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the exertion of art, proceeds only from that secret impulse, bý which nature urges man to enlighten and to cherish his brother man, Nature has only given us desires, whose gratification is enjoyment; but society in its gradual estrangement from her dictates, engenders passions which become the scourge of those who cherish them; man, naturally beneficent, becomes a tyrant; man, naturally free, becomes a slave; and religion, which is of nature, conveyed through the senses to the soul, awakening its gratitude, and commanding its adoration, becomes an incomprehensible dogma, propagated by cruelty and fanaticism, disfigured by human invention on every side, breaking the tie of human sympathy, scattering discord and disorder through nations, founding its merits upon earthly privation, and imposing its belief by eternal terrors. la every religion may be traced the arrogant faith of its own infallibility, and in the breast of every fanatic sectarian is established a secret inquisition, by which the opinion of others is tried and condemned. Virtue and felicity are of nature ! on every side vice and misery are of man!'
“ It was thus he spoke; yet he remembered the wisdom and happiness of ancient Greece, and he looked forward to the en lightened felicity of modern Europe.
“Man,' he said, in his gregarious and social, resembles man in his natural, and solitary, state'; and society in its progress is still propelled towards the perfection of that nature which governs its earliest infancy, and which to recover and to imitate, is but a simpler term for the combinations of genius, the. inventions of art, the intelligence of wisdom, and the supremacy of virtue.'
“ With such feelings, with such opinions, the amiable sage bade adieu to Europe, and sought his beautiful and native country. Arrived at his paternal abode, sorrow and disappointment received him at its threshold; his parents were dead; his brother had gone to join a merchant's house in Constantinople; and an only sisters had married an Athenian archon, and resided with her husband in his native country. With a thrill of delight he believed himself incapable of feeling, he embarked on the Archipelago for Athens; that region of genius! of heroism and the Graces! whose government had once been the wisest, whose people had once been the happiest, because its laws and its religion tended to confirm the impulses of nature to liberty, to preserve the sacred rights of humanity, to diffuse equally the privileges of denization, and to distinguish the citizen only by the benefits he conferred on the community.
Amiable and enlightened nation!' he exclaimed, as he caught a glimpse of the splendid ruins of its Acropolis, if from the victor arms of Rome empire extended his sway,
gave birth to slavery and crime, it was your patriotism and genius
trat gave birth to freedom, and polished while they enlightened the world!
* Arrived at the house of his brother-in-law, his welcome was. as animated as surprise, and pleasure could make it, and kind as Athenian courtesy could render it; but his sister, was ne
more! She had died in giving birth to a daughter who was then in her second year, and whom he found in the arms of a tender and caressing parent."
He adopts the young Ida, and devotes himself to her interests and comforts. His system of female education, if neither quite new, or the theory quite practicable, affords some good ideas on that most important subject:
" All children are. charming their calm and innocent countenances seeni stamped with the impress of a celestial originį they are so fresh from the hands of their Creator, that traits of human defect are not yet visible in their expression. The amiable preceptor of Ida Rosemeli retired from the world with his infant charge, he knew that to teach the young idea how to shoot, was more poetical in sound, than just or practicable in application; and he saw that nature brought with each day her own progressive, perfect plan of education; he watched the senses, gradually correcting by hourly experience the natural errors of a first timid experiment, and communicating to the intellectual power those images from whence ideas spring, which, under the influence of moral sympathy, form their associations, and again expand themselves to new combinations; and he thought with a sigh of the folly of man, that forces on the memory of childhood a premature information which the senses have not yet experienced, and the mind is incapable of comprehending.
