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12 Nov.

2 July

17 June

Van Vost......
Seeds ...

6 Oct.
Warming boots

4 Sept. Vaux Tilling land

11 Nov. Prevention of accidents Vaux

18 Nov. on railways Vidocq........ Tea-tray.

20 Nov. Walker and ano. Railway springs, &c.....

3 July Walker.... Piano-fortes

10 Oct. Walker Sluice cocks

31 Oct. Obtaining a vacuum for Ward

18 Nov. railways Watney Horse shoes

3 Nov.
Bottling ...

16 Oct.
Wheatstone & an. Electric telegraphs..
Water machinery

27 Nov, Whitehead Wool and flax

10 Oct. Whiting


10 Dec.
Williams Waterproofing paper, &c. 21 July
Motive power....

10 Oct. Wilkins

Leather Wilkinson Filtering..

8 Dec. Wilson. Spinning..

29 July Wilson.. Soap

10 Oct. Wilson. Turntables

18 Nov. Wilson.. Candles

20 Dec. Woodcroft Propelling vessels Worsdell Railway carriages

23 Oct. Wright..

Gas metres.. Wright.. Sugar refining

18 Nov. Wylam...


Plaster and cement
Motive power...

13 Nov.

4 Aug.

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7 Nov.

383–304 382_384

303 112 447 288

63 448

62 288 384

448 159-160

288 383 448 304 304 112 383 224

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383 1159—160

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Fig. 3.

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3 The accompanying figures show the cations. In one it is applied to the water system as applied according to the first supply, pump of a locomotive engine, arrangement, to the propelling of a rail worked by an eccentric on the shaft of way locomotive carriage. Fig. I is a the driving-wheels. In another it is side elevation, partly in section, of the adapted to a fire-engine, whereby "the engines; fig. 2, an end elevation; and same work would be performed with one fig. 3, a plan. The engines are proposed cylinder, which is now done by two of to be placed fore and aft, and worked in the same diameter, the friction would be connection by means of double cranks. reduced one-half, and a rotary mode of

Mr. Biram illustrates the advantages working be substituted for the reciproof his system by several other exemplifi- cating. Another arrangement for adopt

Fig. 2.

ing the system to a fire-engine is shown, through it at convenient distances (say in which an upright lever is introduced about a yard asunder), a great number and the piston worked by a rowing action, of men might be conveniently employed which is allowed on all hands to be the best at the same pump; and further, that by of any. Mr. Biram observes farther of this attaching an air vessel, it would at once last arrangement, “ It is also well-adapted become a powerful fire-engine, by which for a ship’s pumps, in which case the the water could be sent to any part of pipe above the valve-box should be con the vessel.” Mr. Biram's last exempliveyed through the ship's side, as near as fication is an air-pump, "by turning the conveniently may be above the load handle of which in one direction, it is a water line; it will be also evident that, condensing pump; and by reversing the by attaching a horizontal rod to the end motion, it becomes an exhausting one." of the upright lever, and passing handles Mr. Biram's claim is-1st, to" the con



structing of oscillating engines, whether much so indeed, that the difficult and inworked by steam, water, or any other tricate manæuvring of fifty years ago on fluid, with passages placed as before de a stormy and turbulent ocean is now scribed for the entrance and exit of the in a great measure assimilated to the steam, water, or other fluid, to and from mimic operations of school-boys on the the cylinders, and opened or closed, bosom of a placid lake or a gently flowwholly or partially in manner before de ing river. scribed, according as the progress of the The problem which enables us to test cranks, and the state of the steam or the the correctness of steam-boat logs, in so cylinders may require.” And, 2nd, "the far at least as the distances are concerned, application of the same peculiar system is that which assigns the direct distance of action to water-pumps, air-pumps, between any two places on the surface of fire-engines, and other machines and ina the globe, when their true geographical struments employed in the raising or positions, or their latitudes and longitudes, propelling of fluids as before respectively are known. There is nothing particular exemplified and described.”

in the problem itself, either as regards the difficulty of its solution, or the interest that attaches to it, being in reality

well known to all the readers of general METHOD OF COMPUTING THE DIRECT DIST

ANCE BETWEEN ANY TWO PLACES ON geography; but from its peculiar appliTHE SURFACE OF THE EARTH, THE COR

cability to the subject we are now conRECT GEOGRAPHICAL POSITIONS, OR THE sidering, we have been induced to proLATITUDES AND LONGITUDES OF THOSE pose it in an insulated form, independent PLACES BEING KNOWN. -APPLICABLE of all other problems of a kindred nature, MORE PARTICULARLY TO THE RUN OF thinking that by so doing it will be more STEAM SHIPS.

likely to meet the eye and arrest the atIn reading the published accounts of tention of our readers. the performances of some of the ocean It is generally understood, that the steamers of the larger class that go on nearest direct distance between any two lengthened voyages, the distances they are places on the surface of the earth, is an said to run between one observation and arc of a great circle passing through another, when compared with the times those places, and such, that if its plane that are stated to be occupied in accom were produced, it would pass through the plishing those distances, are sometimes centre of the globe and cut it into two very astonishing and eminently calculated equal and similar parts. And in like to excite our surprise; and when placed

if the planes of the meridians in juxta-position with the performances passing through the poles and each of of the swiftest sailing vessels, we are apt the two places were produced, they would to imagine that the officers on board respectively pass through the centre of have fallen into some error in registering the globe and divide it into two equal their remarks. It ought however to be and similar parts. But supposing that considered, that steamers possess an im each of the planes above mentioned measurable advantage over sailing, ves should extend" no further than to the sels in running a direct course, being centre, they would cut out a solid gore comparatively but little influenced either or portion of the sphere, separated into by wind or tide ; whereas, a sailing vessel two triangular pyramids supplemental to when working up against a head wind, each other, and whose bases are portions being obliged to traverse on oblique of the spheric surface. It is to these courses, has both the distance and the pyramids so constituted, that we must time of accomplishing it greatly length- apply for the solution of the present proened. In fact, the method of conducting

blem. Since the latitudes and longitudes a steam ship from one place to another, of the two places are given, the compliunder any circumstances, is altogether a ments of the latitudes and the sum or dif. different thing from that of conducting a

ference of the longitudes, according as the vessel under sails ; and in this particular one is east and the other west, or both east, case, as well as in many others when the or both west; are also given, the former elements happen to be adverse, the prac constituting two sides of a spherical triantice of navigation has undergone a very gle, and the latter the angle at the pole complete and remarkable change ; . so comprehended between those sides, or be.


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