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Nero, “ as Josephus says, was not a little moved at these things, though he dissembled his concern. However, he chose for a general a man of known valour and experience in war, several of whose important services are here mentioned by Josephus, agreeably to the testimony of the Roman authors, who represent Vespasian to have been chosen for this service out of regard to his merit, when upon some accounts he was disagreeable to Nero.

Vespasian sent his own son Titus from Achaia, where he then was, to Alexandria, to fetch thence the fifth and tenth legions. Himself having crossed the Hellespont, went by land into Syria, where he gathered together the Roman forces, and a good number of auxiliaries from the neighbouring princes.

The « Jews, elevated by the advantages which they had gained over Cestius, determined to carry the war to a greater distance. Accordingly they marched to Ascalon, a city always at enmity with them, distant from Jerusalem five hundred and fifty furlongs ; [more than sixty miles.] Here the Jewish people were defeated in two attacks, losing more than eighteen thousand men, and two of their generals, John the Essene, and Silas the Babylonian. Niger the Periate, the third general, narrowly escaped with his life.

Vespasian,' when he arrived at Antioch, the metropolis of Syria, reckoned the third city of the Roman empire for magnitude and dignity, found there Agrippa waiting for him: and taking the whole army with him he soon marched forward to Ptolemais.

Titus,' making greater expedition than could have been expected, especially in the winter season, came to his father at Ptolemais, bringing with him the fifth and tenth legions : to which were added the fifteenth legion, and eighteen cohorts. There were also five cohorts from Cæsarea, with one troop of horse, and also five other troops from Syria. There was also a considerable number of auxiliaries from the kings Antiochus [of Comagene] and Agrippa, and Seleucus, and Malchus the Arabian. So that the whole arms of Romans and auxiliaries, horse and foot, amounted to about sixty thousand men, beside servants, whom Josephus represents as far from being useless, according to the Roman discipline.

Thus we have pursued the history to the end of the year 66, and into the beginning of the

Vespasian 8 staid some while at Ptolemais. However Placidus, who was before sent into Galilee, destroyed many whom he met with in the open countries. He also made an attack upon Jotapata, but was repulsed.

Vespasian leaves Ptolemais, and marcheth with his army in great order into Galilee.

The i first place taken by Vespasian was Gadara, which at that time had in it few men of a military age. But he slew all the young people: the Romans, from hatred of the Jews, and resenting the defeat of Cestius, having no mercy on any age. He also set fire to the city, and burnt all the villages and smaller towns round about; inaking some totally desolate, in others taking some captives.

Josephus leaves Tiberias, and enters Jotapata on the twenty-first day of May.

The next day Vespasian marches to Jotapata, at ” the siege of which he received a slight wound in one of his feet.

• Whilst " Vespasian lay with his army before Jotapata, he sent Trajan, commander of the tenth legion, to Japha, not far off. The place was strong and surrounded by a double wall. A

year 67.

a De B. J. 1. 3. c. i. sect. 1, 2.

exercitu ampliore, et non instrenuo duce, cui tamen tuto • Missu Neronis, Vespasianus fortunâ famâque, et egregiis tanta res committeretur, opus esset, ipse potissimum delectus ministris, &c. Tacit. Hist. L. V. cap. 10.

est; et, ut industriæ expertæ, nec metuendus ullo modo ob Claudio principe, Narcissi gratiâ legatus legionis in Ger- humilitatem generis ac nominis. Additis igitur ad copias maniam missus est; inde in Britanniam translatus, tricies cum duabus legionibus, octo alis, cohortibus decem, atque inter hoste conflixit.- Peregrinatione Achaïca inter comites legatos majore filio assumto, ut primum provinciam attigit, Neronis, cum, cantante eo, aut discederet sæpius, aut præsens proximas quoque couvertit in se; correctå statim castrorum obdormisceret, gravissimam contraxit offensam. Prohibitusque discipliva : uno quoque et altero prælio tam constanter initio, non contubernio modo, sed etiam publicâ salutatione, secessit ut in oppugnatione castelli lapidis ictum genu, scuto sagittas in parvam ac deviam civitatem, quoad latenti, etiamque ex- aliquot exceperit. Sueton. Vespasian. c. iv. trema metuenti, provincia cum exercitu oblata est. Percre- c De B.J.1.3. c. i. sect. 3. buerat Oriente toto vetus et constans opinio, esse in fatis, ut d Ib. c. ii. sect. 1, 2, 3.

