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• The scriptures of the New Testament are these : the gospel according to Matthew, the gospel according to Mark, the gospel according to Luke, the gospel according to John ; the • Acts of the apostles ; fourteen epistles of Paul ; seven Catholic epistles ; one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude. All together, the books of the New Testament are 26.
• The contradicted are these : Three books of the Maccabees; the Wisdom of Solomon • the Wisdom of Jesus, the son of Sirach ; Psalms, and Odes of Solomon; Esther ; Judith
; • Susanna ; Tobit, called also Tobias.
The contradicted books of the New Testament are these : Enoch; the Patriarchs; the Prayer of Joseph; the Testament of Moses; the Assumption of Moses ; Abraham ; Eldad and • Modad; Elias the prophet ; Zephaniah the prophet; Zachary the father of John the Baptist ; Baruch ; . Habakkuk; Ezekiel; and Daniel, falsely inscribed.'
* Apocryphal' books of the New Testament are these : The Circuits (or · Itinerary'] of Peter, : the Circuit of John, the Circuit of Thomas ; the - Revelation of John ; the Doctrine of the
Apostles ; Clement, ' his first and second (epistle]; Ignatius ; Polycarp ; the Shepherd, and • Hermas.'
I shall now make a few remarks:
1. This catalogue is of use, to shew that the Jewish canon was generally esteemed sacred by Christians ; and that the other books of the Old Testament, which are now often called • apocryphal,' and here, contradicted, were not of equal authority, though they were read sometimes in some churches, and often quoted by Christian writers. Indeed, Baruch is here placed among the sacred scriptures of the Old Testament; and Esther among the contradicted. And it is well known, that the book of Esther was not in all ancient catalogues: the book of Baruch is the only thing in which this catalogue differs from that of the Jews : and the inserting that, and the omission of Esther, may be reckoned things of no great consequence.
2. This catalogue affords evidence, that there never were any Christian writings, esteemed to be of equal authority with those which are now received by us as sacred and canonical.
3. One book, now generally received by us, is not here numbered among the canonical, but among the apocryphal scriptures. Upon this
, therefore, I observe, as follows: In the copy published by Scaliger, after the Circuit of Thomas, is put the Gospel of Thomas, without any notice at all of the Revelation of John. ' In Montfaucon's copy, or manuscript, if I understand him, the Revelation of John' had been struck out, though he puts it in his printed edition. Of this point Montfaucon speaks distinctly in his preface to the Bibliotheca Coisliniana: He thinks * that' the Revelation was put.by Nicephorus among the canonical books : for, in his time, the • Revelation was received by the Christians at Constantinople: however, it is certain, that there • have been different opinions about this book ; possibly, therefore, some transcriber, agreeably * to his opinion, struck it out of the article of canonical books, and put it among the apocryphal : • another transcriber, after that, offended at seeing it among the apocryphal, struck it out; but yet
did not replace it among the canonical, as he should. So that learned writer. 4. It may deserve to be remarked, that · Enoch, the Patriarchs, the Prayer of Joseph, the • Testament of Moses, Abraham, Eldad,' and · Modad, Elias,' and some other books of the like kind, are not placed here among the contradicted scriptures of the Old, but of the New Testament; which I think shews that these books were Christian writings : by their titles they should belong to the Old Testament; nevertheless, they are reckoned among the contradicted books of the New Testament. Very probably, therefore, they were of old time, as well as of late, esteemed by many, Christian forgeries. * Της νεας διαθηκης. • Ομε της νεας διαθηκης ζελοι κς'. sed cum mendis perpetuis, ita ut in versiculorum numeris vix
Karosa avlinayoriai, Tauia Elolv. Montf. Kai orai avline- quidpiam sanum occurreret... Inter apocryphos hoc in libello γονται, αυθαι εισι της παλαιας. Scalig.
