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passage already cited. • I therefore exhort all of you to procure to yourselves Bibles, Beensa. • If you have nothing else, take care to have the New Testament, particularly the Acts of the apostles, and the gospels, for your constant instructors.' And Jerom says,

And Jerom says, "That the scrip• tures being all written by one spirit, are called one book.' We likewise saw formerly a passage of Augustine, where he informs us, “ That' some called all the canonical scriptures one book, • on account of their wonderful harmony, and unity of design throughout.' And I then said: • It is likely, that this way of speaking gradually brought in the general use of the word Bible, • for the whole collection of the scriptures, or the books of the Old and New Testament.'

In short, the ancient Christians were continually speaking of the divine oracles, and the divine books, and were much employed in reading them, as Chrysostom directs in a passage transcribed 4 below: where he recommends the reading the divine books daily, forenoon and afternoon. At length the whole collection was called the book, or the Bible.

Dr. Heumann has an epistle, or short dissertation concerning the origin of this name of our sacred collection of books, And for some while he was of opinion, that ' it was so called, as being the most excellent of all books : in like manner as the Jews had before called their collection the scriptures, by way of eminence. So Acts xviii. 24 and 28.

So Acts xviii. 24 and 28. But 8 afterwards he suspected, that the origin of this name was in those words of Paul, 2 Tim. iv. 13. “ The cloak that I left at Troas with Carpus, when thou comest, bring with thee, and the books : nai Ta B.Eng." For he believed, that thereby the ancient Christians understood the sacred code. But he afterwards acknowledged, that he had not found any instance of that interpretation in ancient writers. It seems to me therefore, that this conjecture should be dropt, as destitute of foundation ; and that it should be better for us to adhere to the forementioned origin of this name, which appears to have in it a good deal of probability.

III. Canon is originally a Greek word, signifying a rule or standard, by which other things are to examined and judged.

As the writings of the prophets and apostles and evangelists contain an authentic account of the revealed will of God, they are the rule of the belief and practice of those who receive them,

Sometimes canon seems equivalent to a list or catalogue, in which are inserted those books, which contain the rule of faith.

Du Pin says, “This word signifies not only a law or rule, but likewise a table, catalogue, • list. Some have supposed, that the canonical books were so called, because they are the rule • of the faith. But though it be true, that they are the rule of our faith : yet the reason of • their being called canonical, is, because they are placed in the catalogue of sacred books.'

Perhaps, there is no need to dispute about this ; for there is no great difference in those two senses : and there may be passages of ancient writers, where it would be difficult to determine, which of them is intended.

St. Paul has twice used the word canon, or rule. Gal. vi. 16, “ As many as walk according to this rule.” Upon which verse Theodoret's comment is to this purpose : • He' calls the fore* mentioned doctrine a rule, as being straight, and having nothing wanting, nor superfluous.' Again, says St. Paul, Philip. iii. 16, “ Whereunto we have already attained, let us walk according to the same rule.” Where he speaks of the doctrine of the gospel in general, or of some particular maxim of it: not of any books containing the rule of faith. However, his use of the word may have been an occasion of asfixing that denomination to the books of scripture: for it is of great antiquity among Christians.

Irenæus, speaking of the scriptures, as the words of God, calls k them the rule, or canon * Vol. ii. p. 609, 610. • Ibid. p. 565.

& Ib. Ibid. p. 589.

h Le mot signifie non seulement une loi, une règle, mais 'Αλλα δει πανlα καιρον επιτηδειον ηγεισθαι προς την των aussi une table, un catalogue, une liste.... Quelques uns ont ανευματικων λογων διαλεξιν. ... Δυνησομενα και επι οικιας δια- cru que les livres canoniques étoient ainsi appellés parcequ'ils τριζονίες, και μετα την επιασιν, και προ της εσιασεως μελα sont la régle de la foi. Mais, quoque cela soit vrai, ce n'est χειρας λαζονίες τα θεια βιβλια την εξ αυθων καρπεσθαι ωφε- pas ce qui leur a fait donner le nom de canoniques, qu'ils delay. In i. Gen. hom. x. T. IV. p. 81. C. Bened.

n'ont que parceque l'on a nommé canon le catalogue des livres e De origine nominis Bibliorum. Heum. Pæcile. Tom. I. sacrés. Diss. Prelim. l. 1. ch. I. sect. 2. p. 412-415.

