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OR a particular account of CELIUS, or CECILIUS SEDULIUS, and the works ascribed to him, I refer to several: he is in Trithemius; and I would have transcribed his article, but that it is full of faults, and therefore not to be relied upon in any thing. Fabricius says, that Trithemius seems to have confounded three of that name: Sedulius the poet, who lived in the fifth century; and two others, of later ages. Therein he follows Labbé, whom he quotes; whose account of Sedulius is also particularly commended by Bayle. It is commonly said, that Sedulius, was a Scot; that is, a native of Ireland: but there is no proof of it in ancient authors.
2. Tillemont,' after having weighed what has been said by others, concludes, that Seduliuswrote between 425 and 450: I shall therefore place him, with Cave, at 484.
3. It is probable, that Sedulius was a presbyter, as he is called by Isidore, of Seville; and not a bishop, as some have supposed.
4. The only two pieces rightly ascribed to him, and still extant, are intitled," A Paschal Poem, and A Paschal Work: or, A Paschal Work, in verse; and A Paschal work, in prose. The former is sometimes divided into four, at other times into five books. The first book exhibits the most remarkable things in the Old Testament; the three, or four following, contain the history of our Lord, taken from the four gospels: and, it is generally allowed, that the poem has in it a good deal of elegance. The Paschal Work, in' five books, represents, in prose, the same things which had been before celebrated in metre, by the same author.
5. The two works of this ingenious presbyter bear testimony to the four evangelists, and their gospels; whose names, with their symbols, he particularly mentions," at the conclusion of his first book.
6. I do not observe in him the doxology at the end of the Lord's Prayer, which we now have in St. Matthew: it is probable that it was wanting in this author's copy. He has the address, or appellation, at the beginning, and the following petitions: and" he distinctly paraphraseth all in each of his works, that in metre, and that in prose; but there is no notice taken in either, of a doxology at the end.
a Vid. Ph. Labb. Diss. de Scr. Ec. T. ii. p. 328, 329, 330, &c. Cav. H. L. T. i. Du Pin Bib. Ec. T. ii. P. ii. p. 75. Tillem. Mem. T. xii. Fabric. Bib: Lat. 1. iv. c. ii. p. 306, 307, et Bib. Ec. ad Isid. Hisp. c. 7. et ad Trithem. cap. 142. See likewise Sedulius, in Bayle's Dictionary.
b De Ser. Ec. cap. 142.
c Videtur Trithemius in unum confundere tres Sedulios, poëtam seculo quinto clarum, et episcopum, qui A. C. 721, et Auctorem Hibernum Collectaneorum in epistolas Pauli, qui centum post annis vixit. Fabr. ad Trith. cap. 142. Ap.. Bib. Ec.
An Sedulius poëta fuit Scotus?. Nullus id veterum dixit. Recentiores ouwvuuia delusi tres in unum Sedulios confuderunt, ac poëtam seculo quinto florentem cum episcopo, qui anno 721, et cum sacræ scripturæ interprete, seu Collectaneorum Auctore, qui centum post annis vivebat, Scotis temere accensuerunt. Nec ad rem faciunt quæ Usserius partim ex Trithemio, &c. Labb. de Scr. Ec. T. ii. p. 330.
I SHALL here add some extracts out of a work of another SEDULIUS; certainly different from Sedulius the poet, of the fifth century. He seems to have been a Scot, of Ireland, and to have flourished in the ninth century, about the year 818. He wrote a Commentary upon St. Paul's fourteen epistles, which is called Collectaneum ;' it being a collection out of Origen, Hilary, Jerom, Augustine, and other ancient writers. It appears, from this Commentary, that Sedulius understood Greek; and probably Hebrew, likewise.
2. In Acts xx. 28. he read the church of the Lord,' where we have, in our copies," the church of God." And in the same place he observes, that they who, at ver. 17th of that chapter are called "elders of the church" at Ephesus, at the 28th ver. are called "bishops :" so that elders and bishops were then all one. But afterwards, he says, for preventing contention, it was appointed, that there should be but one bishop in a church; which last observation is again mentioned in another place, as from Jerom.