Apocalypsin numerari, non est quod mireris. Non enim 4 Και όσα της νεας ανlιλεγονται.
defuere variis temporibus, qui hunc sacrum librum inter Βαροχ, Αμβακεμ, Εζεκιήλ, και Δανιηλ ψευδεπιγραφα. canonicos non admitterent, nec a Joanne apostolo editum pu1 Και όσα της νεας εισιν αποκρυφά.
tarent. Ego vero non existimo Apocalypsin a Nicephoro ad & Περιοδοι Πείρα. Περιοδος Ιωανν8.
apocryphos ablegatam fuisse. Nam certum est, illius tempore * H Amoxahubis Iwavyo. Hoc, erasum fuit. Montf. ecclesiam Constantinopolitanam hunc librum inter canonicos • Κλημενος. Α. Β.
admisisse. Sed quispiam fortasse postea in Nicephori Canone Ιγναθιε, Πολυκαρπ8, Ποιμενος, και Ερμα. Apocalypsin temere ex canonicis expunxerit, et inter apocry: * Περιοδος Ιωανν8. Περιοδος Θωμα. Ευαγγελιoν καλα phos Iocarit. Ωue causa fuisse videtur, ut alius deinceps Oxuar. Scalig.
Apocalypsin in hoc codice ex apocryphis abraderet. Qui caDecimum septimum anecdoton est Canon Scripturæ men eam non inter canonicos reposuit, ut debuerat. Præf.p.7. Sacræ per Nicephorum Patriarcham C. P. quod editum erat,
5. It is somewhat strange, that the epistles of Clement, Ignatius, Polycarp, and the book of Hermas, should be placed in a different class, below and after such books as had been mentioned in the foregoing article of contradicted,' and also after such books as precede in this article of • apocryphal. Fabricius thinks, that thereby are not to be understood the epistles, or genuine writings of those apostolical fathers; but their doctrines, or didascaliæ. And so, indeed, this part is expressed in the Stichometry, or Indiculus, prefixed by Cotelerius to the apostolical constitutions :
III. Which, therefore, I shall now also transcribe. It is intitled, · Of the sixty books, • and those which are not of that number:' • 1. Genesis; 2. Exodus; 3. Leviticus ; 4. Numbers; • 5. Deuteronomy; 6. Joshua ; 7. Judges, and Ruth; 8. the first book of the Kingdoms ; 9. the • second book of the Kingdoms ; 10. the third book of the Kingdoms ; 11. the fourth book of the
Kingdoms ; 12. the Remains, the fifth (that is, if numbered with those just mentioned ;] 13. · Job ; 14. the Psalter ; 15. the Proverbs ; 16. the Ecclesiastes ; 17. the Canticles, the fifth • [that is, of the books written in verse or metre;] 18. Ezra ; meaning, probably, our Ezra and • Nehemiah ; 19. Hosea ; 20. Amos; 21. Micah ; 22. Joel ; 23. Jonah; 24. Obadiah; 25. · Nahum ; 26. Habakkuk; 27. Zephaniah ; 28. Haggai; 29. Zechariah; 30. Malachi; 31. • Isaiah ; 32. Jeremiah ; 33. Ezekiel ; 34. Daniel ; 35. the Gospel according to Matthew, 36. • according to Mark, 37. according to Luke, 38. according to John ; 39. the Acts of the
Apostles ; 40. the Epistle of James ; 41. of Peter, 42. of Peter; 43. of John, 44. of John, 45. • of John ; 46. of Jude ; 47. of Paul to the Romans; 48. to the Corinthians ; 49. to the Corin• thians; 50. to the Galatians ; 51. to the Ephesians : 52. to the Philippians; 53. to the Colos
sians ; 54. to the Thessalonians; 55. to the Thessalonians ; 56. to Timothy, 57. to Timothy ; • 58. to Titus; 59. to Philemon; 60. to the Hebrews.
