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C H A Pa CXLII.
EUTHALIUS, BISHOP OF SULCA, IN EGYPT.
EUTHALIUS has been already mentioned in this work. I must now give a more distinct account of him, and his performances in the service of the gospel : still referring to others, those who are desirous of farther information, or who may be willing to compare several accounts together.
2. Euthalius, as is supposed, was at first deacon in the church of Alexandria, or some other city in Egypt: and afterwards bishop of Sulca ; probably, in Egypt, though its situation is not certainly known.
3. In the year 458, he published an edition of St. Paul's epistles; and afterwards, about the year 490, an edition of the Acts of the apostles, and the seven catholic epistles, having first compared them with the exact copies in the library of Cæsarea in Palestine.
4. It is generally supposed, that all the books of the New Testament were at first written by the apostles and evangelists in one continued tenor, without any sections or chapters: the most ancient distinction, which we know of, is that of Eusebius's canons for the four gospels. In the year - 396, some learned Christian, whose name is not known, divided St. Paul's epistles into chapters or lessons. This is collected from what Euthalius says in his prologue to St. Paul's epistles : those chapters Euthalius made use of in his own edition of the same epistles. He added some other lesser sections, or subdivisions : he likewise collected all the testimonies or passages, cited by St. Paul, from the Old Testament; or from other writings, marking the sections in which they were to be found. This Euthalius did when a deacon: afterwards, when bishop of Sulca, at the desire of Athanasius, who was made bishop of Alexandria in 490, he published an edition of the Acts of the apostles, and the seven catholic epistles ; now dividing these' also into lessons, chapters, and verses, which had never been done before; collecting also all the passages of the Old Testament, and other writings, quoted by Paul or Luke in the Acts, or by other apostles in the catholic epistles. And to the several parts of this work he prefixed a prologue or preface: I mean to St. Paul's Epistles, the Acts, and the catholic epistles.
5. There are several things in the manuscript copies of Euthalius, now extant, which are not certainly known to be his. At the end of his prologue to St. Paul's epistles, is a martyrdom of Paul, or a note concerning the time of St. Paul's last suffering: which is also in cumenius, prefixed to his Commentary upon the Acts of the apostles. That note, as it seems, was written by the learned author beforementioned, who first divided St. Paul's epistle into chapters. There are also Arguments prefixed to all St. Paul's epistles, which are not known to be Euthalius's ; nor the writer’s who first divided those epistles into chapters. Zacagni thinks, they belong to neither : forasmuch as Euthalius does not particularly mention them in his account of what that more ancient author had done; nor in the account of his own performance. Zacagni therefore concludes those Arguments were composed by some learned man afterwards: and the transcribers of Euthalius's work in after times, inserted those Arguments, as an useful improvement of his edition. All those Arguments are likewise in Ecumenius: and in Mill's edition of the New Testament, they are prefixed to St. Paul's epistles severally, with the name of Ecumenius, as author. a See vol. ii. p. 123, and p. 405.
χρισω σαλερων ημων σεπονημενην. Ου μην αλλα και την των • Vid. Zacagn. Collectan. in Præf. n. 45. &c. Cav. Hist. αναγνωσεων ακριβες αθην τομην, την τε των θειων μαρτυριων Lit. Tom. i. Oxon. 1740. Pabr. Bib. Gr. T. viii.p. 367, &c. ευαποδεκθoν ευρεσιν ημεις τεχνολογησανlες ανεκεφαλαι ωσαμεθα. . Mill. Proleg. n. 941, &c. Wetsten. Proleg. ad N. T. edit. Euthal. Prol. ap. Zac. p. 528, 529. Conf. ib. p. 536, 537. accural. p. 73, 74. Oudin. de Scr. Ec. T. i. 1266.
Vid. Prolog. in Act. Ap. ap. Zacagn. p. 405. 409. et Proc Vid. Zacagn. Collectan. p. 513. et Conf. hujus Operis log. in Cathol. Ep. p. 477. Vid. et p. 481. T. iii. p. 347. not.