1 Κανονα εκαλεσε την προκειμένην διδασκαλιαν, ως ευθυτης Suspicari deinde cæpi, ideo • Biblia' dictum esse sa- XooJQueryy, και μητε ελλειπον τι, μητε περιτίον εχεσαν. crum codicem, quod tamquam liber omnium præstantissimus Theod. in loc. κατ' εξοχην dictus sit τα Βιβλια. Suppetias conjecture huic k Nos autem unum et solum verum Deum doctorem seferre videbatur illa appellatio, quâ idem divinum opus vocari quentes, et regulam veritatis habentes ejus sermones, de iisdem solet ai ypapas. e. gr. Act. xviii. 24, 25. Id, ib. p. 413. semper eadem dicimus omnes. Iren, l. 4.C.35. al. 69. f. p. 277.



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of truth. Here canon is not a catalogue, but the books, or the doctrine contained in the books of scripture.

Clement of Alexandria, referring to a quotation of the gospel according to the Egyptians, says with indignation : { But · they who choose to follow any thing, rather than the true · evangelical canon [or the canon of the gospel] insist upon what follows there as said to • Salome.' In another place he says: The ecclesiastical canon is the consent and agreement of the law and the prophets with the testament delivered by the Lord.'

Eusebius, as formerly quoted, says of Origen: • But in the first book of his Commentaries * upon the gospel of Matthew, observing the ecclesiastical canon, he declares that he knew of • four gospels only.'

I shall add a few more passages from later writers, chiefly such as have been already quoted in the foregoing volumes: to which passages therefore the reader may easily have recourse.

Athanasius in his Festal Epistle speaks of three sorts of books, the canonical, the same which are now received by us, such as were allowed to be read, and then of such as are apocryphal: by which he means books forged by heretics.

In the synopsis of scripture ascribed to him, but probably not written till above a hundred years after his time, near the end of the fifth century, is frequent mention of canonical and uncanonical books.

The council of Laodicea, about 363, ordains, that s o no books, not canonical, should be read • in the church, but only the canonical books of the Old and New Testament.'

Rufinus, enumerating the scriptures of the Old and New Testament, makes three sorts of books; such as are included in the canon; such as are not canonical, but ecclesiastical, allowed to be read, but not to be alleged for proof of any doctrine; and lastly, apocryphal books, which were not to be publicly read.

Jerom likewise often speaks of the canon of scripture, as we saw in his chapter, where he says: • Ecclesiasticus, * Judith, Tobit, and the Shepherd, are not in the canon:' and • that 'the • church reads, or allows to be read, Judith, Tobit and the Maccabees, but does not receive • them among the canonical scriptures: and that they, and the books of Wisdom and Ecclesias• ticus, may be read for the edification of the people, but not as of authority for proving any « doctrines.' And for the Old Testament he recommends the true Jewish canon, or Hebrew verity. I refer below to another place relating to the books of the New Testament.

The third council of Carthage, about 397, ordains, 'that° nothing beside the canonical scrip«tures be read in the church under the name of Divine Scriptures.'

Augustine, in 395, and afterwards, often P speaks of canonical scriptures, and the whole canon of scripture, that is, all the sacred books of the Old and New Testament. We read of some, says he, that “ they searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so, • Acts xvii. 11. What scriptures, I pray, except the canonical scriptures of the law and the

prophets ? To them have been since added the gospels, the epistles of apostles, the Acts of the apostles, and the Revelation of John.' Of the superior authority of the canonical scriptures to all others, he speaks frequently in passages afterwards alleged in the same chapter.

Chrysostom, in a place already cited,' says: • They fall into great absurdities who will not follow the rule (or canon) of the divine scripture, but trust entirely to their own reasoning.' I refer to another place to the like purpose.

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P. 408.

a See Vol. i.

tatem ex his fidei confirmandam. Cæteras vero scripturas • Κανων δε εκκλησιαστικος η συνωδια και η συμφωνια νομο apocryphas nomimarunt, quas in ecclesiis legi noluerunt. Te xai w poor Toy Tn xata TY TB zupie wapeciay wapadidouern Rufin. citat. ubi supra, p. 185. note 8. 812-97x7. Cl. Strom. 1. 6. p. 676.

k Vol. ii. p. 540.