e Ibid. sect. 4. en tempore Judæâ profecti rerum potirentur. Id, de Im- { Ib. c. iv. n. 2.

& L. 3. c. vi. I. peratore Romano (quantum eventu postea patuit) prædictum,

h Ib. n. 2, 3.

i Cap. vii. 1. Judæi ad se trahentes, rebellarunt; cæsoque præposito, lega

k Sect. 3.

| Ib. 4.

m Ib. sect. 22. tum insuper Syriæ consularem suppetias ferentem, raptâ

n Ib. sect. 31. aquilâ fugaverunt. Ad hunc motum comprimendum cum

large number made a sally upon the Romans. Being beaten back they retired within the "outer wall: but when they came to the inner wall, their fellow-citizens refused to admit them, • lest the Romans should also force their way in with them. And now,' says Josephus, • it

might he seen that God had given up the Galileans to the Romans to be destroyed by their • cruel enemies. The number of the slain in the distress between the two walls, was twelve * thousand. Of this Trajan gave information to Vespasian, desiring him to send his son Titus thither, that he might have the honour of completing the conquest.'

• Vespasian, suspecting there might still be some difficulty, sent Titus with five hundred 16 horse and a thousand foot. When the place was taken all the people, young and old, were

destroyed. None were saved excepting the male infants and the women, who were made • slaves. The number of those who were slain now, and in the former attack, were fifteen * thousand. The prisoners were two thousand a hundred and thirty. This calamity befell the · Galileans on the five-and twentieth day of May.'

At the same time the Samaritans got together in a riotous manner at mount Garizim. Whereupon Vespasian sent against them Cerealis, commander of the fifth legion, with six • hundred horse, and three thousand foot; who slew them all, to the number of eleven thousand and six hundred. This happened on the twenty-fifth day of the month of June.

Now' the final attack was made upon Jotapata, which was taken after a siege of forty-seven days. All of every age were slain, except infants and women. The captives were a thousand and two hundred. The number of slain in the last attack, and in the former encounters, was forty thousand. Vespasian ordered the city to be demolished, and set fire to all the castles. Thus Jotapata was taken on the first day of July, in the thirteenth year of the reign of Nero.

I think it may be worth the while to observe here, for shewing the violent and desperate disposition of the Jewish people at this time, “that ^ in the distress of the last attack, when the • Romans were got within the walls of Jotapata, many of the people made away with them• selves, rather than come into the hands of the Romans. Josephus calls them chosen men, who • were near his person : they could not kill the Romans; and they resolved not to be killed by "them.'

Undoubtedly my readers recollect here what was taken notice of formerly, which happened presently afterwards, in the cave where ` Josephus and forty other persons of distinction had hid themselves. And several other like instances may appear hereafter, as we proceed in this history, which ought not to pass unnoticed.

Josephus & now came into the hands of the Roman general. He was still a prisoner, and carried a chain: but he had change of apparel given him, and was otherwise well used.

The siege of Jotapata being over, on the fourth of July Vespasian returned to Ptolemais. Thence he went to Cæsarea by the seaside. Here he put two legions, for some while, for their refreshment; but sent the tenth and fifth to Scythopolis, that Cæsarea might not be overburdened.

