The Dravidian Languages
Cambridge University Press, 16.01.2003
The Dravidian languages are spoken by over 200 million people in South Asia and in Diaspora communities around the world, and constitute the world's fifth largest language family. It consists of about 26 languages in total including Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Telugu, as well as over 20 non-literary languages. In this book, Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, one of the most eminent Dravidianists of our time, provides a comprehensive study of the phonological and grammatical structure of the whole Dravidian family from different aspects. He describes its history and writing systems, discusses its structure and typology, and considers its lexicon. Distant and more recent contacts between Dravidian and other language groups are also discussed. With its comprehensive coverage this book will be welcomed by all students of Dravidian languages and will be of interest to linguists in various branches of the discipline as well as Indologists.
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3 The writing systems of the major literary languages
historical and comparative
roots stems formatives derivational suffixes and nominal compounds
nouns pronouns numerals and time and place adverbs
7 The verb
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3m sg 3neu adjectival adjectives adverbs allomorphs alveolar auxiliary borrowed Brahui clause clitic cognates consonants dative DEDR derived dialects Dravidian languages Emeneau ﬁnal finite verbs ﬁrst formed by adding Gadaba geminate gender genitive Gondi grammatical Indo-Aryan inﬁnitive inﬂected intransitive Kanna.da Ko.dagu Ko.n.da Kolami Konda Kota Krishnamurti Ku.rux Kurumba Kuvi lexical literary languages loanwords locative long vowel main verb Malay¯a.lam Malayalam Malto Manda meaning Modern Tamil Modern Telugu morph morphological Naiki nasal negative nominal non-finite verbs non-past nouns oblique occurs Old Tamil Old Telugu Ollari palatal Parji past and non-past past marker past stem Pengo personal suffixes phonemic phonological plural postpositions predicate pronouns Proto-Dravidian Proto-South Dravidian reconstructed for Proto-Dravidian reﬂexive retroflex root sandhi Sanskrit singular sound change South Dravidian stop subgroups Subrahmanyam sufﬁx syllable Tamil Telugu tense Tu.lu Tulu voiced voiceless word-initial words Zvelebil