3. At Rom. i. 32. this author seems to have read: And not only they that do them, but they also that have pleasure in them;' which Mill supposes to be the right reading: but I do not perceive him to take any notice of Sedulius. This reading we saw also in Isidore, of Pelusium, not long ago.
4. Rom. xii. 13. Distributing to the necessities of saints.' So this text appears in the edition of Sedulius's Commentary: but it seems to be implied, in his explanation, that he did not read necessities,' but memories,' or 'memorials:' however, he mentions two interpretations, one suiting our common reading. Of this matter we spoke formerly, in the chapter of Optatus. 5. Upon Rom. xv. 24. he says, it' was uncertain whether Paul ever went into Spain. 6. Upon Rom. xvi. 21. he observes: Some said that Lucius was the evangelist, generally
7. Upon 1 Cor. v. 9. I have written to you in an epistle; that is," says he, I write :' and meaning therefore, certainly, in this epistle. Pelagius understood this place in the same
8. Upon 1 Cor. xi. 25. “Not discerning the Lord's body:" that is," says he, not distinguishing it from common food.
Sedulii Scoti Hiberniensis in omnes S. Pauli epistolas Collectaneum. Ap. Bib. PP. Lugdun. T. vi. p. 494....588.
Qui Sedulius, non ille quidem Cælius Sedulius, qui seculo quinto carmina quædam et alia opuscula edidit, sed alter Sedulius Scotus Hiberniensis, qui nono seculo floruit, Hunc ipsum esse, tum nomen cognomenque suadent... tum etiam peritia Græcæ linguæ, quam in Commentariis suis in epistolas Pauli, jamdiu editis, præfert Sedulius ille Scotus. Nam frequenter ibi de lectione Græca, nec prorsus indocte, disserit. Unde Commentarii pro illâ ætate inter præstantiores computandi sunt. Montfauc. Palaiogr. Gr. 1. iii. c. 7. p. 236.
d Vid. in Rom. cap. i. p. 494. G. et alibi.
Attendite vobis, et omni gregi, in quo vos Spiritus 'Sanctus posuit episcopos, pascere ecclesiam Domini, quam 'acquisivit per sanguinem suum.' Et hic diligentius observato, quomodo unius civitatis Ephesi presbyteros vocans, postea episcopos dixerit. Hæc propterea, ut ostenderemus, apud veteres eosdem fuisse presbyteros quos episcopos. Paulatim vero, ut dissensionum plantaria evellerentur, ad unum omnium solicitudinem esse dilatam. Id. Ep. ad Tit. cap. i. p. 579. A.
iNecessitatibus sanctorum communicantes.' Manifestum est, quia qui preces suas exaudiri vult, æmulus debet esse vitæ sanctorum: ut hoc sit memorem esse, et communicatorem, imitari actus illorum. Aliter: Memores [an memoriis ?] 'sanctorum communicantes :' hoc est, ministrantes eis, qui propter Christum omnia contemnentes, alienis ad tempus indigent ministeriis. In Rom. xii. p. 531. F.
See Vol. ii. p. 492.
Utrum vero in Hispaniam venerit, incertum. p. 535. A. m Lucium quidam perhibent esse Lucam, qui evangelium scripsit; pro eo quod soleant nomina interdum secundum patriam declinationen, interdum etiam secundum Græcam, Romanamque proferri. Ib. p. 536. D.
Scripsi vobis.' Pro Scribo. Vel ideo præteritum dicit, quia cum legeretur, tempus scribendi præteritum esset. P. 540. C.
9. Upon 1. Cor. vi. 2, he says, that "the first day of the week" means the Lord's day. 10. Heb. xi. 37. “ They wandered about in sheepskins, and goatskins." Sedulius must have had in his copy that word only, which we have rendered sheepskins;' which he also explains, and says, it signifies goatskins.'