• In the mean time he sent some of his soldiers, both horse and foot, to Joppa. Which, though it had been domolished not long since by Cestius, was repeopled by men who had escaped from other cities. Here they built many ships, and exercised a kind of piracy. Upon • the approach of the Romans, they betook themselves to their ships, which met with a violent * storm, and were cast away. The number that perished was computed to be four thousand and two hundred. Here k also some, rather than be drowned, or be cast on the shore, and then be killed by the Romans, put an end to their own lives. The place was now entirely demolished. • However, by Vespasian's direction, a number of horse and foot were left here, with orders to

destroy the neighbouring villages. So those troops overrun the country, as they were ordered, (and laid waste the whole region.'

In a short time Vespasian went from Cæsarea before mentioned, to Cæsarea Philippi, to pay

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2 Θεος δ' ην αρα, ο Ρωμαιοις τα Γαλιλαιων παθη χαριζοME205. X. 2. Ibid. • Ibid. p. 32.

-ενθα τεσσαρακοντα μεν των επισημων ανδρας καταλαμβανει λανθανοντας. Ιb. c. viii. 1. $ Ib. sect. 9.

c Sect. 33–35. Ο Τοτο πολλες και περι τον Ιωσηπον επιλεκτων, επ' αυτοχειριαν παρωξυνε. Κατιδοντες γαρ, ως έδενα των Ρωμαιων ανελειν δυνανται, τoγε μη πεσειν αυτοι υπο Ρωμαιων προελα. Κον, και συναθροισθέντες επι τα καταλήγοντα της πόλεως σφας AUTOS AVEL.C%. Sect. 34.

e See p. 489.

* Ibid. cap. 9. sect. 1. i Sect. 2, 3, 4.

* Τινες δε, ως κεφοτερω, την θαλασσαν εφθανον, τα σιδηρου σφας αυτ8ς αναιροντες. Ιb. sect. 3.

'Ibid, sect. 7.

a compliment to king Agrippa, by whom he had been invited, and by whom he was now entertained twenty days.

Hearing of the revolt of Taricheas, Vespasian sent thither his son Titus. Taricheas was a strong place, and had been fortified by Josephus. The number of people who perished in the several attacks, and in taking the city was six thousand and five hundred.

After which Vespasian sat on his tribunal to consider what should be done with the people that remained. And at length by his order all the old men, and other useless people, to the number of twelve hundred, were slain. Out of the young men he chose six thousand of the strongest, whom he sent to Nero to work at the Isthmus. The rest he sold for slaves, who were in number thirty thousand and four hundred. This was done on the eighth day of September.

The place to which Vespasian went was Gamala. Where he met with great difficulties, and many of the Romans were slain. It was taken at last on the twenty-third day of October. When there was no way of escaping left, many Jews threw their children, their wives, and themselves, from the hill on which the citadel was built, into the deep valley below. The number of those who thus precipitated themselves was computed to be five thousand. The rest amounted to four thousand. For here the Romans spared none, not even infants. None escaped except two women.

To Gischala · Vespasian sent Titus: here about six thousand were slain. But John, son of Levi, who had commanded in the place, escaped and got to Jerusalem, with some others: which, ' as our historian says, was the work of God, who saved John for the destruction of Jerusalem.

• Thus,' says : Josephus, was all Galilee subdued, after it had cost the Romans much • labour.'

The next chapter of our author contains an account of the state of things in Jerusalem after John came into it. Where he likewise says: “At the same time there were disturbances and • civil wars in every city. And all they who were quiet from the Romans, turned their hands ‘one against another. At this time robbers, and others of the worst characters, came into the

city, where it had been long usual to receive all who came: but their numbers consumed those * provisions, which might have been of use in a siege.'

They now exercised tyranny over the most considerable men. Antipas, a man of royal lineage, the most potent man in the city, to whom the care of the public treasure had been committed, they laid hold of, and sent to prison: and after him Levias, a man of great distinction, and Sophas, son of Raguel, a man of like eminence, and both of royal lineage. And not thinking themselves safe whilst they were living, they sent some men, of desperate characters, to put them to death in the prison.