8 Ap. Zac. Collect. p. 535, 536.' Et Conf. Zac. in Præf. d Vid. Zacagn. in Præf. n. 48. p. 57.
n. 48. p. 57. • Καθ' έκασης δε συνομως επιςολην εν τοις εξης προίαξομεν 5 Præf. n. 50. p. 60. την των κεφαλαιων εκθεσιν, ει των σοφωλαίων τινι και φιλο
6. The Argument likewise of the Acts of the apostles, and the Peregrination of St. Paul subjoined to it, and the Arguments of the catholic epistles, Zacagni does not ascribe to Euthalius : he thinks there is no good reason to say they are his, since Euthalius himself is silent about them. The forementioned Argument is in Ecumenius also, prefixed to the Acts of the apostles : and the Peregrination is in Ecumenius, - after the Acts, or before the epistle to the Romans. The arguments of the catholic epistles are also in Ecumenius : and in Mill's New Testament they are prefixed to the said catholic epistles, with the name of (Ecumenius.
7. I shall now mention a few observations, and make some extracts.
8. It hence appears that, in the fifth century, all the seven catholic epistles were received at Alexandria, and in other parts of Egypt.
9. Possibly, we may also hence conclude, that the Revelation was not received there; or at least that it was not publicly read, nor so generally recommended to the use of all Christians, as the other books of the New Testament: for if it had, it might be reasonable to expect, that it should have been now divided into lessons, chapters, and verses.
10. Euthalius ascribes the Acts of the apostles to Luke. In his prologue to the Acts, he says, “That Luke the evangelist, disciple of Paul, was a physician of Antioch, and that he • wrote two books: one of which, and the first, is that of the gospel; the other is this book of • the Acts of the apostles; in which he relates the ascension of Christ to heaven; the descent • of the Holy Ghost upon the holy apostles ; and how the disciples preached the doctrine of • Christ; and what miracles they wrought by prayer and faith in him; and the divine call of • Paul from heaven, and his apostleship, and successful preaching; and, in a word, the labours
of the apostles for Christ, in the midst of many dangers and difficulties. In the prologue to St. Paul's epistles, he again calls the Acts,' Luke's second book.
11. The prologue to St. Paul's epistles contains the history of Paul, collected from the Acts of the apostles, and from his epistles, chiefly from the former; and then an enumeration of his epistles; and after that, in the third section, a farther account 8 of St. Paul's actions in the order of time, partly taken from Eusebius's Chronicle, and Ecclesiastical History. He says, • That beside many other labours in the course of his life to bring men to the practice of virtue, • Paul " wrote fourteen epistles, containing instructions for every part of a holy conversation.' He enumerates the epistles in this order: to the Romans; two to the Corinthians; to the Galatians; to the Ephesians; to the Philippians; to the Colossians; to the Thessalonians; to the Hebrews; the epistles to Timothy, Titus, and Philemon.
12. Euthalius placeth Paul's epistles, according to the proficiency which they had made, to whom they were sent; beginning with the least perfect, and proceeding to the more perfect. This is evident, from several things : for he says, “the epistle to the Romans is placed first, as containing instructions for those who had yet learned only the first principles of the gospel; this notion appears also in what " he says upon the epistle to the Ephesians, the fifth in order : and then he says, that 'the epistle to the Philippians, the sixth in order, is written to the faithful, who had made progress, and had brought forth good fruit. And at the end of his enumeration of the fourteen epistles, he expressly says, they are placed according to the order of men's proficiency. a Ap. Zac. Coll. p. 421.... 425.
d Ecum. T. i. p. 192. Ibid.