" Ib. p. 541. c Vol. i. p. 532.

m P. 543.

" P. 550, 551. ο....τον εκκλησιασικον φυλατων κανονα. Αp. Euseb. 1. 6. o P. 574, 575.

P P. 578. c. 25. p. 226. B.

1 Totus autem canon scripturarum... his libris continetur. e Vol. ii. p. 399, 400. 'Ib. p. 404, 405.

Ib. note ibid. & Ib. p. 414. h Ib. p. 573.

P. 588.

s See p. 588-592. i Hæc sunt, quæ patres intra canonem concluserunt, & ex * Vol. iii. Recapitulation of chap. cxviii. quibus fidei nostræ assertiones constare voluerunt. ... Scien- Η Ορας, εις όσην ατοπιαν εκπιπλεσιν οι μη βελομενοι τω της dum tamen est, quod alii libri sunt, qui non sunt canonici, sed θειας γραφης κατακολοθειν κανονι. κ. λ. In Gen. cap. 33. ecclesiastici a majoribus appellati sunt. ... Quæ omnia legi hom. 58. T. iv. p. 566. quidem in ecclesiis voluerunt, non tamen proferri ad auctori- * Vid. hom. 33, in Act. Ap. sub fin.

Says Isidore of Pelusium, about 412: that these things are so, we shall perceivė, if we • attend to the rule (canon] of truth, the divine scriptures.'

And Leontius of Constantinople, about 610, having cited the whole catalogue of the books of scripture from Genesis to the Revelation concludes; • These' are the ancient and the new books, which are received in the church as canonical.'

By all which we discern, how much the use of these words, canon and canonical, has obtained among Christians, denoting those books which are of the highest authority, and the rule of faith; as opposed to all other whatever, particularly to ecclesiastical, or the writings of orthodox and learned catholics, and to apocryphal, the productions chiefly of heretics, which by a specious name and title made a pretension to be accounted among sacred books.

IV. The most common and general division of the canonical books is that of ancient and new, or the Old and New Testament. The Hebrew word berith, from which it is translated, properly signifies ( covenant. St. Paul 2 Cor. iii. 6—18, shewing the superior excellence of the gospel covenant, or the dispensation by Christ, above the legal covenant, or the dispensation by Moses, useth the word testament, not only for the covenant itself, but likewise for the books in which it is contained. At least he does so in speaking of the legal covenant. For, representing the case of the unbelieving part of the Jewish people, he says, ver. 14.

“ Until this day remainetḥ the same vail untaken away in reading the Old Testament.”

It is no wonder therefore that this way of speaking has much prevailed among Christians. Melito, bishop of Sardis, about the year 177, went into the east, to get an exact account of the books of the law and the prophets. In his letter to his friend Onesimus, giving an account of his journey, and reckoning up the books in their order, he calls them the ancient books, and the books of the Old Testament. Eusebius calls it só a catalogue of the acknowledged scriptures of the Old Testament.' Our ecclesiastical historian elsewhere speaks of the scriptures of the New Testament. I shall remind my readers of but one instance more. Cyril of Jerusalem, introducing his catalogue of scriptures received by the christian church, says :

These things we are taught by the divinely inspired scriptures of the Old and New Testament.”. Many other like examples occur in the preceding volumes of this work.

V. Instead of testament, Latin writers sometimes use the word instrument, denoting writing, charter, record. We find it several times in Tertullian, reckoned the most ancient Latin writer of the church now remaining. In a passage already k cited he calls the gospels, or the New: Testament in general, the evangelic instrument. And

And says : How large chasms Marcion has • made in the epistle to the Romans, by leaving out what he pleases, may appear from our entire » • instrument: or our unaltered copies of the New Testament, particularly of that epistle. Speaking of the shepherd of Hermas, he says, • it was not reckoned a part of the divine instru- > ment: thereby meaning, as it seems, the New Testament: which passage was quoted by us.“ formerly. He calls o the law and the prophets the Jewish instruments: that is, writings or · scriptures. He speaks of the antiquity of the Jewish instruments or scriptures. He seems in one place to use the word instrument, as equivalent to scriptures, containing the doctrine of revelation, or the revealed will of God.

