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The Life of Dr. John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, in the reign of

King Henry VIII. With an appendix of illustrative documents and papers. By the Rev. John Lewis, A.M. Now first printed. With an Introduction by T. HUDSON TURNER, Esq. Two Vols.

London: J. Lilly. John LEWIS was a Bristol man, who was born in 1675 and died in 1746. He studied at Oxford, and after taking orders settled in Kent, in which county he laboured till his death. He was a prolific writer on theological subjects, especially those in which any controversy was involved. He was also a diligent explorer of antiquity in various branches. Among his works in this department we may mention his History of Faversham, his Lives of Wicliffe, Caxton, Bishops Pecock and Fisher, his History of Anabaptism, edition of Wicliffe's New Testament, Dissertation on Seals, and History of Translations of the Bible. But although he laboured so industriously and with so much credit, up to the present time no detailed biography of him has been published. The notices of him which we have seen are very defective, and even his name is not to be found in some of our biographical dictionaries. This is much to be regretted, and not to be excused, because there exists in manuscript, and it is now before us, an autobiography copied from the original in his own handwriting, and abounding in curious and interesting details. We cannot at all understand why this document has remained unpublished, and we hope it is not even yet too late for its appearance. The owner of it might print it uniformly with the two volumes of Fisher's Life, so that it might either be had separately by those who already possess that work, or together with them, by those who wished to have it. We can assure our readers that it contains much that is important concerning the leading men and controversies of the church in the times when its author lived. The manuscript would require but little revision, and seems to have been prepared with a view to publication, although the intention was not carried out. It is dated in 1744, but is continued almost until its author's death.

With regard to the life of Fisher, it is by far the most complete record of that celebrated prelate extant in our language. Mr. Turner, the editor, tells us that the only other life of him is the partial memoir of Dr. Bailey, which first appeared in 1655. Now when we consider the period in which Fisher lived, and the prominent place his name holds in English history, we cannot but wonder that so little has been written about him in a separate form. Lewis intended his life of Fisher to form one of a series, of which the lives of Wicliffe and Pecock formed a part, and in continuation of Usher; but it was left in manuscript at his death, and was not printed till a short time ago. Mr. Turner has prefixed to it a useful introduction, and appears to have performed his editorial duties with conscientious care. We all know the general course of Fisher's life, but the perusal of these volumes enables us to descend to particulars, and to understand him far better than any mere outline. The first chapter passes somewhat rapidly over the events of

his early life, and the second commences with his appointment to the see of Rochester. Here the narrative becomes more specific and spreads over a wider surface, recording not only the transactions in which he was personally engaged, but much that is indirectly connected with him. For the state of civil and religious affairs at this period, and for various incidents belonging to the early movements of the party of Reformation, the work is of considerable interest and importance.

Fisher, it is well known, was not a reformer, and opposed the divorce of Henry. His resolute adherence to his principles involved him in frequent difficulty, and his appointment as a cardinal made matters worse. In the end he was accused of treason-treason was anything or nothing in those days--and he was brought to the block. He only shared the fate of Sir Thomas More, and many other truehearted men and women of his time. A curious story is told by Courinus Nucerinus, in his Latin Epistle on the Death of Sir Thomas More and Bishop Fisher. This epistle, published at the time, and sometimes found in early editions of More's works, gives a very interesting account of the death of Fisher. The part to which we allude is quoted by Lewis after Bailey, and is in substance this :-He (the writer) had learned by the letters of his friends that a rumour was afloat in lower Germany to the effect that when Fisher's head was exposed on London Bridge according to custom, it not only did not grow pallid, but became more florid and life-like, so that many

believed it would begin to speak, just as is told of certain martyrs. When the story got abroad, the head was taken down and hidden to prevent any popular commotion. Lest the same thing should happen to the head of More, that was parboiled before it was exposed, to make it look more horrible. This gossip and other of the same sort from Flanders, may or may not have prevailed in England, but it suggests the opinions which were entertained abroad respecting the judicial murders of Fisher and More.

The literary labours of Fisher are very fully enumerated and described in these volumes, and a copious collection of documents is added at the end. We can afford to do justice to this great man, and we are in a better position to do it than his contemporaries were. Thanks to Mr. Lewis, and to the publisher of this work, we have the means at hand for forming a fair estimate of one who made mistakes and who had faults, but who was a sincere, religious, earnest, liberal, and active prelate, an honour to his age, and meriting respect and honour from us.

There is only one remark which we will further make in addition to our former one about the life of Lewis, and it is, that although the contents of all the chapters are given, the life of Fisher would be more useful to students, and more convenient for reference, with an alphabetical index. In cas new edition is called for we trust to see this suggestion carried out, as the work every way deserves it, and ought to be in every gentleman's library.