Those, which are not of the number of the sixty, are, as follows: 1. the Wisdom of Solomon; • 2. the Wisdom of Sirach ; 3. Maccabees, 4. Maccabees, 5. Maccabees, 6. Maccabees ; 7. • Esther; 8. Judith; 9. Tobit.
• Such' as are apocryphal : 1. Adam; 2. Enoch ; 3. Lamech; 4. the Patriarchs ; 5. the Prayer of Joseph; 6. Eldam and Modam; 7. the Testament of Moses [Here is a void space in • the MSS. where, probably, was, or should have been, the Assumption of Moses;] 9. Psalms of Solomon ; 10. the Revelation of Elias; 11. the Revelation of Isaiah ; 12. the Revelation of
Zephaniah ; 13. the Revelation of Zachary; 14. the Revelation of Ezra ; 15. the History of • Jacob (or James ;] 16. the Revelation of Peter ; 17." the Circuits, and Doctrines of the Apostles; • 18. the Epistle of Barnabas ; 19. the Acts of Paul; 20. the Revelation of Paul; 21. the • Doctrine of Clement; 22. the Doctrine of Ignatius ; 23. the Doctrine of Polycarp ; 24.* the Gospel according to Barnabas ; 25. the Gospel according to Matthew.
Upon this catalogue we may make a few remarks, omitting minute particulars ; as the order of the books, and other like things.
1. This catalogue, as well as the foregoing, tends to satisfy us, that a superior regard was always shewn, by Christians in general, to the books of the Jewish canon; for the Old Testament, above all other books, written before, or after the coming of Christ, which were not of that number; and that there were no other books received as a part of the canon of the New Testament, beside those which are now generally received by us.
2. The books of this catalogue are of three sorts : first, the sixty,' of the highest authority; secondly, those without,' which might be also called contradicted,' and probably were reckoned useful, and allowed to be sometimes publicly read in the assemblies of Christians ; thirdly, books called • apocryphal,' to which was paid a less regard than to the former.
3. With regard to the books of the Old Testament, we cannot but observe, that among the
· Cæterum ex eodem Cotelerii indiculo disertissime apparet ex Cod. Reg. Paris. 1789, editus est. De lx, libris, et quinam in hac Nicephori siyopelpla non rejici inter apocrypha epis- extra illos sint. Humf. Hod. De Bib. Text. Orig. 1. iv. p. 649. tolas Clementis. . . neque epistolas Ignatii, neque Polycarpi Col. 44. denique, a totâ antiquitate Christiana pro genuinis habitas, sed « Περι των ξ's.βλιων, και όσα τελων εκτος. Escazas sive dioarrancas sub illorum nomine editas. Cod. • Και όσα εξω των ξ'. Apocr. N. T. p. 144. in notis.
1 Και όσα αποκρυφα.
& laxubt isopia. • Indiculus ille etiam subjungitur Anastasii Quæstionibus Η Περιοδοι και διδαχαι των απος ολων. in Codice, 1789. Bibliothecæ Christianissimi Rejis. Ita vero και Διδασκαλια Κλημεντος... Ιγνατια διδασκαλια. se habet. Coteler. Judic. De Constitut. Apostol.
* Ευαγγελιoν καλα Βαρνακα. λε. Ευαγγελιών καλα Ma19αιον. • Indiculus MS. Cod. Baroc. 206. Qui etiam, a Cotelerio VOL, III.
sixty' are placed three books only, which we call Solomon's; the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Canticles: the other two, sometimes ascribed to him, Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus, are placed with those, which were not of the sixty. Again : among the sixty is but one book of Ezra, probably meaning our Ezra and Nehemiah; nor is there here any mention at all of any other historical books of Ezra : but among the apocryphal is a book called the Revelation of Ezra. Once more: the book of Esther is not here placed among the sixty ; but among those which were ' without' that number, only as an useful book.
