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or fightings, such as ch. iv. 1. or killing, as here: viz. not in the time of James, bishop of Jeru • salem.

And says Whitby upon ch. iv. 1. Whence come wars?” This epistle seems to have been written about the eighth of Nero, and the sixty-second of Christ, the year before the death of s James : before which time the Jews had great wars and fightings, not only with their neighbours (see note upon Matt. xxiv. 6.] but even among themselves, in every city and family, saith • Josephus : not only in Judea, but in Alexandria, and Syria, and many other places.' A very proper

the text, as seems to me. And what he says upon the following verses of that chapter and upon ch. v. 146. and in his preface to the epistle sect. v. and vi. deserves also attentive regard. Where indeed he expressly says, Since James writes to the whole twelve Stribes, I doubt not but those of Palestine must be included.'

Mr. Pyle“ has spoken clearly to the like purpose in the preface to his paraphrase of this epistle.

I shall now transcribe a part of venerable Bede's note upon the beginning of this epistle. From the words, “scattered abroad,” he is led to think of what is said, Acts viii. 1. that upon occasion of the persecution against the church at- Jerusalem, after the death of Stephen, they were all scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judea and Samaria, except the apostles, and says,

• that • James writes this epistle to those who were scattered abroad, and suffered persecu. tion for the sake of righteousness : nor to them only, but also to those, who though they had • believed in Christ were not careful to be perfect in good works, as what follows in the epistle * plainly shows: and likewise to such as continued unbelieving, and to the utmost of their power • persecuted those who believed.” Which appears to me very right.

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I. His History to the Time of our Saviour's Ascension. II. To the Council of Jerusalem, in the

year 49. III. He goes to Antioch, where he is reproved by St. Paul for Dissimulation. IV. His travels, and the Time of his coming to Rome. V. The Time of his Death. VI. Several

Things, hitherto omitted, or but lightly touched upon. 1. His cpiscopate at Antioch. 2. His having been five and twenty Years Bishop of Rome. 3. Hts. Children. 4. His Wife's Martyrdom. 5. His absconding at Rome. 6. The Manner of his Crucifixion.

6. The Manner of his Crucifixion. VII. That he was at Rome, and suffered Martyrdom there.

1. 'Tue land of Palestine, says · Cave, at and before the coming of our blessed Saviour, was . distinguished into three several provinces, Judea, Samaria, and Galilee. This last was divided • into the Upper and the Lower. In the Upper, called also Galilee of the Gentiles, within the • division, belonging to the tribe of Naphtali, stood Bethsaida, formerly an obscure and incon

siderable village, till lately re-edified, and enlarged by Philip the tetrarch, and in honour of • Julia daughter of Augustus called by him Julias. It was situated upon the banks of the sea of • Galilee, called also the sea of Tiberias, and the lake of Gennesareth, which was about forty

! These circumstances gave occasion to this apostle, the omnes dispersi sunt per regiones Judææ et Samariæ, præter residentiary of the circumcision in Judea, to endite this epistle apostolos. His ergo dispersis, qui persecutionem passi sunt

partly to the infidel, and partly to the believing Jews.-It propter justitiam, mittit epistolam. Nec solum his, verumi was directed to the Jews and Jewish converts of the disper. etiam illis, qui, perceptâ fide Christi, necdum operibus persion. Yet, as that to the Hebrews was intended for the fecti esse curabant, sicut sequentia epistolæ plane testantur ; general benefit of all the scattered tribes, though directed necnon et eis, qui etiam fidei exsortes durabant, quin et ipto the natives of the holy land ; so, no doubt, this had an sam in credentibus, quantum valuere, persequi ac perturbare : equal respect to them, over whom James immediately pre- studebant. Bed. Expos, super Jacob. Epist. sided, in the special character of their bishop. Pyle's Para- c Life of St. Peter. sect. i. phrase, Vol. II. p. 290, 291.

d Joseph. Antiq. I. 18. cap. 3, al. 2. in. • Legimus, occiso a Judæis B. Stephano, quia facta est in • Id. de B. J. 1. 3. cap. JO. al. 18. illâ die persecutio magna in ecclesià, quæ est Hierosolymis, et

* furlongs in breadth, and a hundred in length, and had a wilderness on the other side, called • the desert of Bethsaida, whither our Saviour used often to retire.'