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The People's Common Prayer Book, containing the Morning and

Evening Prayers, the Litany, and Holy Communion ; newly arranged, so as to make the order of the Services plain and easy to those who are unaccustomed to the worship of the Church. London:

Wertheim and Co. In these days, when so much is said about a revision or re-arrangement of the Prayer Book, considerable interest attaches to works like the present. It is intended for those who can never find the place," and it is a really straight-through arrangement executed with much care. Its superiority to The Consecutive Prayer Book is evident at a glance, and it costs but threepence. The editor is preparing a cheaper edition at a penny, and a larger edition with the Psalter and occasional offices. We can say of it that " a single trial will suffice” to prove its merits.


The Typical Testimony to the Messiah ; or, The Analogy of the Scrip

tures in relation to Typical Persons. By Micaiah Hill. London:

Hamilton, Adams and Co. The question of Old Testament types is one of much interest and importance, but by no means free from difficulties. Mr. Hill believes that typical relations may be inferred, and blames those who have invented types, equally with those who have laid down arbitrary canons of interpretation. He finds certain persons and things declared to be typical, or treated as such in the New Testament as well as in the Old. These cases are regarded as illustrating certain principles by means of which other types may be discovered. Reasoning from analogy, therefore, we may expect to find types in things and persons which are not directly said to be such in Scripture. The rules by which we are to be guided are carefully stated, and are applied in the volume with much ingenuity and industry. If we admit the bases of the argument, it is difficult to see how we can escape the conclusions arrived at. therefore strongly recommend the careful study of this volume to all who are interested in typology.

It seems evident enough that analogies, resemblances and coincidences, are not in themselves enough to establish typical relation. There must be in addition such marks of design apparent as justify us in accepting the typical character of certain events, things and persons. But what are these marks of design, and how are they to be discovered ? Resemblances may be real where there is no proof of a type; or they may be only apparent and fanciful.

This is not all; a person may perhaps be a type in some respects and not in others, and it is the duty of the interpreter to ascertain the limits of the typical or intended coincidence. There are also resemblances which are mere antitheses, or more or less negative. Thus " David feigns insanity, to Christ it was imputed.Was the pretended insanity of David a type of the asserted insanity of Christ? In other cases again the resemblances are verbal parallels where the events are not analogous. Are


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these verbal coincidences indicative of a typical relation? Once more, actions may be analogous, although performed under different circumstances, and from different motives. Are these also typical ?

Among the supposed types of Christ, Mr. Hill finds some which he calls supplementary, others which are continuous, others which are complimentary, subordinate, or-correlative. He also defines what he calls typical periods. Thus a typical period extending from Moses to Solomon, is separated by about five hundred years froin its antitypical period, which begins with Cyrus and ends with the apostles. Were these three periods of about five hundred years each actually designed to be what our author thinks they were ? And of shorter periods, was the three years' famine under David a type of the three years' famine which happened in the time of Christ? If numbers are sometimes typical, why are they not the same? 6. Samson was watched by thirty Philistines, and Alexander by thirty thousand, on occasions typically related,” says Mr. Hill, in reference to two events which he supposes to stand in a typical relation, because he thinks Samson was a type of the Alexander in question. Of course he would say Alexander was watched, and Samson was watched, and we should say, so have ten thousand others been watched under similar circumstances. But to shew the importance which is here attached to numbers we quote a single passage, merely premising that David is a type of Christ : “ David and Christ appoint three persons to watch the course of events, of whom one in each case denies his master. Two malefactors are brought into contact with David and Christ, one of whom persecutes, and the other befriends David and Christ. Three persons attend David at Mahanaim, and three Christ at the sepulchre. Two certain and one uncertain attempt by missiles, three by snares, and four by arrest, are made on the lives of the two Davids. The number of David's retreats is nine; and the number of charges, given by Christ to keep his miracles secret, is nine. David's attacks on the Philistines number fourteen; and the number of times in which Christ expelled demons is fourteen. David and Christ after their return from, respectively, Mahanaim and the sepulchre, grant each nine interviews to his subjects. Harmony in such numbers is invariable, and forms an important element in the typical view.” Mr. Hill does not endeavour to avoid the consequences to which an inexorable logic would conduct him if he carried his principles as far as they might be carried. We have carefully examined his book; but while there is much in its spirit and tone, of which we quite approve, we cannot see our way to the theory or system which he has so skilfully and laboriously expounded.

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London: Mitchell and Son, Printers, 24 Wardour Street, W.


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