4. With regard to the books of the New Testament; here are none, beside those, now received by us, as was observed before. But here are not all which we receive; the book of the Revelation is quite omitted ? what shall we say to this ? It seems to me, that it was not received by the composer of this.catalogue ; for then it would have been among the sixty. But still it will be asked, How shall we account for the total omission of it? To which I answer, It may be accounted for one of these two ways. Either the author quite omitted it, thinking it better so to do, and be quite silent, than to put it in any class out of the sixty, which would have been offensive to some: or else the author himself did at first place it among some of the books, without the sixty; and some transcriber afterwards struck it out, not enduring to see it debased by an improper situation.
5. Among apocryphal books, and the very last of them, is the Gospel according to Matthew:' concerning which little or nothing beside conjectures can be said ; but thereby cannot be meant our gospel of Matthew, which is among the sixty : possibly this article has been, by some means or other, curtailed. The gospel according to the Hebrews may have been here mentioned, and said to have been esteemed by some the original, by others a translation of the gospel according to Matthew.
IV. I shall take no farther notice of Stichometries, except adding, that there is another published by Cotelerius * in his Judgment upon the epistle of Barnabas : he says, it is mutilated and corrupted. I put down that part which relates to the New Testament, and is thus : • The four
gospels; Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; the epistle of Paul to the Romans, the first to the • Corinthians, the second to the Corinthians, to the Galatians, to the Ephesians, the first to • Timothy, the second to Timothy, to Titus, to the Colossians, to Philemon; the first of Peter, • the second of Peter; the epistle of James; the first of John, the second of John, the third of • John; the epistle of Jude ; the epistle of Barnabas; the Revelation of John; the Acts of the apostles; the Shepherd; the Acts of Paul; the Revelation of Peter.'
Every one perceives, that this Catalogue is much mutilated, there being wanting several books, which were always universally received ; as the epistle to the Philippians, and the two epistles to the Thessalonians ; as well as the epistle to the Hebrews, which also was generally received : and it may be reckoned probable, that all these were originally in this catalogue, or Stichometry. What use can be made of the latter part of the catalogue, I must refer to every reader's own consideration.
COSMAS OF ALEXANDRIA.
1. His time, and Works. II. Scriptures of the Old Testament received by him. III. Books of
the New Testament received by him. IV. General titles and divisions of the books of scripture, and marks of respect for them. V. Two general observations concerning the canon of scripture. VI. Select passages.
1. Cosmas, of Alexandria in Egypt, called Indopleustes or Indicopleustes, on account of a voyage which he made to the Indies ; at first a merchant, afterwards monk, and author, lived in the time of the emperor Justinian, and is computed to have flourished about the year 535.
• Vid. Patr. Apost. Tom. I. '
D Vid. Cay. H. L. T. i. p. 515. et Montf. Præf. in Cosm. Topogr. cap. i.
He wrote several things, particularly the - Christian Topography, or the Opinion of Christians concerning the World, in twelve books, still extant, and some while ago published to great advantage by Dom Bernard De Montfaucon. In that work, Cosmas, contrary to the sentiment of all astronomers in general, denies the earth to be spherical; and endeavours to prove his opinion from reason, scripture, and Christian writers, who lived before him.
I cannot avoid taking notice of this writer, his testimony to the scriptures being very considerable; and if I do not confine myself to that, I shall, nevertheless for the sake of brevity, omit divers things, not unworthy of observation; for, as Montfaucon says, the digressions are as valuable as the work itself.
II. 1. And, in the first place, I observe, that Cosmas's canon of the Old Testament was that of the Jews: he has once quoted · Baruch, scribe or secretary of the prophet Jeremiah; Eccle. siasticus; and the Maccabees; but not as of authority. The books quoted by him, as of authority, and expressly mentioned, are the Pentateuch; the book of Joshua ; the Judges ; Ruth; the book of the Kings, and the Chronicles; the book of Psalms; three books of Solomon, the Proverbs, Canticles, and Ecclesiastes; the twelve prophets; and the four larger prophets. Here is no particular mention of Ezra: but & that book is elsewhere expressly quoted, with the Chronicles.