VI. Digest is another word used by Tertullian in speaking of the scriptures. • Luke's'

p. 601.

cap. 10.

* Oro de tauta STWS EXEI, TOV Havova 175 a119125, Tas Gelas Romanos] Marcion fecerit, auferendo quæ voluit, de nostri. φημι γραφας, κατοπτευσωμεν. Isid. ep. 114. 1. 4.

Instrumenti integritate patebit. Adv. Marcion. I. 5. cap. 13. 'b See Vol. jii. p. 77.

• Ταυτα εςι τα κανονιζομενα βιβλια εν τη εκκλησια, και » Sed cederem tibi, si scriptura Pastoris--divino instrywahala xar yec. Citat. ibid. p. 380. note e

mento meroisset incidi.... De Pudicit.

1. p. 727. A, Notandum, quod Berith, verbum Hebraïcum, Aquila n See Vol. ii. p. 284. Our Syxny, id est, pactum, interpretatur : Lxx semper dia sexyv, • Aut numquid non justi Judæi, & quibus pænitentià tion id est, testamentum : et in plerisque scripturarum locis testa- opus esset, habentes gubernacula disciplinæ & timoris instrumnentum non voluntatem defunctoruin sonare, sed pactum menta, legem & prophetas. De Pudicitiâ. Cap. 7. p. 722. B. viventium Hieron. in Malach. cap. ii. T. iii. p. 1816.

p Primam instrumentis istis auctoritatem summa antiquitas. • Ετι δε και μαθείν την των παλαιων βιβλιων εξεληθης ακρι- vindicat. Apol. cap. 19. p. 19. B. Esioy. x. d. Ap. Euseb. I. 4. c. 27. p. 148. D.

Sed quoniam edidimus, antiquissimis, Judæorum instru1.... Και ακριβως μαθων τα της παλαιας διαθηκης βιβλια. mentis sectam istam esse suffultam. Apol. cap. 21. in. p. 20. Ib. p. 149. A. 8 Ibid. p. 148. D.

4 Sed quo plenius et impressius tam ipsum, quam disposi"See Vol. ii. p. 393. i The same, p. 409.

tiones ejus et voluntates adiremus, instrumentum adjecit lite. * See Vol. i. p: 419.

raturæ, si quis velit de Deo inquirere. Apol. cap. 18. p. 18, C.; Quantas autem foveas

vel ne cpistolâ (ad " See Vol. i. p. 420.

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os Go ye

• digest,' he says, is often ascribed to Paul.'

He calls the gospels, or the whole New Testao ment, our digest,' in allusion, as it seems, to some collection of the Roman laws digested into order. Those two passages were cited in the chapter of Tertullian. I now transcribe the latter below more at large, it having also the word instrument, as equivalent to the New Testament. He likewise calls, the Jewish scriptures • Sacred Digests. He seems to use the word digest elsewhere, as equivalent to writing, or work in general.

I shall not take notice of any other general denominations of scriptures.

VII. My chief concern is with the New Testament, which, as is well known, consists of gospels; the Acts, and epistles. The only word that needs explanation is the first.

Gospel is a translation of the Greek word Euayyerov, the Latin word, evangelium, which signifies any good message or tidings. In the New Testament the word denotes the doctrine of salvation, taught by Jesus Christ, and his apostles : which indeed is gospel by way of eminence, as it is the best tidings that ever were published in this world. Says Theodoret upon Rom. i. 1. · He calls it gospel, as it contains assurance of many good things. For it proclaims peace with •God, the overthrow of Satan, the remission of sins, the abolishing of death, the resurrection of • the dead, eternal life, and the kingdom of heaven.'

Says St. Matthew iv. 23. - And Jesus went all about Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom.” Kui ungureWV TO EUYVENIO TUS BeCideuds Mark xiii. 10: -And the gospel [To evæyyelov] must first be preached to all nations." Ch. xvi. 15. into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.”. Kupužate to EuæYyencov. It is called o the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation." Eph. i. 13. And in like manner in other places.

