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The exposition contains sundry useful and appropriate observations, but its value is diminished by occasional remarks which savour more of courage than of criticism. One of the supplementary sections will be found instructive to such as wish to become acquainted with the literature of the subject. We are always dissatisfied with critics of this school, who fix on some particular passage, and by means of minute criticism and comparisons with writings known to be of a later date, prove anything they have a mind to. In this way the Pentateuch has been cut into pieces, and these pieces have been shewn to be of the most diversified origin and antiquity. What used to be received as the one work of Moses, is now divided among a multitude who lived at intervals of ages after his time! This mince-meat criticism is of course exceedingly clever, and is naturally very popular with a certain order of minds. It has the charms of novelty and ingenuity. It is not only opposed to old fashioned opinions, it can afford to talk loftily about them as relics of an illiberal and contracted, a credulous and unenlightened age. But after all, neither this “tall talk," nor this captivating destructive criticism, are popular with grave and godly men. Some among them treat it scornfully and reject it without investigation to the burt of their cause. Others among them oppose

and answer it, but so indiscreetly, as to encourage the doubter instead of convinc

Only a few seem to realize the fact, that next to the possession of the truth, a man's richest endowment is the ability to advocate it well and wisely.

ing him.

Christliche Sittenlehre. (“Christian Ethics.") By C. F. SCHMID.

Edited by Dr. A. Heller, Stuttgard. 1861. We have here a massive book of more than 800 pages, on a theme of great importance. It comprises much more than what we call moral philosophy; it enters deeply into what is better designated moral theology, and touches upon various points of practical theology. The author's name will be familiar to the German student in connexion with his Biblical Theology of the New Testament. He was born in 1794, was theological tutor at Tübingen, and died in 1852. He was a decided opponent of the principles of Hegel, Schleiermacher, Baur, etc. He is regarded with affection by German divines of the more orthodox and traditional school. Hence the principles inculcated in the volume before us will, many of them, be likely to find acceptance in this country. The author's spirit is admirable, and much of his work might profitably be translated. Yet it will be manifest at a glance, that with all his earnest and proper spirit, his distinct analysis and his accurate arrangement and statements, Dr. Schmid's moral theology is not wholly in accordance with English standards. As a Lutheran he writes from a Lutheran standpoint, and will be considered as having a confessional bias. It is so when he treats of baptism, penance, and other practical matters. But for all this the volume is well worthy the careful study of those who wish to be well grounded in the Christian doctrine of morals. By some it will be considered profound, but it will run the risk of being thought the contrary by those who have dired into the deeper, darker, more mysterious and enigmatical pages of men whose names are connected with some of the subjects here treated of.

Novum Testamentum Græce. Ad fidem codicis Vaticani recensuit

PHILIPPUS BUTTMANN. 8vo. Berlin. 1862. There are two impressions of this beautiful book, one on fine large paper, and one in a cheap form. It is printed in a peculiar type, partly in imitation of the ancient uncial manuscripts, but accents and other grammatical signs have been supplied. Every page has a heading indicating the subjects of the text, and the margins are adorned with many references to parallel passages. As a specimen of typography it is very commendable and attractive. We are not able to speak of the accuracy with which the editor and printers have performed their task. A supplementary note informs us of the occasion which gave rise to this volume, and presents us with well known details respecting Mai's edition and its character. There is also a table of passages in which either the Vatican reading is rejected, or the collators differ from each other. These collations will be found useful, and to the critical reader will probably be the most valuable portion of the book. There is one matter respecting which we must advertize the reader, and that is, that the editor of this volume has not limited himself to the known text of Codex B. Some of the Vatican readings are rejected as intimated a few lines back, and passages not in that text have been incorporated, or, rather, added in brackets. We may instance as the most noteworthy, Mark xvi. 9–20, and John vii. 53, to viii. 11. The variations are of course enumerated in the table at the end, but they are sufficiently numerous to justify us in calling this a critical edition on the basis of the Vatican text. It is, moreover, necessary that we should say that the Codex B ends at Heb. ix. 14, and that the remainder is supplied from other sources, and does not agree with the text printed by Cardinal Mai. It is not clear where these additions are taken from. One sentence would lead us to infer that Tischendorf and Lachmann have been used; and such may have been the case, although the words really apply to those parts where Codex B supplies the text,

Einleitung in das Neue Testament. (“Introduction to the New Testa

ment.") By FRIEDRICH BLEEK. Edited by J. F. BLEEK. 8vo.

