the stories told by the Jewish writers, of the favours shewn him by that emperor, must be reckoned partly fabulous. But, allowing him to be contemporary with Antoninus, who died in the year 161, it does not follow that the Mishna was composed so soon as the year of Christ 150. R. Jehudah is supposed to have had a long life; and the compiling of the Mishna, which must have been the work of many years, and much leisure and deliberate thought and consideration, may not have been finished before the year 190 or later. If therefore I place this work at the year 180, I think I a The year before Christ 446. p. 326, &c. Vol. i.
tationes, Ora!is Lex plane in hominum animis obliteraretur. b Dr. Wotton, as above, p. 22, 23, says : “The Jerusalem. Wagens. Pr. p. 55. * Talmud wants the impertinences, and, consequently, the Sed præcipue eminuit R. Jehuda, quem Sanctum nomi• authority of the Babylonish Gemara- It has little of that nant, Mishnæ auctor, qui circa annum 194, aut secundum
hyperbolical and fabulous stuff, for which the other is so alios 230, obiisse creditur. Lampe Synops. H. E. P. 111. highly valued by the modern Talmudists.'
* Talmudici Operis fundamenta hoc seculo jacta, circa A.C c Rabbi Jehudam, qui Sancti cognomen inter suos meruit, cxc. Magistri citius, imperante Antonino Pio. Fred. Spanh. et Antonini Pii Imperatoris æqualis fuit, metus invaserat, ne, Opp. 1. i. p. 687. Vid. et p. 793. ob tantas gentis suæ miserias, et in remotissimis terris depor
place it soon enough. Besides, it is said that R. Jehuda had several sicknesses, some of long continuance, which are particularly mentioned both in the Jerusalem and the Babylonian Talmud, though with some variations. These must have been obstructions to him in his studies, and must have prolonged the labours of his work. The nature of the work also required time. It is not a speculation which might be spun out of a man's head at once. But it is a collection * of traditions from all quarters, and from the contributions of other learned men of the nation, who had treasured up these hitherto unwritten traditions in their memories.
One thing more I may premise here, that • it is the opinion of divers learned men, well skilled in this part of learning, that in the Mishna, which is a collection of Jewish traditions, there is little or nothing concerning our Saviour, or his followers. I allow also that here are none of those open blasphemies which may be found in some other Jewish writings.
II. I shall now make some extracts out of the Mishna.
1. In the tract concerning fasts are these words: Five heavy afflictions have befallen our ancestors on the seventeenth day of the month Tammuz [June], and as many on the ninth day of the month Ab [July]: för on the seventeenth day of Tammuz the tables of the law • were broken; the perpetual sacrifice ceased; the walls of the city were broke open; the law • was burnt by Apostemus; and an idol was set up in the temple. On the ninth day of the 6 month Abgl God determined concerning our fathers, that they should not enter into the promised land; the first and second temple was desolated; the city Bither was taken ; the holy city was destroyed: for which reason, as soon as the month Ab begins, rejoicings are « abated.
* Quamobrem, adhibitis in consilium auxiliumque sapien- day fatal for three other sad occurrences besides. " On the tissimis quibusque, sedulo ab iis, quibus licebat, Judæis, voce • ninth day of the month Ab," say they,
or the decree came ac per epistolas sciscitatus est, quænam a parentibus oralis legis out against Israel in the wilderness that they should not scita didicissent, quin et schedas undique conquisivit, quibus enter into the land. On it was the destruction of the first bactenus memoriæ causâ traditiones inscriptæ fuerant. Ea temple, and on it was the destruction of the second. Oa omnia, secundum certa doctrinæ capita disposuit, et in unum • it the great city Bither was taken, where there were thouvolumen redegit, cui nomen hoc Mishna, hoc est, deutepwors, sands and ten thousands of Israel, who had a great king over imposuit. Wagenseil. Pr. p. 55.