At this place was born. Simon, surnamed Cephas, or Petros, Petrus, Peter, signifying a stone or rock. He was a fisherman upon the forementioned lake or sea : as was also, in all probability, his father Jonas, Jonah, or John. He had a brother, named Andrew. Which was the oldest of the two is not certain. For concerning this there were different opinions among the ancients. Epiphanius o supposed Andrew to be the elder. But according to Chrysostom, Peter was the first-born. So likewise“ Bede, and Cassian, who even makes Peter's age the ground of • his precedence among the apostles. And Jerom himself has expressed himself in the like manner, saying, that the keys were given to all the apostles alike, and the church was built upon

all of them equally. But for preventing dissension, precedency was given to one. John might have been the person. : But he was too young. And Peter was preferred upon account of his age.'

St. John has informed us of the first acquaintance of Simon Peter with Jesus, to whom he was introduced by his brother Andrew. '" “ He findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him : We have found the Messiah. And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said: Thou art Simon, the son of Jonas. Thou shalt be called Cephas.”

Undoubtedly, they had been from the beginning among those, who are said to have “ looked for the kingdom of God, and waited for redemption in Israel.” Andrew had received Jesus as the Messiah. And his brother Simon readily concurred in the same belief and profession. They had heard John, and, as may be supposed, had been baptized by him, as all Jews in general were. Being from his testimony, and by personal conversation with Jesus, convinced, that he was the Messiah, it is likely, that henceforward they often came to him, and heard him, and saw some of the miracles done by him. We may take it for granted, that they were present at the miracle at Cana in Galilee, it being expressly said, that “ Jesus and his disciples were invited to the marriage solemnity” in that place, John ii. 1, 2. It is also said ver. 11. “ This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory. And his disciples believed on him :" that is, were confirmed in the persuasion, that he was the Messiah.

The call of Andrew and Peter to a stated attendance on Jesus is recorded by three evangelists. Their father, Jonas, seems to have been dead. For there is no mention of him, as there is of Zebedee, when his two sons were called. It is only said of Andrew and Peter, that when Jesus called them, they left their nets, and followed him.” At that time Jesus made them a magnificent promise. “ Follow me,” said he, “ and I will make you fishers of men.” • In time

you will be qualified by me to gain men, and to recover them, in great numbers, from ignorance • and error, folly and vice, and form them to just sentiments in religion, and the practice of « virtue.'

From this time they usually attended on our Lord. And when he completed the number of his apostles, they were put among them.

Having before written the history of St. John at large, I need not be so particular in that of Peter, because these two apostles were much together. However, I intend to take notice of the most remarkable things in his life, especially after our Saviour's ascension.

Simon Peter was married when called by our Lord to attend upon him. And upon occasion of that alliance, as it seems, had removed from Bethsaida to Capernaum, where was his wife's family. Upon her mother our Saviour in a very gracious manner wrought a great miracle of healing. And I suppose, that when our Lord “ left Nazareth, and came and dwelled at Capernaum,

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* John i.44.
b H. 51. num. xvii.

in alio loco super omnes Apostolos fiat, et cunctïclaves regni e Hom. in Matt. 58. al. 59. T. VII. p. 586. D.

cælorum accipiant; et ex æquo super eos Ecclesiæ fortitudo d In Evang. Joann. cap. i.

solidetur: tamen propterea inter duodecim vnus eligitur, ut, Interroganti ergo Domino Jesu Christo, quem eum cre- capite constituto, schismatis tollatur occasio. Sed cur non derent respondit primus apostolorum Petrus, unus utique Joannes electus. est virgo ? Ætati delatum est, quia Petrus pro omnibus. Idem enim unius habuit responsio, quod ha. senior erat : ne adhuc adolescens, ac pene puer, progressæ : beat [f. babebat) omnium fides. Sed primum debuit rese ætatis hominibus præferretur. Adv. Jovin. l. i: T.IV.p. 108 pondere, ut idem esset ordo responsionis, qui erat honoris, et 8 Ch. i. 35-42. ipse antecederet confessione, qui antecedebat ætate. Cassian. h Matt. iv. 18–20. Mark i. 16-18. Luke v. 1-9. de Incarn. 1. 3. cap. 12. ap. Bib. P. P. tom. VII.

i Matt. x. 1-4. Mark ii, 13-19. Luke vi. 12-16.. At dicis, super Petrum fundatur Ecclesia;, licet id ipsum * Matt. viii. 14, 15. Mark i. 20—31. Luke iv. 38, 39..