• Αντιοχευς γαρ έτος υπαρχων το γενος, ιατρος δε επιςήμην, • Dubitari tamen potest, an argumentum Actuum aposto- προς Παυλα μαθητευθεις, δυο βιβλες συνεγραψαίο, μιαν μεν, lorum, et Peregrinationes Pauli apostoli eidem subjunctæ, Eu- και προτεραν, την τε ευαγγελιε, δευτεραν δε ταυτην την περι των thalii opus existant, quippe quod ipse in fine prologi in aposto- αποςολικων πραξεων. Ιbid. p. 410. lorum Actus nonnulla de Lucâ evangelista eorumdem scrip- Και Λακας ίςορει εν τη δεύθερα τιτλω εαυ78. Prol. in tore posuerit, quæ cum argumenti vices supplere possint, pa- Paul. Ep. ib. p.517: rum verisimile est, Euthalium de novo ejusdem libri argu- και Αναγκαιον δε ήγησάμην εν βραχει και τον χρόνον επισηmento conscribendo cogitâsse. Accedit, quod nunquam asse- μειωσασθαι τα κηρυγμαλος Παυλο. κ. λ. Ιb. p. 529....535. rat Euthalius, se in Novi Testamenti libris, quos illustrandos Et Conf. Ecumen. T. i. p. 193. ...195. suscepit, argumenta ulla scripsisse, et quæ Pauli epistolis in h Ετι δε και όλως δια της υφης των δεκατεσσαρων επιςολων ejusdem editione præfiguntur, ea alterius auctoris esse, supe- τελων την όλην ανθρωπους διεγραψε πολιτειαν. Ιb. p. 523. rias ostensum est. Quamobrem idem prorsus de Actuum • Περιεχει ον η προς Ρωμαίους επιςολη κατηχησιν εις Χριapostolorum et catholicarum epistolarum argumentis censen- τον...διο πρωτη τειακλαι. Oια προς αρχην εχονίας εις θεοσεdum esse videtur, ea nempe, uti et alia epistolarum Paulina- Κειαν γραφεισα. Ιb. p. 523. * Vid. p. 524. rum argumenta, post vulgatam Euthalii editionem, ab aliquo 1 Έκη τειακαι η προς Φιλιππησιες, καλα προσαυξησιν αισις pio viro edita, et ab antiquis librariis eidem inserta fuisse, quo que xai xaftrofopois. x.
a. p. 525. in. suis codicibus majorem existimationem conciliarent. Zacag. ο Ούλως η σασα βιβλος περιεχει παντοιον ειδος πολίζειων Præf. n. liy. p. 66. Conf. Eund. p. 421. not. 4.
καία προσαυξησιν. p. 528.
13. I do not think this to be an observation of any importance; but as it is uncommon, I have taken notice of it. And it is very true, that the apostle Paul's epistles are suited to promote the benefit of Christians of all ranks, and of every degree of attainment in religious knowledge and virtue, whether greater or smaller.
14. I choose now to conclude this chapter with St. Paul's martyrdom, before mentioned, drawn up in the year 396, and ascribed to the learned and pious writer who first divided St. Paul's epistles into chapters, or sections. It is to this purpose : • In the time of Nero emperor
of the Romans, Paul the apostle, having exercised a good exercise, completed his testimony (or suffered martyrdom) at Rome, being beheaded with a sword, in the thirty and sixth year of 'our Saviour's passion, on the fifth day of the month Panemus, according to the Syro-Macedo• nians; which, with the Egyptians, is the fifth day of Epiphi ; and with the Romans, the third
before the Calends of July (that is, the 25th of June;) upon which day the holy apostle com* pleted his testimony, in the sixty-ninth year of the advent of our Saviour Jesus Christ. The * space of time, therefore, since his martyrdom, is three hundred and thirty years to this present
consulship, the fourth of Arcadius, and the third of Honorius, august emperors and brothers;' that is, the year 396 of our Lord's nativity, according to the common account.
CHA P. CXLIII.
DIONYSIUS, FALSELY CALLED THE AREOPAGITE.
1. That the books of Celestial, and Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, and other works, with the name of Dionysius the Areopagite, are spurious, and were not composed by Dionysius, member of the Athenian senate, and disciple of Paul, mentioned in the Acts, is now the general opinion of learned men; but all are not agreed about the time when they were written.