This passage of our author brought to my mind the observation of that excellent critic, Ludolph Kuster, in the preface to his edition of Mill's New Testament; that goatskins' is a scholion, or marginal interpretation of the other word, which has been brought into the text: and he says, that this is agreeable to Hesychius, who informs, that the word 'melote' is used for the skins of goats, and any four footed animals.
So Kuster in whom this observation is only a conjecture, though very ingenious, and probable. But here is an ancient author, who had this reading: and it is found in some other authors; particularly in the Commentary upon St. Paul's epistles, ascribed by some ‹ to Primasius, bishop of Adrumetum in Africa, about the year 550: but by others, that Commentary is ascribed to Remigius, a presbyter, in the ninth century. That every one may judge of this, I transcribe him largely below. The text of this verse, in our present editions of Primasius, is the same as in our copies of the New Testament: but his comment must induce us to think that he read but one word, the same which is rendered by us sheepskins.'
To Primasius I add Oecumenius: for though in him also the text is given, as in our copies; yet his comment plainly shews, that he read only the first of these two words.
I shall now put below a valuable observation of Mr. Wetstein.1
I have not, at present, any other ancient writers to allege in favour of this reading; but perhaps some more may be observed hereafter.
However, we are told by Jerom, that in his time a covering made of goatskin, was called a 'melote:' it was wore, he says, by the monks in Egypt. John Cassian likewise, describing the garments of the Egyptian monks, mentions a' goatskin; which, he says, they call melote.' How the word melote' was understood in the fourth century, may be argued also from Gregory Nyssen; who says that " Elias wore goatskins.
And the Greek lexicographers assure us, that melote' denotes a skin made of any fourfooted animal: so Hesychius, to whom Kuster refers: whom " I transcribe more at large: so also Suidas.
I might add, that melote' is the only word in the Greek version of the Old Testament, where the garment of Elijah and Elisha is mentioned. See 1 Kings xix. 13, 19. 2 Kings ii. 8. 13, 14.
Per unam Sabbati.' Una sabbati Dominica dies est, ut Dominicâ die paulatim congregarentur per tempus, ne plus gravarentur. Ideo autem in Dominico hoc permissum est, quia non opus est servile, eleëmosynam congregare. p. 549. B.
bCircumierunt in Melotis.' Ut Helias, et Joannes, aliique multi. Est autem melota pellis caprina, ex uno latere dependens, quâ monachi utuntur Ægyptii. p. 588.
Pari ratione Hebr. xi. 37. Ev ayɛlois deguaci proculdubio est scholion et interpretamentum ejus, quod proxime præcedit, By μnλwlais. Vide Hesychium V. Mrλa, qui te docebit vocabulum illud sensu quidem latiore interdum dici de quibusvis quadrupedibus, proprie autem et præcipue de ovibus et capris. Unde consequitur, μηλωτήν quoque et αίγειον δερμα proprie unum idemque significare; et proinde posterius, tamquam clarius et notius, dicto loco ad Hebræos, prioris esse interpretamentum. Lud. Kuster.
d Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 525. S. Basnag. Annal. 552. n. ix. x. Hod. de Bibl. Text. Orig. 1. iii, p. 2. cap. 6. p. 401. e Vid. Cav. H. L. T. ii. p. 62, 63. I. Le Long. Bibl. Sacr. T. ii. p 913.
Circuierunt in melotis, in pellibus caprinis, egentes. Heliam in hoc loco debemus intelligere, et alios, qui taliter egerunt.... Melotam dicunt quidam genus esse vestimenti ex pellibus caprinis, ex uno latere dependens, quo genere vestimenti propter asperitatem in Egypto monachi dicuntur uti. Helias quoque legitur usus illo fuisse. Et unλoy Græce ovis dicitur, vel quadrupes quodlibet. Unde una pellis ovina. At vero quidam dicunt, ex pellibus taxi genus vestimenti esse comVOL. III.
positum. Est enim ammal, quod taxus vocatur, solitus in cavernis terræ habitare, cujus pellis hispida esse fertur, a quo nomine derivatur vocabulum hujus vestis, id est, a melo melota. Primas. Comm. in Hebr. ap. Bib. PP. Lugd. T. x. p. 279. E. F.