2. In another place, having mentioned the historical facts of the Old Testament, to the settlement of the Israelites in the land of Canaan, he says: • After that, God raised up to them * prophets; David the king, Samuel, the great Elias, and his disciple Elisha; and the twelve; • and the four greater prophets, who prophesied of the coming of the Lord Christ.'
3. The book of Job is quoted several times, and as divine scripture.
4. The * Psalms are often quoted, and called divine scripture. David is styled by him,' the • great David,' king and prophet; and he says, that "the book of Psalms was composed by him.
5. The book of Ecclesiastes is quoted by him with marks of the highest respect: As, " the • divine scripture says; by the divine Solomon.' In another place, he seems to diminish Solomon, saying, that he wrote the Proverbs, the Songs, and the Ecclesiastes ; having received from • God the grace of wisdom to instruct men in the right conduct of life: but he did not receive • the grace of prophecy.' Nevertheless, I suppose that Cosmas does not deny Solomon the gift of inspiration; but only the gift of prophecy, or foretelling things to come: in the general sense of the word, therefore, he was a prophet, being moved by the Holy Ghost. 6. Having collected testimonies out of the
twelve prophets, and last of all out of Malachi, he proceeds immediately to the New Testament.
7. And he says, that the books of the Old Testament were written in Hebrew.
III. The books of the New Testament, received by Cosmas, are, the four gospels, the Acts, St. Paul's fourteen epistles, and some of the catholic epistles.
1. In the fifth book, where he quotes the books of scripture one after another, and gives some account of each book, he says : · Matthew 'is the first evangelist who wrote a zospel. There • being a persecution, when Stephen was stoned, and he also being about to go from that place, • the believers entreated him to leave with them a written instruction, with which request he . complied: and, being well acquainted, especially with the abode of the Lord in flesh here on • this earth, he set before them a pattern of an excellent institution, and of an heavenly and • divine life and conversation :' and what follows.
2. Mark,' the second evangelist, wrote a gospel at Rome, by the direction of Peter.'
3. Luke' is the third evangelist, who having observed many endeavouring to write gospels, • and inventing things out of their own heads, wrote to his own disciple Theophilus, to guard
· Cosmæ Indicopleustæ Christianorum Opinio de Mundo, sive Topographia Christiana. Ap. B. Montfauc. Nov. Collection. PP. T. ii. p. 113. &c. Paris. 1706.
Ut vero digressionibus gaudet scriptor noster, multa præclara ultro citroque refert. Vereque dici potest, esse to wapegyov xperloy T8 spyr. Præf. ib. cap. ii. fin.
h L. v. p. 207. E.
* Topogr. Chr. 1. ii. p. 137.
• Εσι δε και η προς αξις Κυρε εγγραφως εν ταις Παραλιπομεγαις, και εν τω Εσδρα τελαγμενη. L. viii. p. 306. Ά.
* Ουλος πρωτος των ευαγγελισων συγγραψαμενος ευαγγελιον. . x. d. L. v. p. 245.
•... Πείρε εν Ρωμη ενlειλαμενο αυθε. .. p. 246. D.
p. 145. C.
him against such accounts. And here Cosmas likewise mentions the Acts; in which, as well as in his gospel, he says, Luke gives an account of our Lord's ascension into heaven.
4. I would observe here, that, a from several places of this work, it appears, this author had in his copies, the first and second chapters of St. Matthew's gospel, and the history of our Lord's nativity, as recorded by St. Luke.