them, [Ben Cozba,) whom all Israel, even their greatest Scilicet, si per Talınud solam Mishnam intelligam, vere 'wise men, thought to have been Messias. But he fell into affirmavero, nullam in toto Talmude reperiri blasphemiam, • the hands of the heathen, and there was great affliction as nihil Christianis adversum, nullam fabulam quoque, imo nec (there was at the destruction of the sanctuary. And on that quidquam quod valde a ratione sit alienum. Continet enim day, a day allotted for vengeance, the wicked Turnus Rufus meras tantum TXTGOTAPU doceis, et est, cea diximus, corpus ploughed up the place of the temple, and the places about it, juris Judaïci olim non scripti. Rem ita se habere, testem to accomplish what is said, “ Sion shall become a ploughed idoneum ac locupletem sistere possumus, virum barum rerum ' field.” Talmud. in Taanith. per. 4, halac 6, Maimon. in scientissimum, omnique dignum præconio, Josephum de Taavith. per. 5.' Voisin.- Wagenseil. Præf. p. 57.
• It is strange, that men of the sanie nation, and in a thing Quippe, quod in præfatione hujus voluminis satis dixi, id so signal, and of which both parties were spectators, should tamcn nunc iterum dico, in universå Mishna, de Jesu serva- • be at such a difference: and yet not a difference neither, if tore, nec vola nec vestigium ullum apparet, imo ne de Chris- we take Josephus's report of the whole story, and the other tianis quidem, ejus nomen profitentibus. Id in Confut. Tol- * Jews' construction of the time. He records that the cloistero dos Jesehu. p. X. sect. 4.
walks, commonly called the Porticoes of the Temple, were ' Quinque res luctuosæ patribus nostris acciderunt die sep- ' fired on the eighth day, and were burning on the ninth : timo decimo mensis Taminuz [sc. Junii.] totidemque die 'but that day Titus called a council of war, and carried it by nono mensis Abh [sc. Julii.) Nam. xvii. Tammuz fractæ three voices, that the temple should be spared. But a new sunt tabulæ Legis : cessavit juge sacrificium: Urbis monia bustling of the Jews caused it to be fired, though against perrupta : Lex ab Apostemo combusta, idolumque in templo "his will on the next day. Joseph. ubi supr. c. 22, 23, 24. statutum. Nono autem die mensis Abh, decrevit Deus de "Now their Kalendar reckons from the middle day of the patribus nostris, non ingressuros eos in terram promissam : • three, that fire was at it as from a centre. And they state desolatum est templum primum et secundum : capta est urbs the time thus: “ It was the time of the evening when fire Bither : diruta urbs sancta. Unde ex quo mensis Abh incipit, ' was put to the temple ; and it burit till the going down of lætitiam imminuunt. Tract. de Jejuniis c. 4. sect. 7. Pars 2. ' the sun of the next day. And behold what Rabban Jocha p. 382. edit. Surenh.
'nan Benzaccai saith: If I had not been in that generation, d I think it cannot be disagreeable to my readers, if I here I should not have pitched it upon any other day but the tenth, transcribe some observations of Dr. Lightfoot, from what he ' because the most of the temple was burnt that day. And calls a Parergon. Concerning the fall of Jerusalem. Of his in the Jerusalem Talmud it is related that Rabbi and Joshua works, Vol. i. p. 362, though they are long : " The temple “Ben Levi fasted for it the ninth and tenth days both.” Gloss. ' was burnt down, as Josephus a spectator setteth the time, in Maim. in Taanith. per. 8. "" on the tenth day of the nionth Lous.” Which he saith • Such another discrepancy about the time of the firing of
was a fatal day to the temple ; for it had been burnt down the first temple by Nebuchadnezzar, may be observed in
by the Babylonians before on that day. De Bell. I. 6 c. vii. 2 Kings xxv. 8, 9, where it is said that “ in tlie fifth month, ' And yet his countrymen, who write in the Hebrew tongue, 'on the seventh day of the month, came Nebuzaradan, cap• fix both these fatalities to the ninth day of that month, 'tain of the guard, and burnt the house of the Lord : " and • which they call the month Ab. “And they account that yet in Jer. lii. 12, it is said to have been " in the fikh
Who is meant by Apostemus, or Appostemus, is not very material, and therefore I do not inquire. I allege this passage as an early Jewish testimony to the destruction of the holy city, or Jerusalem, and the second temple, as it is here called.