Berlin. 1862. In our last number we directed attention to the Introduction to the Old Testament, by Dr. Bleek; and the remark which we made upon that volume is equally applicable to this: it contains a mass of valuable information and observations, the result of many years' “ study during a long professional career." We are informed indeed, by the editor, the author's son, that Dr. Bleek lectured twenty-four times upon the subject of this work, between 1822 and 1859. The text is copied from

these college lectures, and notes containing more recent information have been inserted by the actual editor. The arrangement is similar to that of the Old Testament volume, with which it is uniform in size and price. An introductory division is followed by Part I., on the origin of single books; Part II., on the history of the canon; and Part III., on the history of the text. The reader may frequently question the conclusions arrived at, but he will find it a useful work.


Synoptische Erklärung der drei ersten Evangelien. ("Synoptical Ex

position of the three first Gospels.") By F. BLEEK. Edited by H. HOLTZMANN. Second volume. 8vo. Leipsic: Engelmann.

1862. The character of Bleek as a critic is recognized by those who cannot accept his system. Apart from this, there is a va amount of wisdom and scholarship in his writings. He was honest, painstaking and learned. He can illustrate the New Testament by singularly happy allusions to Old Testament facts and passages. He was skilled in Hebrew as well as Greek, and made a diligent use of the ancient versions. The two volumes on the three first gospels are not the least valuable of his works; and may be used with real profit by judicious and independent students.

Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch zum Alten Testament. ("Concise

Exegetical Manual to the Old Testament.") Part XVII., Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther. By Dr. Ernst BERTHEAU. 8vo. Leipsic:

Hirzel. 1862. We described this important work at p. 485 of our last volume, and now we have simply to record its completion. The author of this part has previously contributed to the series expositions of the books of Judges, Ruth, Proverbs and Chronicles. Ae is an accomplished and diligent scholar, and has crowded into his pages an immense mass of erudition and information. By no means to be contemned as a critic, Dr. Bertheau is peculiarly qualified for illustrating the Old Testament books by means of the extensive and varied stores which he has accumulated.

La Syrie en 1861. Condition des Chrétiens en Orient. (“Syria in

1861. Condition of the Christians in the East.”) By M. Saint

MARC GIRARDIN. 12mo. Paris : Didier. 1862. This work professes to set forth the affairs of Syria as described in the despatches presented to the British parliament. Its aim is rather political than religious. Its motto is neither Russians nor Turks at Constantinople.” It looks forward to the time when the Christian East shall be left to the Christians of the East. M. Girardin believes it impossible for the Turkish government long to survive; that it is dying, and that Abdul Aziz cannot regenerate it.

The volume is


divided into two parts; the first of which contains a summary


papers in the Blue Book respecting the Syrian massacre of 1860, and the Anglo-French expedition. The second contains extracts from reports made by the English consuls in the East to Sir H. Bulwer on the condition of the Christians.. There is very much in the book with which we fully coincide, and we share to some extent in the author's sympathy for the oriental Christians, of whom he says with truth, “ we have not had the admiration it deserves, for that miracle the Christian faith preserved in the East in spite of Turkish persecutions. Where

• two or three are met together in my name, there am I in the midst of them :' here is the divine cause of the strength and continuance of the Oriental Church. The Christians of the East have remained assembled in the name of Jesus Christ, notwithstanding Mussulman persecution, and Jesus Christ has been



Scripture Lessons for the unlearned, to be read with the Bible. By M.