(as mentioned Matt. iv. 13.) he made Peter's house the place of his usual abode, when he was in those parts. I think we have a proof of it in the history just taken notice of. When Jesus came out of the synagogue at Capernaum, “ he entered into Simon's house,” Luke iv. 38. Comp. Mark i. 29. which is well paraphrased by Dr. Clarke: Now when Jesus came out of the synagogue,

he went home to Peter's house.' And there it was that the people resorted unto him in the evening, Luke iv. 40. Matt. viii. 16. Mark i. 32–34.

Another proof of this we have in a history which is in St. Matthew only, ch. xvii. 24–27, of our Lord's paying at Capernaum the tribute-money for the use of the temple, and his directing Peter, when he had found a piece of money, in the manner there prescribed, to pay it for both of them. The text is to this purpose. “ And when they were come to Capernaum, they that received the tribute-money, came to Peter, and said: Doth not your master pay tribute? He saith, Yes. And when he was come into the house, Jesus prevented him.” -The beginning of that account at ver. 24, is thus paraphrased by Dr. Clarke. Now when they were come • home to Capernaum, where Jesus used to dwell, the officers appointed to gather the yearly offering for the service of the temple came to Peter.'

After the miracle of the five loaves, and two fishes, “ straightway Jesus constrained his disciples to get into a ship, and to go before him to the other side, whilst he sent the multitudes away.” In their passage they met with a contrary wind. « In the fourth watch of the night,' near morning, “ Jesus came toward them, walking on the sea." And there not being yet light enough to know who he was, they were affrighted, thinking it had been an apparition,

and cried out for fear. Jesus then spake to them, and they knew him. After which follows a particular concerning Peter, related by St. Matthew only. Peter answered him, and said: Lord if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water. And he said, Come. And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go to Jesus. But when he saw the sea boisterous, he was afraid: and beginning to sink, he cried, saying: Lord, save me. And immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him. And when he was come into the ship, the wind ceased.” Peter at first presumed too much upon the strength of his faith, and was forward to show his zeal. However, this must in the end have been of use to confirm his faith. He had here great and sensible experience of the knowledge, as well as the power of Jesus. As soon as his faith failed, our Lord suffered him to sink. And upon his calling for help, Jesus immediately stretched out his hand, and saved him.

The next day our Lord preached in the synagogue at Capernaum, as related by St. John, ch. vi. 24–65, where many, who expected from the Messiah a worldly kingdom, were offended at his discourse. And it is said, ver. 66–69. “ From that time many of his disciples,” who had hitherto followed him, and professed faith in him, “ went back, and walked no more with him. Then said Jesus unto the twelve: Will ye also go away? Then Simon Peter answered him: Lord, to whom should we go? Thou hast the words of eternal life. And we know, and are sure, that thou art the Christ, the son of the living God.”

Some time after this, when our Lord had an opportunity of private conversation with the disciples, he inquired of them what men said of him, and then, whom they thought him to be? “ Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the son of the living God.” Matt. xvi. 13-16. So far likewise in Mark viii. 27-29, and Luke ix. 18—20. Then follows in Matthew, ver. 17-19. “ And Jesus answered, and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.” That is, • It is not a partial affection for me, thy master, nor a fond and inconsiderate regard to the * judgment of others, for whom thou hast a respect, that has induced thee to think thus of me. • But it is a just persuasion formed in thy mind by observing the great works which thou hast seen me do by the power of God, in the confirmation of my mission and doctrine.

" And I say unto thee, Thou art Peter, and upon this rock will I build my church. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven.” By which many interpreters suppose, that

• It is called “ Peter's house," Matt. viii. 14. “ Simon's first open the kingdom of the Messiah, and make the first house,” Luke iv. 38. “ the bouse of Simon and Andrew," publication of the gospel to the Gentiles.' Upon both Mark i. 29.

verses also referring to Acts x. When I first observed this, • Matt. xiv. 28-31.