Dissensions increasing, there were slain " in one night eight thousand and five hundred; and afterwards ° twelve thousand of the better sort, beside many others. Here also are mentioned by name, as put to death by the zealots, or others, divers men of great eminence, whose deaths our historian laments in pathetic terms: Ananus, “ the most ancient of the high-priests ; Jesus, also high-priest, inferior to Ananus, but yet a person of great eminence; and Zacharias, son of Baruch; different from Zacharias mentioned in Matt. xxiii. 35, and Luke xi. 51, as was shewn in another ? place.

Soon'after this, was put to death by the zealots, Gorion, a man of great eminence for his own virtues, as well as upon account of his family, nor did Niger, the Peraite, escape

their hands, though he had been so serviceable to them in this war. • When they were killing him, • he uttered this imprecation upon them—that, beside the war, they might undergo famine and • pestilence, and after that come to the mutual slaughter of each other. All which imprecations • God ratified against those wicked men. And most justly did they soon after reap the fruit of • their madness in their mutual dissentions.' a Ib. sect. 7. -Cap. x. 1-10.

k Sect. 4. d De B. J. I. 4. cap. ). sect. l-10. m L. 4. cap. v. Et Conf. cap. iii. sect. 7. · Ibid. cap. ii. n. 1-5.

Cap. v. sect. 1. * Θεε δε ην το εργον, αρα τα σωζοντος τον Ιωαννην επι τον Μυριοι δε και δισχιλιοι των ευγενων ετω διεφθαρησαν. . των Ιεροσολύμων ολεθρον. sect. 3.


I Sect. 5.

c Sect. 10.


P Sect. 2, et 4. 8 Γαλιλαια μεν 80 ετως εαλω σασα, πολλοις ίδρωσι προ- 9 See Vol. i. p. 217. &c. Yuratata 'Pwuales. sect. 5.

cap. vi. sect. 1. i Ib. sect. 2, 3.

sect. 3.

1 Ib.

$ Ib, sect, I.

. Ib. cap. 3.

These things being heard of in the Roman camp, the commanders were for hastening the attack

upon the city: but Vespasian, as Josephus says, answered them, that the Jews were not now making armour, nor building walls; but they are every day tearing themselves to pieces by intestine wars and dissentions, and suffer greater miseries than could be inflicted upon them by us, if they were in our hands. And it was the best way to let the Jews destroy one another.

These things we suppose to have happened at the end of the year 67, and the beginning of 68.

• However, Vespasian was not inattentive to affairs, and took care to reduce other places before he went to Jerusalem. He then left Cæsarea for a while, and marched to Gadara, the • metropolis of Perea,' as Josephus says, “and entered it on the fourth day of March.'

· After which he returned to Cæsarea, and left Placidus to carry on the war in those parts ; · who took Abila, Julias, and Besemoth, and other smaller cities and villages, as far as the lake Asphaltites; insomuch that now all Perea was in the hands of the Romans, excepting Macherus. This expedition was very fatal to the Jews. Many of the Jewish people were slain by the sword, others were driven into the river Jordan. The number of the slain was not less • than fifteen thousand, beside two thousand and two hundred which were made captives. And • Placidus had a rich booty of asses and sheep, camels and oxen. This disaster was equal to any that had yet befallen the Jews.'

In the mean time · Vespasian with a part of his army went from Cæsarea to Antipatris ; where he spent two days in settling the affairs of that city. On the third day he marched on, laying waste and burning all the villages. And when he had laid waste all the places about the toparchy of Thamnas, he passed on to Lydda and Jamnia ; and then came to Ammaus. Thence he went to the toparchy of Bethleptephon; and destroying that and other neighbouring places, he slew more than ten thousand, and made captives more than a thousand : and on the second day of the month of July he pitched his camp at Corea, not far from Neapolis, called by the people of the country Mabortha, and then went to Jericho.