E. S. London: J. and C. Mozley. An excellent idea, ably carried out. The book is admirably fitted for the use of the young and the unlearned as a stepping-stone to important knowledge. It is eminently instructive, scriptural, and practical. The Ministry of the Bible. By the Rev. E. G. CHARLESWORTH. Lon

don: Wertheim, Macintosh and Hunt. The contents of this book are very miscellaneous. There are many thoughts which are true, and beautiful, and good, but the author is disposed to be speculative and fanciful. Some might think the style dignified and the book profound, but such is not our judgment. Those who have time on their hands will read it with interest, but they will find among the flowers many things which want weeding out. The spirit of the book is right, and its aim a good one. Lightford; or, The sure Foundation. By A. C. W. With introduction

by the Rev. A. R. C. DALLAS. London: Wertheim, Macintosh

and Hunt. An exquisite story, charmingly told. We cordially acquiesce in Mr. Dallas's recommendation of it as a faithful portraiture of very interesting phases in Christian life, from an attentive perusal of which much advantage may be derived, while the interest is awakened by the manner in which the writer has grouped the incidents, characters and intercourse, which faithfully convey a just impression of that which they are intended to represent. It is an excellent book for Christian families.


Les Conferences de Genève, 1861. ("Rapports et discours publiés au

nom du Cornitè de l'Alliance Evangelique.”) Par D. Tissot.

Part 1. London: Nutt. An interesting record of the event commemorated in the title page.

The principal article in this part is a well written paper by Professor Godet on the Lord's day. He pleads for the strict observance of the day; and his essay should be read by those who take an interest in the Sabbath question,

The Words of the Angels ; or, Their visits to the Earth, and the Mes

sages they delivered. By RUDOLF STIER, D.D. London: Hamil

and Co. Dr. Stier is very well known for his practical expositions, -The words of the Lord Jesus, The words of the Apostles, etc.

These works are very much valued for their lucid development of the sacred text, and for their eminently devout and evangelical spirit. The work before us may be similarly characterized. It is occupied with the various angelic utterances recorded in the New Testament. We cannot compare the translation with the original, but we can say that it is written in a clear and intelligent style. The publishers have done their part well; and the work is one which will be read with profit and pleasure by pious persons. We have ourselves been much gratified with its perusal.



An Historical Survey of the Astronomy of the Ancients. By the Right

Hon. Sir George CORNEWALL LEWIS. 8vo. London: Parker, Son,

and Bourn. 1862. Those who know that Sir G. C. Lewis is Secretary of War to Her Majesty's government, will wonder to see so solid and learned a work as the fruit of his vacation hours. It may not be wholly such, but it will be considered so by many. We scarcely know which to call attention to first, the wide range, the multiplicity of recondite details and references, or the ability and fearlessness with which the plan is wrought out. It is a greatly learned and a most independent work, yet it is neither heavy nor impertinent. Almost any intelligent person may read it, yet it is a book for scholars and thoughtful men. Though not theological, it has a direct bearing on the interpretation of Scripture passages, and upon a variety of Biblical allusions. rapidly glance at the contents of its chapters :-1. Primitive astronomy of the Greeks and Romans; 2. Philosophical astronomy of the Greeks from the time of Thales to that of Democritus; 3. Scientific astronomy of the Greeks from Plato to Eratosthenes; 4. Scientific astronomy of the Greeks from Hipparchus to Ptolemy. These chapters contain a vast mass of information, and present us with a most searching and able sketch, thoroughly original in its character, and very free, some would say too positive, in its tone. Here, however, the writer is on ground which he has well mastered, and which he may claim as specially his own; where he has few worthy rivals, and where he is at

We may


The fifth chapter, on the astronomy of the Babylonians and Egyptians; the sixth, on the early history and chronology of the Egyp

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