2. Daillé, who examined those writings with great diligence, was of opinion, that " they were not published before the beginning of the sixth century; possibly about the year 520 : Pearson has since argued, that they were written about the year 330: Cave' placeth this author at the year 362, supposing he might be the elder Apollinarius, who flourished about the middle of the fourth century; but the opinion of Daillé, or what is not very different, has generally prevailed. Samuel Basnage : agrees exactly with him, and confutes Pearson's arguments; nor does Tillemont scruple to shew the weakness of Pearson's reasonings : Pagi' freely owns, that they were not quoted before the year 532, and were not written till after the council of Chalcedon : Nourri supposeth that k they were written between the years 431 and 451, but not made public till some time after. James Basnage, whom I transcribe below, says, they were written in the latter part of the fifth, or the beginning of the sixth century. So general a concurrence of opinions is
b P. 38.
à Maplupior ITavas T8 AT 1507.8.
tione Constantinopoli Catholicos inter er Severianos habita, • Επι Νερωνος τ8 Καισαρος Ρωμαιων εμαρτυρησεν αυλοθι hæretici aliquid ex Dionysio Areopagità Catholicis objecerint, Παυλος και αποσολος, ξιφει την κεφαλήν αποτμηθεις, εν τω τρια- bique illorum auctoritatem locci fecerint... Quare libri illi κος και εκίω είει τα σωτηριο παθος τον καλον αγωνα αγωνισα- post pacem ecclesiæ a Constantino Magno redditam, et post uevos, sy 'Pwun. x. d. Ap. Zacag. Monum. p. 535, 536. Concilium Chalcedonense, elucubrati ab aliquo Dionysio
omninoque videri istum, vel quinto præcipiti seculo, juniore. Ann. 834. n. 18. Conf. ib. Ann. 875. n. 18. et Ann. vel etiam ineunte sexto vixisse, neque ante annum Christi 107. n.8. circiter 520, fetus suos Dionysio immani fraude suppositos Nourri App. ad Bib. PP. Diss. 10. n. 9. p. 386. Paris. edidisse. De Libris suppositis Dionys. Areop. et Ignat. 1. i. 1694. c. 32. p 184. Genev. 1666.
1 En effet ce fut à la fin du cinquième, ou au commence• Vind. Ignat. P. i. cap. 10.
ment du sixième siècle, que parurent les ouvres de Denys I H. L. T. i. p. 225.
l' Areopagite, qui furent citées la première fois l'an 533, dans & Ann. 51. a. 60, &c.
la dispute des Acephales. L'auteur, qui a emprunté ce nom, a h S. Dionys. l'Areopagite, note 4. Mem. Ec. T. ii. fait assez obscurement, et à sa maniere mystique, le catalogue
... cum nec Eusebius, nec Hieronymus, nec Gennadius, des livres sacrés. Mais il en dit assez pour faire comprendre, nec ullus eorum, qui quinque primis ecclesiæ seculis vixere, qu'il excluoit du Canon tous les livres que les Juifs en ont mentionem illorum fecerint, . . et anno tantum 532 in Colla- chasses. Hist. de l'Eglise, I. viii. ch. 10. p. 443.
there for that time. I refer in the margin' to some other writers. David Blondel • speaks of this author as writing about the year 490: and I place him at that time likewise, to oblige those who may suppose these works to have been written forty or fifty years before they were taken notice of.
3. All this is said for the sake of a Catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testament, found in the third chapter of this author's Ecclesiastical Hierarchy; but expressed in an obscure and mysterious manner, suited to his usual way of writing.
4. I have put the whole in the margin, for the use of those who read Greek: it is not easy to be translated ; but we may make a few remarks. James Basnage, in the place above cited, is clearly of opinion, that this writer mentions no books of the Old Testament, but those of the Jewish canon. It is also plain, that one of those books is the Song of Songs. And Daillé d says, he omits no sacred book, either of the Old or the New Testament: however, the beloved disciple' alone is expressly mentioned. It is manifest, that the author received the Revelation : and it is probable, he thought St. John's gospel to be the last written book of the New Testament; it being mentioned last, and next after the book of the Revelation.