I was surprised. Nor could I see the ground of it. But now . Dr. Clarke is very singular in bis paraphrase of that text. I

guess, that he confined this personal privilege to Peter's first Matt

. xvi. 18. You shall be the first preacher of my true preaching to Gentiles at the house of Cornelius, because Peter religion to the Gentile world.' And ver. 19. “You shall was then alone, and none of the apostles were there with him:

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our Lord promised to Peter, that he should have the honour of beginning to preach the gospel, after his resurrection, to Jews and Gentiles, and of receiving them into the church. If so, that is personal. Nevertheless, what follows: “ And whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven." This, I say, must have been the privilege of all the apostles. For the like things are expressly said to them, Luke xxii. 29, 30, John xx. 21-23. Moreover, all the apostles concurred with Peter in the first preaching both to Jews and Gentiles. As he was president in the college of the apostles, it was very fit, and a thing of course, that he should be primarily concerned in the first opening of things. The confession, now particularly before us, was made by him. But it was in answer to a question that had been put to all. And he spoke the sense of all the apostles, and in their name. I suppose this to be as true in this instance, as in the other, before taken notice of, which is in John vi. 68, 69.

In the account which St. John has given of our Saviour's washing the disciples' feet, Peter's modesty and fervour are conspicuous, John xiii. 1-10.

When · the Jewish officers were about to apprehend our Lord, “ Peter having a sword, drew it, and smote a servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear.” Our Lord having checked Peter, touched the servant's ear, and healed him. So great is Jesus every where !

They that laid hold of Jesus, led him away to the house of Caiaphas. The rest of the disciples now forsook their Master, and fled. “But Peter followed him afar off unto the high priest's palace, and went in, and sat with the servants to see the end.” Here Peter thrice disowned his Lord, peremptorily denying that he was one of his disciples, or had any knowledge of him, as related by all the evangelists. For which he soon after humbled himself, and wept bitterly.

We do not perceive that Peter followed our Lord any farther, or that he at all attended the crucifixion. It is likely that he was under too much concern of mind to appear in public, and that he chose retirement, as most suitable to his present temper and circumstances.

On the first day of the week, early in the morning, when Mary Magdalene, and other women came to the sepulchre, bringing the sweet spices which they had prepared," they saw an angel, who said unto them, Be not affrighted. Ye seek Jesus, who was crucified. He is not here: for he is risen.-Go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead:” as in Matthew. “ Tell his disciples, and Peter,” as in Mark. “ And behold he goes before you into Galilee.” That was a most gracious disposal of Providence, to support the disciples, Peter in particular, under their great affliction.

Our Lord first showed himself to Mary Magdalene, and afterwards to some other women. On the same day likewise on which he arose from the dead, he showed himself to Peter, though the circumstances of this appearance are no where related. However it is evident from Luke xxiv. 33, 34. For when the two disciples, who had been at “ Emmaus, returned to Jerusalem, they found the eleven gathered together, and those that were with them, saying, The Lord is: risen indeed, and has appeared unto Simon.” That must be the same appearance which is mentioned by St. Paul, 1 Cor. xv. 5, “ and that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve.” And. it has been observed, that as Mary Magdalene was the first woman, so “ Peter was the first man to whom Jesus showed himself after he was risen from the dead.

In the twenty-first chapter of St. John's gospel are some appearances of our Lord to his disciples, in which Peter is greatly interested, to which the attentive reader is referred. Our Lord there graciously affords Peter an opportunity of making a threefold profession of love for him: which he accepts, and renews to him the apostolical commission, and as it were re-instates him in his high and important office: requiring him, as the best testimony of love for his Lord, to feed his sheep with fidelity and tenderness. And notwithstanding his late unsteadiness, our Lord encourageth this disciple to hope, that in his future conduct he would set an example of resolution and fortitude under great difficulties, and at length glorify God by his death, in the service to which he had been appointed.

As we have now proceeded in the history of this apostle to the time of our Lord's ascension, whereas, after the pouring out of the Holy Ghost, all the • Matt. xxvi. 57—71. Mark xiv. 53–72. Luke xxii. apostles were present with him, as it is said, Acts ii. 14. “But 54-62. John xviii. 15—27. Peter, standing up with the eleven, lift up his voice.”.

• Matt. xxviii. Mark xvi. Luke xxiv. John xx. a John xviii. 10, 11. Matt. xxvi. 51–54. Mark xiy. 46,

αλλ' εν ανδρασι τετω πρωτω, τω μαλισα αετον ποθerΤΙΣ 47. Luke xxii. 50, 51.

beely. Chrys. in 1 Cor. hom. 38. tom. X.