5. • The fourth and chief of the evangelists is John the divine: who was more beloved by · Christ than all the rest, who leaned upon the Lord's breast, and from thence, as from an over
flowing fountain, drew mysteries : to whom, when he dwelt at Ephesus, were delivered by the • faithful the writings of the other evangelists. Receiving them, he said, that what they had * written was well written; but some things were omitted by them, which were needful to be * related. And being desired by the faithful, he also published his writing, as a kind of supple• ment to the rest, containing such things as these: the wedding at Cana; the history of Nicodemus;
the woman of Samaria; the nobleman (or courtier, John iv. 46...54]; the man blind • from his birth ; Lazarus ; the indignation of Judas at the woman that anointed the Lord with • ointment; the Greeks that came to Jesus; his washing his disciples feet; and suitable instruc• tions upon several occasions; and the promise of the Comforter ; and concerning the deity of • Christ, expressly and clearly at the beginning, and premising that as the foundation of his 'work: all which things had been omitted by the rest.'
6. In the next place are large quotations of discourses of Peter, recorded in the Acts of the apostles.
7. • Afterwards, follows the great apostle Paul, the great master of the church, and leader • of the heavenly band, who had Christ speaking in him : of whose fourteen epistles Cosmas says, • it is not needful for him to allege all the places that are to his purpose. However, ' he gives • a general account of them, and in this order : to the Romans; to the Corinthians; to the • Galatians; to the Ephesians ; Philippians ; Colossians; Thessalonians ; Hebrews; Timothy; • Titus; Philemon.' He says, the 3 epistle to the Hebrews was written in Hebrew; and was • translated into Greek, as is said, by Luke, or Clement. In like manner the gospel of Matthew,' that is, as I understand him, was written in Hebrew; for I do not judge it necessary to suppose, that Cosmas intended to intimate, that St. Matthew's gospel had the same translators as the epistle to the Hebrews; or to say any thing at all about the authors of that translation : but only, that Matthew's gospel was written in Hebrew, in like manner as Paul's epistle to the Hebrews.
8. He says, in another place, the epistle to the Hebrews was written to the Jews wha believed in Christ.
9. Cosmas takes but little notice of the catholic epistles, except it be to answer objections, which were brought thence against some of his assertions. And in one place he says expressly: • I' forbear to allege arguments from the catholic epistles ; because, from ancient time, the • Church has looked upon them as of doubtful authority. And of all who have written com. * mentaries upon the divine scriptures, not one has taken notice of the catholic epistles : and all
who have given an account of the canonical books of divine scripture, have spoken of them as • doubtful, particularly Irenæus, bishop of Lyons, a man of great note, and eminent piety,
who lived not long after the apostles; and Eusebius Pamphili; and Athanasius, bishop of • Alexandria : and Amphilochius, bishop of Iconium, friend of the blessed Basil, in his Iambics ' to Seleucus, expressly declares them to be doubtful. In like manner Severian, bishop of • Gabala, in his books against the Jews, rejects them; forasmuch as most men say, they are not
writings of apostles, but of some others, who were elders only. And, agreeably hereto, Eusea . bius Pamphili
, in his Ecclesiastical History says, that at Ephesus are two monuments, one of • John the evangelist, and another of John an eider, who wrote two of the catholic epistles; even • the second and third, inscribed after this manner: “ the Elder to the elect Lady; and the Elder. • to the beloved Gaius:” and both he, and Frenæus say, that but two are written by apostles, · even the first of Peter, and the first of John: and some say, that neither are they written by
· Vid. ). iii. p. 147. A. p. 176. E. 1. v. p. 245. C. D. E. 8 P. 255. C. p. 247. et passim.
» Ο δε αποστολος Παύλος προς τ8ς εκ των Εβραιων πεπιςευ• Oύλος ο θεολογος Ιωαννης, ο εξαρχος των ευαγγελισων. κολας εις Χριςον γεγραφηκεν. κ. λ. L. vii. p. 279. D.
Σιωπωμεν δε ότι τας καθολικας ανεκαθεν η εκκλησια αμφι© P. 249...251. d P. 251. .253.
Καλλομεγας εχει. κ. λ. L. vii. p. 292. Β...Ε. • P. 253. C.
"P. 254, 255.