2. In the tract concerning the woman suspected of adultery, are these words: · When the ' war of Vespasian began, the coronets and bells of bridegrooms were forbidden by a public • decree. When the war of Titus began, the coronets of brides were forbidden, and that no • man should educate his son in Greek learning. Because of the final issue of that war every • bride was forbidden to come abroad under an umbrella. Nevertheless, our masters have [since] thought fit to allow of it.'
This also is an early testimony to the war, in which the Jewish people were subdued by those two great generals Vespasian and Titus.
3. I shall now transcribe below another long passage from the same tract: a part of which shall be translated.
• When Rabbi Meir died, there were none left to instruct men in wise parables.
-When Simeon, son of Gamaliel, died, there came locusts, and calamities were increased. • When R. Akiba died, the glory of the law vanished away. Upon the death of Gamaliel the
Aged, the honour of the law vanished, and there was an end to purity and sanctimony. When • Rabbi Ishmael, son of Babi, died, the splendour of the priesthood was tarnished. When • Rabbi (Judah] died, there was no more any modesty or fear of transgression. Rabbi Pinchas,
son of Ishmaeī, said, When the temple was destroyed all men were covered with shame, both • wise men and nobles; and all now cover their heads: the bountiful are reduced to poverty, • and the violent and slanderers prevail : nor is there any to explain the law, nor are there any · who ask and inquire. What then shall we do? Let us trust in our heavenly Father. R. • Eliezer, surnamed the Great, says, From the time that the temple was destroyed the wise * men began to be like scribes, the scribes like sextons, and sextons like the vulgar; and the • vulgar are continually degenerating from bad to worse: nor are there any who ask and inquire. • What then shall we do? Let us trust in our heavenly Father. A short time before the
coming of the Messiah impudence will be increased, and great will be the price of provisions. • The vine will bear fruit; nevertheless wine will be sold at a high price. The supreme empire • of the world will be overwhelmed with bad opinions: nor will there be room for any to correct • them. Synagogues will be turned into brothel houses, and the whole land of Judea will be • laid waste. Excellent men will wander from town to town, and experience no offices of • humanity. The wisdom of the masters will be slighted, and all who strive to avoid transgres• sion will be contemned, and great will be the dearth of truth. Young men will cover the • faces of the aged with shame; and the aged will rise before the young. The son will dis• honour the father : and the daughter will rise up against her mother: and the daughter-in-law 6 against her mother-in-law. And a man's enemies will be they of his own household. In a « word, that age will have a canine appearance. Nor will the son reverence the father. What • then shall we do? Let us trust in our heavenly Father. -May the coming of Elias be • hastened. And may the eternal God graciously vouchsafe that we may be preserved to that 6 time.'
month on the tenth day of the month." Which the Gema- ad pauperiem sunt redacti, contra invaluerunt violenti, et ‘rists in the Babylon Talmud reconcile thus : “ It cannot be calumniatores : nec superest explicans, nec quærens, nec insaid on the seventh day, because it is said on the tenth. Nor terrogans. Cui ergo innitendum est nobis ? Patri nostro cæ. can it be said on the tenth, because it is said on the seventh. lesti. R. Eliezer, cognomento Magnus, ait: Ex quo templum • How is it then? On the seventh day the aliens came into devastatum est, cæpere Sapientes similes esse Scribis, Scribæ 'the temple and ate there, and defiled it the seventh, eighth, Ædituis, Æditui vulgo hominum. Vulgus autem hominum, • and ninth days. And that day, towards night, they set it in pejus in dies ruit: nec quis rogans, aut quærens superest. on fire, and it burnt all the tenth day, as was the case also Cui ergo innitendum ? Patri nostro cælesti. Paullo ante adwith the second temple.” Taanith. fol. 29.'