But by gospel, when used by us concerning the writings of the evangelists, we mean the history of Christ's preaching and miracles. The word seems also to be so used by St. Mark i. 1. “ The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ.” Which may be understood and paraphrased thus : * Here' begins the history of the life and doctrine of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, and • Saviour of mankind.'

St. Luke, referring to the book of his gospel, says, Acts i. 1, 2. • The former treatise have I made, O Theophilus, of all that Jesus began to do and teach, until the day in the which he was taken up, after that he through the Holy Ghost had given commandments unto the apostles whom he had chosen.” But St. Luke, as it seems, there puts the principal part for the whole. For he has therein written also the history of our Lord's miraculous birth, and divers extraordinary events attending it: and likewise the history of the birth of John the Baptist, and divers circumstances of it, and his preaching and death.

In this sense the word gospel is frequently understood by us. A gospel is the history of Jesus Christ, his doctrine, miracles, resurrection and ascension: not excluding the history of his fore-runner, who 8 also is said to have preached the gospel, that is, the doctrine of the gospel, or the kingdom of God.

The gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, are the history of Jesus Christ, as written by those several evangelists.

P. 432.

a See Vol. i.

| That is Dr. Clarke's paraphrase. But I am sensible it Si vero Apostoli quidem integrum evangelium contule- will not be allowed by all." Ecumenius says, that by Gospel runt, de solà convictûs inæqualitate reprehensi, Pseudapostoli Mark does not intend his own writing, but Christ's preaching. autem veritatem eorum interpolarunt, et inde sunt nostra Μαρκ©», Αρχη, φησι, το ευαγγελιε Ιησε Χριςο αλλα και την digesta; quod erit germanum illud apostolorum instrumentum, εαυτο συγγραφην καλει ευαγγελιον, αλλα το το Χριςο κηρυγ: quod adulteros passum est? Adver. Marc. l. 4. cap. 3. p. 504. B.

в.з. Ecum. in Act. Ap. He proceeds to say, that the * Sed homines gloriæ, ut diximus, et eloquentiæ solius libi- faithful afterwards called the writings of the evangelists dinosi, si quid in sanctis offenderunt digestis, exinde reges- gospels, as truly containing the gospe!, that is, the doctrine of tum pro instituto curiositatis ad propria verterunt. Apol. cap. Christ. See Vol. iii.. p. 84.

8 Matt. iii. 1, 2.“ In those days came John the Baptist, • Elegi ad compendium Varronis opera, qui rerum divina: preaching in the wilderness of Judea, and saying: Repent, for rum ex omnibus retro digestis commentatus, idoneum se the kingdom of heaven is at band.” Compare Mak i. 4. nobis scopum exposuit. Ad Nation. I. 2. cap. i. p. 64. C. Luke iii. 1, 2. And says St. Luke ji. 18.

And many • Ευαγγελιον δε το κήρυγμα προσηγορευσεν, ως πολλων other things in his exhortation preached he unto the people." αγαθων υπισχναμενον χορηγιαν. Ευαγγελιζεται γαρ τας Πολλα μεν εν και έτερα παρακαλων, ευαγγελιζετο τον λαον. το θεα καλαλλαγας, την τ8 διαβολά καταλυσιν, των αμαρτη- Which may be literally rendered thus : " And exhorting ματων την αφεσιν, τα θανατε την παιλαν, των νεκρων την many other like things, he evangelized (or preached the ανασασιν, την ζωην την αιωνιον, την βασιλειαν των εραναν. • gospel to the people." Io ep. ad Rom. T. iii. p. 10. B.

47. p. 41. B.


General Observations upon the Canon of the New Testament.

1. The canonical books of the New Testament received by Christians in this part of the world, are the four gospels, the Acts of the apostles, fourteen epistles of St. Paul, seven catholic epistles, and the Revelation.

II. There may be different canons of the New Testament among Christians.

Indeed, there have been in former times, and still are, different sentiments among Christians, concerning the number of books to be received as canonical. The • canon of the Syrian churches is not the same as ours. Jerom tells us, that 6 in his time some of the Latins received the epistle to the Hebrews, and some of the Greeks the book of the Revelation. From Chry, sostom's works we perceive, that he did not receive the second epistle of St. Peter, nor the second and third of St. John, nor the epistle of St. Jude, nor the Revelation. And there is reason to think, that ^ Theodoret's canon likewise was much the same with Chrysostom's, and that of the churches in Syria. Nevertheless, we have observed in the course of this work, that about the same time the Egyptians, and the Christians in divers other parts of the world, had the same number of canonical books that we have.