Vid. Oecum. T. ii. p. 415. A.
* Περιήλθον εν μηλωταις, οἷον ὁ Ελιας, ο Ελισαίος. Id. ib. p. 416. B.
i Ecumenius scripsit in Acta et epistolas apostolorum. ... Textus autem sacer ad editiones potius N. T. Erasmiani, quam ad fidem Codicum MSS. expressus est. J. J. Wetst. Prolegom. ad N. T. Tom. i. p. 78. Vid. et Tom. ii. p. 867.
* Nihil habent in cellulis, præter psiathium... et caprinam pelliculam, quam meloten vocant. Hieron. Ep. 108. T. iv. P. 2. p. 810.
Ultimus est habitus eorum pellis caprina, quæ melote vel pera appellatur, et baculus.... Qui tamen habitus pellis caprinæ significat, mortificatâ omni petulantiâ carnalium passionum, debere eos in summâ virtutum gravitate consistere. I. Cass. de Cœnob. Instit. 1 i. c. 8. ap. B. PP. T. vii. p. 19. F. Conf. Evagr. Monach. Capita ap. Coteler. Monum. Gr. Ec. T. iii. p. 69. Med.
της .... ὁ μεν δερμασιν αίγείοις. . . σκεπαζόμενος. De Virg. cap. 6. T. iii. p. 134.
Μηλα κοινως μεν πανία τα τελςαποδα· όθεν και πάσα βύρσα, ό εσι παν δέρμα, μηλωτη λεγεται. Hesych.
• Μηλωτη ζωνη εκ δερματος. Suid.
It may be farther observed, that in all the Greek copies of this verse, and in the Latin versions, and generally in the citations of it by Greek and Latin authors, the copulative is wanting. Our English version has it thus: "They wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins"; but in the Greek, and elsewhere, as just mentioned, it is, in sheepskins, in goatskins.' affords a great deal of reason to think, that goatskins' is only a marginal interpretation, which has been brought into the text.
If it should be said, that the present reading is the reading of all manuscripts, even the most ancient, particularly the Alexandrian, the answer is not difficult. This shews, that the common reading is very ancient: but it does not follow, that it is right; when there is so much evidence to the contrary, from the quotations of divers ancient writers, and from the thing itself.
If it be still urged, that both words are in the epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, where this text is quoted or referred to; I answer, that we have but one copy only of that epistle, and it is a part of the Alexandrian manuscript: nevertheless, the agreement with the present reading of this verse, in the epistle to the Hebrews, is not exact.
I hope it may be excused, that I have dwelt so long upon this one reading. Considering the observation of Mr. Kuster, before mentioned, I expected some particular notice to be taken of it by his successors, in collecting various readings: but I see nothing material relating to it, either in Mr. Bengelius, or Mr. Wetstein; though it now appears to be the reading of at least three ancient writers, just alleged: which seems to shew, that some things may escape the most exact and diligent.
11. There are many other readings, and explications of texts, in Sedulius, that deserve notice; but I forbear to add any more, out of regard to brevity.
12. It appears, from this Commentary, that Sedulius received all the books of the New Testament in general, and particularly the book of the Revelation.
LEO, BISHOP OF ROME.
1. LEO the first, surnamed the Great, was chosen bishop of Rome in 440; and died in 461, having sat in that see twenty-one years.
2. It is needless to say, he quotes the gospels, and Acts, and other books of the New Testament, which were always received: he quotes also often the epistle to the Hebrews, the epistle of James, the first epistle of Peter, and the first epistle of John, and once or twice the book of the Revelation. I do not now recollect any quotation of the second epistle of Peter; nevertheless, it may be reckoned undoubted, that he received it: and perhaps he may be thought to refer to 2 Pet. i. 14, in some words, which I place below; though he might intend only
John xxi. 18.
a Circuierunt in melotis, in pellibus caprinis. Hieron. et Bez.