ventum Messiæ impudentia augebitur, et magna erit annonæ • The ninth and tenth days of the month Ab, on which caritas. Vitis proferet fructum, sed vinum nihilominus care 'the temple was burnt down, was about the two and three- vendetur. Summum in orbe Imperium obruetur opinionibus • and-twentieth days of our July. And the city was taken pravis, et nulli locum habebit correptio. Synagogæ conver
and sacked the eighth day of September following. Joseph. tentur in lupanaria, limites Judææ desolabuntur, et regio, supr. c. 47.' So Lightfoot.
quanta quanta est, devastabitur. Viri insignes oppidatim cir• Orto bello Vespasiani, decreto publico abrogatæ sunt cuibunt, nec ulla humanitatis officia experientur. Fætebit coronæ sponsorum, et tyinpana. Orto bello Titi, cautum est de sapientia Magistrorum, a delictis sibi caventes spernentur, et coronis sponsarum, et ne quis filium in Græcanicis erudiret. Veritatis magnus erit defectus. Juvenes confundeot ora SePropter postremum belli impetum, prohibebatur sponsa in num. Senes coram junioribus surgent. Filius irritabit patrem. publicum prodire sub uranisco. Sed magistris nostris visum Nata insurget adversus matrem, nurusque contra socrum. est, facultatem ejus rei indulgere. Tractat. de Uxore Adul- Denique, suos quisque domesticos inimicos habebit. Scilicet terii suspectâ. num. 14. P. 3. p. 304. Edit. Surenh.
seculo isto canina facies erit, nec verebitur filius parentem. Mortuo R. Meir defecere, qui homines erudiebant (doctis] Cui ergo confidendum ? Patri cælesti.-R. Pinchas F. J. ait : parabolis. Mortuo R. Simeone Filio Gamalielis, vene- Providentia causa alacritatis. -Timor sceleris ducit ad pierunt locustæ, et auctæ sunt calamitates.-R. Ahibâ mortuo
Pietas caussa est [' gratiæ '] S. Spiritus. Spiritus decus legis evanuit.-Mortuo R. Gamaliele Sene, evanuit S. [' fideles '] facit participes resurrectionis mortuorum. honor legis, simulque mundities et sanctimonia, intermortuæ. Resurrectio mortuorum obtinget interventu Eliæ, cujus meR. Ismaële filio Babi defuncto, occubuit splendor sacerdotii. moria sacra esto, et sancta.- -Deus æternus benigne conceMortuo Rabbi (Judâ Sancto] cessavit modestia, et timor pec- dat ut adventu illius cito salvi sanique fruamur. Amen. Tr. cati. R. Pinchas F. J. ait diruto templo pudore suffusi sunt de uxore adulterii suspectå, num. 15. P. 3. p. 308, 309. Sapientes pariter et Nobiles; obixubunique capita. Liberales Surenh.
This passage may deserve an attentive regard, and will require divers observations. But I shall take no particular notice of what is here said about the coming of Elias,' that not being reckoned certainly genuine.
1. In the first place, this passage ought to be compared with Jerom's commentary upon Is. ch. viii. 14, where he mentions divers of the Jewish masters, who flourished and were very eminent about the time of our Saviour, and some while after; Sammai, Hillel, Meir, Akibas, Johanan the son of Zachai, and some others. In another place he censures the numerous traditions, or secondary laws, of the Pharisees. Undoubtedly Jerom was not unacquainted with Jewish traditions. But I cannot say that these passages amount to a proof that he had seen the volume of the Mishna.