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it may be worth the while to look back, and observe those things in the gospels, which imply his peculiar distinction, or at least are honourable to him.

By Mark, ch. v. 37. and Luke viii. 51, we are assured, that Peter was one of the three disciples whom our Lord admitted to be present at the raising of Jairus's daughter. That ticular is not mentioned by Matthew, ch. ix. 18—26. From all the first three evangelists we know that Peter was one of the three whom our Lord took up with him into the mountain, where he was gloriously transformed, Matt. xvii. 1. Mark ix. 2. Luke ix. 28. He was also one of the three whom our Lord took with him apart from the other disciples, when he retired to prayer, a little before his last sufferings. As we know from Matt. xxvi. 37. Mark xiv. 33. But that particular is omitted by Luke, ch. xxii

. 39–46. And if it might not be reckoned too minute and particular, I would observe some things of this kind mentioned by one evangelist only.

There are several such things deserving notice in St. Matthew. 1. In the catalogue of the apostles, Matthew only calls Peter“

calls Peter « chief,” or “ the first,” ch. X. 2. He only has the account of Peter's desiring to come to Christ upon the water; and what follows, ch. xiv. 28—31. 3. He alone has recorded what our Lord said to Peter, when he gave him the keys of the kingdom of heaven, ch. xvi. 16—19. 4. He only relates our Lord's paying the tributemoney for Peter, ch. xvii. 24–27. 5. He likewise says that after Peter had denied Christ, “ he wept bitterly," ch. xxvi. 75.

In St. Mark are chiefly two things to be observed, as honourable to Peter. The first is, that he was one of the four apostles to whom our Lord addressed himself, when he foretold the destruction of the temple, and the calamities attending it, Mark xiii. 3. The other is, that in the message, sent by the angel to the disciples after our Lord's resurrection, Peter is particularly named, ch. xvi. 7.;

In St. Luke are these things remarkable. First, that when our Lord warned Peter of his danger, he also assured him, “ he had prayed for him that his faith might not fail.” Luke xxii. 31, 32. Secondly, we perceive from St. Luke, that our Lord appeared to Peter in particular on the day of his resurrection, though the circumstances of that appearance are not recorded, ch. xxiv. 33, 34.

In St. John's gospel are divers things honourable to Peter. 1. The profession of faith in Christ, related John vi. 67-69. Peter's remarkable humility, expressed in an unwillingness that Jesus should wash his feet, with our Lord's particular discourse to him, ch. xiii. 6–10. 3. Peter's zeal in cutting off the ear of the high priest's servant is related by other evangelists. But St. John only mentions Peter by name, ch. xviii. 10. 4. It is, I think, honourable to Peter, that when he and John went together to the sepulchre, John, only stooping down, looked in; but Peter went in, and searched the sepulchre. After which John also went in, ch. xx. 4-8. 5. St.. John, only mentions Peter's faith and zeal in “ casting himself into the sea,” to go to Christ, ch. xxi. 7. 6. Our Lord's discourse with Peter concerning his love to him, and his particular repeated charge to “ feed his sheep,” ver. 15–17. 7. Our Lord's predicting to Peter his martyrdom, and the manner of it, ver. 18, 19.

It is observable, that Matthew and John, the two apostles, have mentioned more of these prerogatives of Peter than the other two evangelists. We may hence conclude, that the apostles, when illuminated by the Spirit with the knowledge of the true nature of Christ's kingdom, were quite free from envy, and that Peter was not assuming and arrogant among his brethren.

It may he here observed likewise, that as our sacred historians were not envious, so neither were they fond and partial. The several advantages and virtues of Peter are recorded by some only. But his fault in denying Christ, when under prosecution, is related by all.

II. In a short time after our Lord's ascension, Peter, as president in the college of the apostles, proposed, that in the room of Judas another should be chosen out of the men that had accompanied them during the time that Jesus had been with them. And when two such had been nominated, and they had by prayer appealed to God, “ who knows the hearts of all men, the lot fell upon Matthias. And he was numbered with the eleven apostles,” Acts i. 15-26. ... I have here, and elsewhere, spoken of Peter as presiding among the apostles, or having a primacy of order. For it appears in what has been just mentioned, and in other things related

* Πρωτος Σιμων ο λεγομενος Πετρος.

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