But to come nearer our own time. Calvin, Grotius, ' Le Clerc, & Philip Limborch, and some other learned moderns, have not admitted the epistle to the Hebrews to have been written by St. Paul: though' they were willing to allow it to be the work of an apostolical man, and a valuable part of sacred scripture. But I cannot say, that they were in the right in so doing, For it appears to me to have been a maxim of the ancient Christians, not to receive any doctrinal or perceptive writing, as of authority, unless it were known to be the work of an apostle. Consequently, the epistle to the Hebrews, if written by an apostolical man only, should not be esteemed canonical,

Grotius likewise supposed the second epistle ascribed to Peter, not to have been written by the apostle Simon Peter, but by Simeon, chosen bishop of Jerusalem after the death of James the Just, whose epistle we have. Which Simeon lived to the time of Trajan, when he was crucified for the name of Christ. Upon which I only observe at present, that if this Simeon be the writer of this epistle, it should not be a part of canonical scripture.

The same learned man supposeth 'the second and third epistles, called St. John's, not to have been written by John the apostle, but by another John, an elder or presbyter, who lived about the same time, and after him at Ephesus.

And the epistle called St. Jude's, he thought to have been written by one of that name, * See Vol. ii. p. 489, and Vol. iii. p. 53.

k Jam olim veterum multi credidere, non esse apostoli b Vol. ii. p. 558. The same, p. 608.

Petri, argumento tum dictionis ab epistolâ priore multum d This Vol. p. 11, 12.

diversæ, quod agnoscunt Eusebius & Hieronymus, tum quod Ego, ut Paulum agnoscam auctorem, adduci nequeo. multæ olim ecclesiæ hanc non receperint... Scriptorem autem Calvin argum. in ep. ad Hebr.

hujus epistolæ arbitror esse Simeonem sive Simonem, episcoFacillima refutatu est postrema hæc opinio, ideo quod pum post Jacobi mortem Hierosolymis, ejusdemique Jacobi, Paulinæ epistolæ inter se sint germanæ, pari charactere ac cujus epistolam habemus, successorem & imitatorem.... dicendi modo; hæc vero manifeste ab iis discrepet, selectiores Unde etiam constat, vixisse hunc post excidium Hierosolymi. babens voces Græcas, leniusque fluens, non autem fracta bre- tanum ad Trajani tempora, & tunc pro nomine Christi crucivibus incisis, ac salebrosa... Grot. Proæm. in ep. ad Hebr. fixum. Annot. in Ep. Petri secund. % Hist. Ec. Ann. 69. p. 155–461.

| Hanc epistolam, & eam quæ sequitur, non esse Johannis Prolegom. in ep. ad Hebr.

Apostoli, veterum multi jain olim crediderunt, a quibus non i Hisce argumentis utrimque attente expensis, dicendum dissentiunt Eusebius & Hieronymus. Et magna sunt in id videtur, Paulum epistolæ hujus scriptorem non videri. ... argumenta. Nam duos fuisse Johannes Ephesi, apostolum, Quis vero illius scriptor sit, incertum est. Alii eam Lucæ, ac presbyterum ejus discipulum, semper constitit ex sepulalii Barnabæ, alii Clementi adscribunt. ... Interim divinam cris, alio hujus, alio illius; quæ sepulcra vidit Hieronymus. hujus epistolæ auctoritatem agnoscimus, multisque aliis, quas Grot. Annot. in ep. Joan. secund. ab Apostolis esse scriptas constat, ob argumenti quod tractat n. Quare omnino adducor, ut credam esse hanc epistolam præstantiam, præferendam judicamus. Limb. ibid. Vid. et Judæ Episcopi Hierosolymitani, qui fuit. Adriani temporibus, Calvin. ubi supra.

paulo ante Barchochebam. Id. in Apnot. ad ep Judæ.


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