2. Here is another testimony to the destruction of the temple at Jerusalem.
3. I suppose likewise that here is a reference to the disasters of the Jews, occasioned by the rebellion of Barchoehebas in the time of Adrian. This I suppose to be intended in these words: ! And the whole land of Judea will be laid waste, and excellent men will wander from place to • place, and experience no offices of humanity. Moreover, in the passage first cited, the taking of the city Bither is mentioned as one of the most remarkable calamities that had befallen the Jewish people. It was the concluding event of the Jewish war with Adrian, about the year 136. Which shews that the Mishna was not composed till some while afterwards.
4. Meir, the first rabbi here mentioned, is said to have been one of the principal of the Jewish doctors after the destruction of Jerusalem.
5. Rabbi Akibas d was a man upon whose praises the Jewish writers enlarge mightily: and his sayings are often mentioned in the Mishna and the Talmud.
the Talmud. He was a zealous follower of the impostor Barchochebas, who took upon him the character of the Messiah, in the time of Adrian, about the year of Christ 132; and he perished with him. This shews the temper of Akibas: and we can hence conclude how he stood affected to the Lord Jesus. The honourable mention here made of him shews also the temper of the compiler of this work, the Mishna.
6. Gamaliel the Aged is supposed to be Gamaliel St. Paul's master, mentioned by him Acts xxii. 3, and in ch. v. 34, to be “one of the council, a pharisee, and doctor of the law, had in reputation with all the people.” From what is here said of him, in the passage now before us, he appears to have been in great esteem with the Jewish people; and he is often mentioned in Mishna. What is here said of him, therefore, confirms the truth of what is said of him in the book of the Acts. Moreover, we are hereby assured that Gamaliel never was converted to Christianity as some Christians, especially of the church of Rome, have fondly and weakly imagined. And indeed from what St. Paul says, in the text before quoted, it may be argued that Gamaliel was still a firm Jew: otherwise it had not been to the purpose to take notice of his education under him, in the critical circumstances which he was then in.
7. Of Rabbi, [Jehudah), the compiler of the Mishna, here and elsewhere called Rabbi, or the master, without any other distinction, so much has been said already, that little more needs
a Duas domus Nazaræi-duas familias interpretantur, b Quantæ traditiones Pharisæorum sint, quas hodie vocant Sammai et Hillel : ex quibus orti sunt Scribæ et Pharisæi, EEUTEPWDEIF, et quam aniles fabulæ, evolvere nequeo. Neque quorum suscepit scholam Akibas, quem magistrum Aquilæ libri patitur magnitudo ; et pleraque tam turpia sunt, ut eruproselyti avtumant: et post eum Meir, cui successit Johapan bescam dicere. Ad Algas. Qu. x. T. 4. P. i. p. 207. filius Zachai : et post eum Eliezer, et per ordinem Delphon: • See Basnag. Hist. des Juifs. 1. 6.ch. x. sect. iv. &c. et rursum Joseph Galilæus: et usque ad captivitatem Jerusa- d Of Akibas may be seen Baspage Hist. des Juifs. liv. vi. lem Josue. Sammai igitur et Hillel non multo priusquam ch. ix. sect. 14-25. Vid. et Basvag. ann. 134. nutn. iii. Dominus nasceretur, orti sunt in Judæâ, quorum prior · dis- Raymund. Martini Pug. Fidei. p. 256–264. Edzardi Avodasipator' interpretatur, sequens profanus : ' eo quod per tra- zara, Vol. i. p. 162, 338. Lightfoot in the Fall of Jerusalem, ditiones et ÒEUTEPWeels suas legis præcepta dissipaverit, atque sect. iv. vol. i. p. 366, 367. Dr. Sharpe's Argument for niaculaverit, &c. In Is. cap. viii, T. 3. p. 79.
Christianity, p. 55,
to be added now. It is here said that when he died, there remained no longer any modesty • or fear of transgression. Maimonides, in his character of Jehudah the Holy, did not omit": this particular. But here is somewhat which could not be said by himself: it must have been inserted after his death. Wagenseil therefore acknowledgeth that there were some additions made to the Mislina. But he says there are not many, and they were soon made, and chiefly regard R. Jehuda himself, which I see no reason to contest. For I am willing to allow this volume to be a work of the second century.