1. Gennadius, of Marseilles, is placed, bye Cave, at the year 495, about which time his book of Illustrious Men must have been written. In' the last chapter of that book he mentions his own works: the conclusion of which chapter is, • That he had written a treatise or treatises con• cerning the Millennium ; and concerning the Revelation of the blessed John, that work, and an • epistle concerning his faith, sent to Gelasius, bishop of Rome.'
2. The book of Illustrious Men is still extant: and I have often referred to it. The epistle to Gelasius, concerning his Faith, is also generally supposed to be extant, though it now goes by a different title, it is in the Appendix of the eighth tome of the Benedictine edition of Augustine's works.
3. But the chief reason of my placing Gennadius here is a regard to his Treatises concerning the Millennium, and St. John's Revelation; which I suppose to afford a good argument that he received the Revelation as a work of St. John the apostle and evangelist.
: Vid. Usser. Diss. de Scriptis Dionysio Areop. suppositis. Areop. de Eccles. Hierarch. cap. 3. sect. 4. p. 287, 288. Ad calcem libri de Scriptur. Sacr. et Vernac. p. 281, &c. Antverp. 1634. Launoi de duobus Dionysiis. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. v. p. 3...5. 1 quo loco scripturæ, tum veteris tum novæ, absolutisDu Pin Bib. des Aut. Ec. T. i. p. 34. .. 38. Asseman. Bib. simum canonem exhibet, singulaque utriusque volumina reOr. T. i. p. 451.
censet, non quidem usitatis ac solennibus in ecclesiâ nomini. • Des Sibylles, I. ii. ch. 20. p. 219. à Charenton. 1649. bus illa nuncupans, (a quo ille ubique, velut a quodam pia
• Πασα μεν γαρ ιερα και αγιογραφος δελθος και την εκ θεα των culo, diligentissime sibi cavet) sed tamen ita perspicue designans ονλων γενήθην ύπαρξιν τε και διακοσμησιν, η την νομικην ιεραρχιαν ac describens, ut facile sit intelligere, nullum ab eo præterκαι σολίθειαν,η των το θεια λογα κληροδοσιων διανεμησεις και κα- missum esse divinum librum. Dall. ubi supra. I. i. c. 16. τασχεσεις, η κριθων ιερων, η βασιλεων σοφων, η ιερεων ενθεων συνεσιν, η παλαιων ανδρων εν ποικιλια και αληθει των ανιονίων e Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. et Conf. Fabr. ad Gennad. cap. ult. ακαιασειςον εν καρτερια φιλοσοφιαν, η των πρακλεων σοφας G. J. Voss. de Hist. Lat. ii. c. 18. H. Noris. Hist. Pelag. I. ii. υποθηκας, η θειων ερωλων ασματα και ενθεος εικονας, η των εσο
c. 16. Du Pin Biblioth. T. iii.P. ii. p. 277. μενων τας υποφήλικας προαναρρησεις, η τας ανδρικας Ιησε θεερ- Ego Gennadius, Massiliæ presbyter, scripsi adversus omγιας, η τας αυλα μαθηλων θεοπαραδοίες και θεομιμηθες πολίθειας nes hæreses libros octo, et adversus Nestorium libros tres, et και ιερας διδασκαλιας, η την κρυφιαν και μυρικην εποψιαν το tractatus de mille annis, et de pocalypsi beati Johannis, et των μαθηλων αγαπηθω και θεσπεσια η την υπερκοσμιον Ιησε θεο- hoc opus, et epistolam de fide meå misi ad beatum Gelasium, λογιαν τους προς θεωσιν επίτηδειους υφηγησαλο, και ταις ιεραις urbis Romæ episcopum. Gennad. de V. I. cap. C. των τελείων και θεοειδεσιν αναγωγαις συνερριζωσεν. Dionys. 8 De Ecclesiasticis Dogmatibus liber, Gennadio tributus.
c H A P. CXLV.