Not long afterwards he returned to Cæsarea. And now, when he was getting ready all his forces for the siege of Jerusalem, he hears of the death of Nero, which happened on the tenth of June, in the year of our Lord 68. Wherefore Vespasian for a while put off his intended expedition against Jerusalem, waiting to see to whom this empire would be transferred, and expecting to receive orders from him.

During the remaining part of the year 68 and the year 69, little was done by the Romans in the war against the Jews. They kept garrisons in the places already conquered, and fortified some places: but they made little progress, and the siege of Jerusalem was deferred. This delay was a favourable opportunity for the Jewish people to consider and relent, and make peace with the Romans their enemies, having first repented of their sins, and humbled themselves before God: but nothing of that kind came to pass. They went on in their old way, quarrelling among themselves, and forming parties, weakening themselves by divisions and contentions, and thereby hastening their ruin.

Our Lord foresaw this, as appears from the terms of all his predictions concerning them. He foresaw that nothing would reclaim them, after his own teachings had failed of the effect. “ When he was come near he beheld the city, and wept over it, saying: If thou hadst known, even thou, in this thy day the things that belong to thy peace; but now they are hid from thine eyes : for the days will come upon thee that thy enemies shall compass thee round, and lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee, because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation:” Luke xix. 41-14. He would still send among them prophets, wise men, and scribes, his apostles and evangelists; but they would not hearken to them. They would reject their message, and abuse them: Matt. xxiii. 34.

At this time, says Josephus, a new war began at Jerusalem. And Simon, son of Gioras, who for a while had been troublesome to the people there by his. furious attacks upon the place, was admitted into the city in the month of April, near the end of the third year of the war.

On the third day of July, in the year of our Lord 69, Vespasian was proclaimed emperor

1 lb. sect. 2.

b L. 4. cap. vii. • Ib. cap. viii. 1.

Ib. cap. ix. 1, 2.' • Nihil hoc anno alicujus momenti in Judæa gestum. Pagi ann. 69. n. xiii.

* Εταιςαται δε αλλος τοις Ιεροσολύμοις πολεμος. L. 4. c, ix. sect. 3. in. & Cap. ix. 12.

h Ib. cap. X.

by the Roman army in Judea ; as he had been proclaimed on the first day of the same month at Alexandria; which day was reckoned the beginning of his reign.

And may we not be allowed to suppose that Vespasian and Titus were thus advanced by way of recompense for their services, as instruments in the hand of Providence for inflicting that punishment upon the Jewish people which their crying sins deserved, and thus accomplishing the predictions concerning it? We cannot say that they were truly virtuous; but they were persons of great eminence, and many abilities : and they had a more social and benevolent dis, position than many others. Titus in particular is represented by Roman authors as a man of a very amiable character. And Josephus, who was present with him in the war, often says that he unwillingly treated the Jewish people so severely as he did, and that he often made them offers of mercy, if they would lay down their arms, and accept of reasonable terms.

Vespasian, not long after this, went to Alexandria, and thence to Rome, leaving his son Titus to carry on the war in Judea.

Vespasian staid some months' at Alexandria, waiting for a fair wind and good weather, or upon account of some political views and considerations. Several extraordinary things are related to have happened during his stay there, which are related very briefly by · Dion Cassius, more particularly by · Suetonius, and still more prolixly by ' Tacitus.

• Two men of low rank at Alexandria, one of them blind, the other lame in one of his hands, • came both together to him in a humble manner, saying that they had been in a dream admo• nished by the god Serapis to apply to him for cure of their disorders; which they were assured * might be done for the one, if he would be pleased to anoint his eyes and face with his spittle; • and for the other, if he would vouchsafe to tread upon his hand. Vespasian, as is said, hesitated • for a while. However, the physicians having been consulted, they gave their opinion that the

organs of sight were not destroyed in the blind man, and that sight might be restored if • obstacles were removed; and that the other's hand was only disjointed, and with proper • remedies might be set right again. At length, moved by the entreaties of the distempered • persons, and encouraged by the flatteries of those about him, Vespasian performed what had • been desired, and the effect was answerable; one of them presently recovered the use of his hands, and the other his sight.'