Nevertheless this manner of speaking may perhaps induce us to think that more hands than one were employed in compiling it.
8. Once more in the eighth place. This whole passage appears to me to be a disguised and invidious representation of the state of things under the gospel dispensation since the appearance of Jesus, whom his disciples and followers have received as the Messiah : and especially after the destruction of Jerusalem, when Christianity prevailed and Judaism declined.
For (1.) The destruction of the Jewish temple is acknowledged. Nevertheless here are no tokens of repentance and humiliation, but complaints and reflections upon others. The times were bad. But the blame is all laid upon others.
(2.) The “supreme empire of the world,' he says, “will be,' or is overwhelmed with bad • opinions :' meaning, as I think, the Christian religion, and the several sects and heresies which arose in the second century, and some of them not far from the beginning of it.
(3.) • Synagogues will be turned into brothel houses.' He refers to the common reports among the vulgar, that the Christians practised promiscuous lewdness in their religious assemblies. And he adopts the calumny.
(4.) In what follows, the author adopts the words of our Lord, recorded Matt. x. 35, 36, and Luke xii. 51–53; which words are also in Micah vii. 6, concerning the dissensions that would be in families; some cheerfully embracing his doctrine, whilst others obstinately rejected it, and were bitter towards those who received it. Which the compiler of this work represents as the utmost distress and misery, and as hitherto unknown and unparalleled wickedness.
(5.) And what do all the clamours of this paragraph mean concerning the failure' or dearth of truth, the multiplicity of bad opinions, whilst there was no room left for reproof or • correction ?' What is intended by the complaints that the wisdom of the masters was slighted, • that there was an end to purity and sanctimony, to modesty and the fear of transgression, and
that the young covered the faces of the aged with shame, and the aged rose up to the young?' and the rest.
All these complaints, as seem to me, refer to the resolution and steadiness of the converts to Christianity from Judaism and Gentilism, who judged for themselves, and admitted the evidences of the truth of the new religion, which overpowered their minds. Of which therefore they made an open profession, notwithstanding the sophistry, the entreaties, and the menaces of the world about them; many of whom were their superiors in age, learning, and outward circumstances and condition. Of all this we have in this passage, as seems to me, a graphical description.
I cannot but understand this passage after this manner. And I refer these thoughts to the consideration of my readers. This paragraph, if my interpretation be right, is very curious.
I am unwilling to enter into a controversy about the Mishnical tract * Avoda zara, de cultu peregrino,' [of strange or idolatrous worship.] I pay a great regard to the judgment of those learned men who say there is in it no reference to the Christians. Nevertheless there seems to me a defect in their reasonings upon that point. I think that when the Mishna was compiled the Christians were more numerous, more considerable, and of more consequence, than those learned men suppose in their argument concerning that tract
III. I have done with the Mishna. I proceed to the Talmud.
Upon a certain day, when several masters were sitting at the gate of the city, two boys
lo summo etiam pietatis, et humilitatis, et abstinentiæ a Juramentis vero illorum nihil prorsus est tribuendum voluptatibus gradu: uti etiam dixerunt: Ex quo mortuus est quia in ipso Talınude docentur, posse juramenta, dum præRabbi, cessavit humilitas, et timor peccati.
stantur, confestim in mente aboleri, ut non obligent. Exem Mosio. p. 35.
plo est R. Akifa, de quo Cod. Kolla fol. 18, col. 2, ned. seAccessisse, post obitum R. Judæi, quasdam interpolatio- quens refertur historia. Cum aliquando Seniores sederent in nes, non pegaverim : sed eæ paucæ sunt, ac mature fuerunt portâ (urbis] præterierunt ante ipsos duo pueri, quorum alter adjectæ, ipsumque R. Judam potissimum respiciunt. Wag. caput rexerat, alter retexerat. Et de eo quidem, qui caput ib p. 55.
[proterve, et oontra bonos mores] retexerat, propuntiavit B.