Ο Ανδρες περιεχομενοι κατα την ερημον εν μηλωΐαις, εν αιγείοις δέρμασιν, ὑπερεμενοι. Socrat. Η. Ε. 1. 4. c. 24. p. 239. D.
- Ολινες εν δέρμασιν αίγείοις και μηλωΐαις περιεπαίησαν. Clem. cap. 17. in.
d .... περιήλθον εν μηλωταις, εν αίγείοις δεςμασιν. Hebr. xi. 37.
In Ep. ad Roman. cap. i. p. 495. A.
f Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. Pagi Ann. 440. 2. 461. n. 3, 4. Basnag. Ann. 440. n. 5, 6. Du Pin Bib. T. iii. P. ii. p. 1-20, &c. Tillem. T. xv. Fabric. Bib. Lat. T. iii. p. 526. Mr. Bower's History of the Popes vol . p. 7.... 140.
Nam qui ait: Sine fide impossibile est placere Deo, [Hebr. xi. 6.] idem dicit: 'Si habuero omnem fidem,' &c. [1 Cor. xiii.] Leon. Serm. 44. cap. ii. p. 110. edit. Quesnel. Lugdun. 1700. Vid. et Serm. 23. cap. vi. Serm. 57. cap. v.
Dicente beato apostolo Jacobo: Si quis vestrûm indiget 'sapientiâ, postulet a Deo,' &c. [Jac. i. 5.] Serm. 48. cap. iv. et passim.
i...memorque sis ejus sententiæ, quæ dicit: Tene quod 'habes, ne alius accipiat coronam tuam.' [Apoc. iii. 11.] Ep. 80. al. 53. cap. vi. p. 300.
* Nec aut dubius de provectu operis, aut de spatio tuæ ignarus ætatis, tropæum crucis Christi Romanis arcibus inferebas. Serm.80. cap. v. p. 165.
3. He cites 1 Pet. ii. 23, after this manner: When he suffered, he threatened not, but yielded himself to him that judged righteously.'
4. He cites 1 John v. 7, without the heavenly witnesses, which he plainly had not in his copies.
5. His respect for scripture, and general divisions of it will appear in the following passages: 6. This, he says, is the cause of errors and heresies, that men follow their own fancies, ⚫ and attend not, as they ought, to the doctrine of the prophets, apostles, and evangelists.' 7. The Holy Ghost instructs us in the law, the prophets, the gospel, and the apostles.'
8. What reason can there be, why we should not receive what is not taught by the law, or the prophets, the evangelists, or apostles?"
9. He says, We ought not, in the least to dissent from the evangelical and apostolical doctrine; nor to understand the divine scriptures otherwise than the blessed apostles, and our • fathers have learned and taught.'
Which is somewhat ambiguous: If by our fathers' are intended men different from the apostles and evangelists, and they are placed in equal authority with the apostles, I humbly conceive, this is not sound doctrine, or agreeable either to scripture, or the sentiments of Christians in the most early times; but I do not think it needful so to understand him: it cannot be reasonable to think, that he equalled any men, after the apostles, or their writings, to the divine scriptures, or the divine oracles.
10. He charges the Manichees with rejecting the law and the prophets; and with taking some things from, and adding others to, the gospels and the apostles; and calls them adversaries
11. He likewise charges the Priscillianists with using apocryphal scriptures, written in the names of apostles; and orders them to be burned.
12. Let me now add a few things of a different kind.
13. Leo supposeth, that St. Peter, after having taught the Jews of Judea, founded the church at Antioch; and, afterwards, instructed the people of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia: he says, that Peter was at Rome in the reign of the emperor Claudius; and " that he had the honour of martyrdom, together with Paul, at Rome, in the time of Nero, whose persecution was general, and the first heathen persecution which the Christians suffered. 14. This bishop of Rome does, in an extravagant manner, vaunt the supremacy of his see,
a Hoc enim docet beatus Petrus apostolus, dicens :. . . Qui, cum malediceretur, non maledicebat; cum pateretur, non comminabatur. Tradebat autem judicanti se injuste. Serm. 63. c. iv. p. 139.