I do not see reason to believe that any miracle was now wrought. It was a contrivance between Vespasian and his friends and favourites. Nors could it be safe for any to examine and make remarks upon an event, which an emperor and his favourites recommended to public belief.

Suetonius has accounted for these stories in the introduction to his narration, saying that somewhat was wanting to give dignity and authority to a new chosen emperor.' And at the

• Initium ferendi ad Vespasianum Imperii Alexandriæ inclinatio numinum ostenderetur, Ex plebe Alexandrina cæptum, festinante Tiberio Alexandro, qui Kal. Jul. sacra- quidam, oculorum tabe notus, genua ejus advolvitur, rememento ejus legiones adegit. Isque primus principatus dies in diuin cæcitatis exposcens gemitu; monitu Serapidis dei, quem posterum celebratus, quamvis Judaïçus exercitus v. nonas dedita superstitionibus gens ante alios colit. Precabaturque Jul. apud ipsum juràsset, eo ardore, ut ne Titus quidem filius principem, ut genas et oculorum orbes dignaretur respergere exspectaretur, Syriâ remeans, et consiliorum inter Municia- oris excremento. Alius manu æger, eodem deo auctore, ut num et patrem nuntius. Tacit. Hist. 2. cap. 79. Conf. Sue- pede ac vestigio Cæsaris calcaretur, orabat. Vespasianus priton. Vespasian. cap. 6. Vid. et pagi, ann). 69. n. vii. et Bas- mo irridere, aspernari; atque, illis instantibus, modo famam nag. ann. 69. n. xxi.

vanitatis metuere, modo obsecratione ipsorum, et vocibus Titus, cognomento paterno, amor ac deliciæ bumani ge- adulantium, in spem induci : postremo æstimari a medicis neris. Sueton. T'it. cap. i.

jubet, an talis cæcitas ac debilitas ope humanâ superabiles foc Jos. cle B. J. 1. 4. cap. xi.

rent. Medici varie differere: Huic non exesam vim luminis, d Dio. I. 66. n. 8. p. 1082.

et redituram, si pellerentur obstantia; illi illapsos in pravum Auctoritas et quasi majestas quædam, ut scilicet inopinato artus, si salubris vis adhibeatur, posse integrari. : . Igitur Vespaet adhuc novo principi, deerat: hæc quoque accessit. E sianus cuncta fortunæ suæ parere ratus, nec quidquam ultra in. plebe quidam luminibus orbatus, item alius debili crure, se- credibile, læto ipse vultu, erectâ quæ astabat multitudine, jussa dentem pro tribunali pariter adierunt, orantes opem valetudinis, exsequitur. Statim conversa ad usum manus, ac cæco reluxit. demonstratam a Serapide per quietem, restituturum oculos, dies. Utrumque, qui interfuere, nunc quoque memorant, postsi inspuisset; confirmaturum crus, si dignaretur calce contin- quam nullum mendacio pretium. Tacit. Hist. 4. cap. 81. gere. Cum vix fides esset rem ullo modo successuram, ideo- 8 Ad rei ipsius veritatem quod adtinet, non facile adfirmanque ne experiri quidem anderet ; extremo, hortantibus ami- tibus credere licet, cum vix tutum esset id negare, quo Imcis, palam pro concione utrumque tentavit, nec eventus defuit. peratori obsequentiores Ægyptii, et quod proinde intererat Sueton. Vespas. cap. vii.

Imperatoris, verum videri. Fraudes ejus retegere, qui fallere Per eos menses, quibus Vespasianus Alexandriæ statos vuli, et omnibus Reipublicæ copiis instructus est, nunquam æstivis flatibus dies, et certa maris operiebatur, multa mira- tutum fuit, &c. Cleric, Ann. 138. n. iii. cula evenere, quis cælestis favor et quædam in Vespasianum

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