GELASIUS, BISHOP OF ROME.
1. Gelasius, an African, succeeded Felix III. in the see of Rome, in the year 492. A decree in a council of seventy bishops, concerning canonical, ecclesiastical, and apocryphal scriptures, is ascribed to him. The genuineness of which decree is denied, or disputed by • Pearson, "Cave, Samuel and James Basnage; but vindicated by Pagi, and Jeremiah Jones. But, whereas, it has been generally placed at the year 494, Pagi says, it was not published before 496. It is not necessary that I should enter into an argument about a thing of so late a date: I shall only allege that part of the decree, which relates to the books of the New Testament.
2. After a particular enumeration of the books of the Old Testament, follows: • The order • of the scriptures of the New and everlasting Testament; four books of the gospels ; according ' to Matthew one book, according to Mark one book, according to Luke one book, according to • John one book; one book of the Acts of the apostles ; the epistles of the apostle Paul fourteen; to • the Romans one epistle; to the Corinthians two epistles : to the Galatians one epistle; to the * Thessalonians two epistles ; to the Ephesians one epistle; to the Philippians one epistle ; to the • Colossians one epistle; to Timothy two epistles; to Titus one epistle ; to Philemon one epistle; • to the Hebrews one epistle: likewise, the Revelation of John one book: likewise, the seven • canonical epistles; one epistle of the apostle James, two epistles of the apostle Peter, three
epistles of the apostle John, one epistle of the apostle Judas Zelotes. And it is added, • That ? upon the prophetical, evangelical, and apostolical scriptures, the catholic church is built, by • the grace of God:'
3. The reader will observe the order in which the books are placed. It deserves also to be observed, I think, that whoever were the authors of this catalogue of books of scripture, they received none for authentic and canonical, or the rule of faith, but such as were written by apostles, or supposed to be written by apostles; except the gospels according to Mark and Luke, and the Acts of the apostles.
4. Beside these, many ecclesiastical writings are mentioned, which are allowed to be made use of. After which follows a long catalogue of apocryphal books, which are mentioned, and rejected. Many of which have been properly taken notice of in several parts of this work; though withouť particular references to this decree, which, being so late in time, was not necessary; and would have rendered this work tedious and prolix beyond my intention.
· Vindic. Ep. Ign. P. i. cap. 4.
Hist. de r Egl. I. viii. c. 8. 1.7. p. 439, 440.
Evangeliorum libri quatuor.
Epistolæ Pauli apostoli numero xiv.
Ad Romanos .epistola una. Ad Corinthios epistolæ duæ. Ad Galatas epistola una. Ad Thessalonicenses epistolæ duæ. Ad Ephesios epistola una. Ad Philippenses epistola una. Ad Colossenses epistola una. Ad Timotheum epistolæ duæ. Ad Titum epistola una. Ad Philemonein epistola una. Ad Hebræos cpistola una.
Item Apocalypsis Joannis liber unus.
Item Canonicæ epistolæ numero septem. Jacobi apostoli epistola una. Petri apostoli epistolæ duæ. Joannis apostoli epistolæ tres. Judæ zelotis apostoli epistola una.-Post propheticas, evangelicas, atque apostolicas scripturas, quibus ecclesia catholica per gratiam Dei fundata est, illud etiam intimandum putamus, &c.
Concilium Roman. . quo a lxx. episcopis libri sacri et authentici ab apocryphis sunt discreti, sub Gelatio.' Ap. Labb. Conc. T. iv. p. 1260, 1261.
* Et quamvis aliud fundamentum nullus possit ponere, præter id quod positum est, qui est Christus Jesus, tamen ad ædificationem nostram eadem sancta Romana ecclesia post illas Veteris vel Novi Testamenti, quas regulariter suscepimus, etiam has suscipi non prohibet. Ib. p. 1262.
i Notitia librorum apocryphorum, qui non recipiuntur. Ib. p. 1264,