Hic est qui venit per aquam et sanguinem, Jesus Christus; non in aquâ solum, sed in aquâ et sanguine. Et Spiritus est, qui testificatur, quoniam Spiritus est veritas. Quia tres sunt qui testimonium dant, Spiritus, aqua, et sanguis; et tres unum sunt Spiritus utique sanctificationis, et sanguis redemtionis, et aqua baptismatis; quæ tria unum sunt, et individua manent, nihilque eorum a sui connexione sejungitur. Ep. 24. al. 10. cap. v. p. 245.
Sed in hanc insipientiam cadunt, qui cum ad cognoscendam veritatem aliquo impediuntur obscuro, non ad propheticas voces, non ad apostolicas literas, nec ad evangelicas auctoritates, sed ad semetipsos recurrunt. Et ideo magistri erroris existunt, &c. Ep. 24. al. 10. cap. i.
d...exhortante et instruente Spiritu Sancto per legis testificationem, per vaticinia prophetarum, et per evangelicam tubam, apostolicamque doctrinam. Serm. 39. cap. 3.
* Quid ergo opus est, in cor admittere quod lex non docuit, quod prophetia non cecinit, quod evangelii veritas non prædicavit, quod apostolica doctrina non tradidit? Ep. 15. al. 93. cap. 12.
Et cum ab evangelicâ, apostolicâque doctrinâ ne uno quidem verbo liceat dissidere, aut aliter de scripturis divinis sapere, quam beati apostoli et patres nostri didicerunt atque docuerunt. Ep. 62. al. 42. cap. 1.
Cum semper nos, dilectissimi, gaudere in Domino omnia divina eloquia exhortentur, &c. Serm. 27. cap. 1.
Isti, de quibus loquimur, adversarii veritatis, legem per
Mosem datam, et inspirata divinitus prophetarum oracula respuerunt, ipsasque evangelicas et apostolicas paginas, quædam auferendo, et quædam inserendo violaverunt. Serm. 33. cap. iv. Vid. et S. 8. c. iv.
i Apocryphæ autem scripturæ, quæ sub nominibus apostolorum multarum habent seminarium falsitatum, non solum interdicendæ, sed etiam penitus auferendæ sunt, atque igni. bus concremandæ. Ep. 15. al. 93. cap. 15.
* Jam populos, qui ex circumcisione crediderant, erudieras: jam Antiochenam ecclesiam, ubi primum Christiani nominis dignitas est orta, fundaveras: jam Pontum, Galatiam, Cappadocian, Asiam, atque Bithyniam, legibus evangelicæ prædicationis impleveras. Serm. 79, cap. 5.
Nec mundi dominam times Romam, qui in Caïaphæ domo expaveras sacerdotis ancillam. Numquid aut judicio Pilati, aut sævitiâ Judæorum, minor erat vel in Claudio potestas, vel in Nerone crudelitas? Ib. c. 4.
Ad quam beatus coapostolus tuus, vas electionis, et specialis inagister Gentium, Paulus occurrens, eodem tibi consociatus est tempore, quo omnis pudor, omnisque libertas, sub Neronis laborabat imperio. Cujus furor per omnium vitiorum inflammatus excessum, in hunc eum usque torrentem suæ præcipitavit insaniæ, ut primus nomini Christiano atrocitatem generalis persecutionis inferret. Ib. cap. v.
" Sed hujus muneris sacramentum ita Dominus ad omnium apostolorum officium pertinere voluit, ut in beatissimo Petro apostolorum omnium summo principaliter collocârit; et ab ipso, quasi quodam capite, dona sua velit in corpus omne manere. Ep. 10. al. 89. cap. 1.-Et tamen de toto mundo unus Petrus eligitur, qui et universarum gentium vocationi, et omnibus apostolis, cunctisque ecclesiæ partibus, præponatur ;