“ He knew that feeling preceded intelligence; that our wants render us affectionate, before our perceptions make us rational; and that consequently self and social love are the first great springs by which nature actuates and impels mankind. Ida, therefore, impulsively clinging to those whose kindness formed her felicity, had not her warm and tender feelings thrown back upon
herself by duties enforced beyond the ability of childish performance by the severity which awakens terror rather than conviction, and by the privation of the present joy, the threat of a future punishment, which renders fear the medium of that virtue which should be imbibed from peace, and love, and joy. Considering the imagination as the minor of the senses, which, though frequently transposing, is capable of forming any image abstracted from the sensible impressions, it has received, he saw the necessity of estranging from its pure and brilliant surface those equivocal or distorted objeots which, untrue to nature, are but the phantoms of error, of ignorance, 'or superstition. Yet knowing the potent influence of this bright mimic faculty of human intellect, he placed within its sphere such objects as were only incentive to the purest pleasures. Such as awaken enthusiasm for deeds supremely great, or inspire a love for high ideal beauty; still drawing a moral inference from physical taste - still pursuing a sentinient in every object of sense. *While feeling and intelligence thus expanded together, the
perceptions in their progress generalised the result of their experience, and proceeded from the observation of the elemestary parts to the great arrangement of the universal system, and in the spirit, as in the forms of nature, the moral or material world the awed, the ardent, raptured soul, still traced the power of a superior mind, and saw, in all, adaption, harmony, beaeficence, and love.
“ It was thus that the religion of Ida, blended with every sense and sentiment of her existence, formed its evidence in every object of the creation that surrounded her. It was no abstract idea which sophistry might dispute-- it was a sensible feeling arising from the testimony of her senses, and the inference of her mind. It was not a system established upon the faith which supports what it does not comprehend - which the theologist may vary--the philosopher oppose and the sceptic deny; it was the pure inevitable result of all she saw, of all she felt.
“ She beheld, and she adored, she enjoyed, and she was grateful! yet while her preceptor detailed to her, in simple terms, the various religions of the earth, and the various sects of each religion, he pointed out the necessity of supporting that decent respect for the popular religion of her country, which the wisdom of a Socrates and a Plato thought not beneath them to adopt for theirs, as a concession to those errors which the natural weakness of man brings with it; while beneath the various forms, ceremonies, and errors, which the ignorance and superstition of man, or his estrangement from truth and nature, had invented as the medium of faith, and proof of adoration, he convinced her that the religion of the heart was every where the same.
« The morality of Ida was also like her religion, the result of her perception, and the inferences of her feeling. Happiness was the object of man, and, according to the harmony of the moral as of the physical laws, by which the universe is governed, virtue could be the ouly medium. But with Ida, virtue was no abstract term ideally conceived, or vaguely understood: as, for every natural blessing she enjoyed, she referred to heaven; 80, every action she performed, she referred to society; and the necessity of moral rectitude was evinced, as the inseparable connexion between self and social love ascertained itself by the inevitable conviction, that whoever injures another lays a precedent for an injury towards himself! while a delicate sense of moral justice, even independent of a consequent retribution from any direct violation of moral law, was borrowed from that obvious benevolence, which the Creator in all his works has displayed towards the created. The amiable preceptor of Ida had laid the basis of her education, in an observance of the laws, operations, and formas of nature, and in the beneficence, wisdom, and power, of Providence. What depended solely on man to teach, he communicated with caution; native barrenness of intellect --- that the mind which has resorted mest to the thoughts of others, can have fewest of its own--that
the supremacy of genius is the inspiration of nature, and the mediocrity of talent the imitation of art. The books he presented to her study were few and select; the history which the philo. sopher had dictated, or the patriot recounted; the poetry which draws its sentiments from the heart, and its imagery from nature; and the biography which awakens a passionate admiration for. great characters, an ardent enthusiasm for great deeds, or a noble ambition for high renown.
* With that flexibility of organs, and aptitude to learn languages, so peculiar to the region of which she was a native, Ida, under a master who was himself from the circumstances of his life a perfect linguist, acquired with facility, several languages; and though all were spoken with the accent of an Athenian, her English and Italian were pure and correct; while the insatiate passion of her country for music and dancing was supremely hers, and simply acquired from inclination and example, without rule, without method; but always with sensibility and grace - the natural endowments of a woman and a Greek.
" As the preceptor of Ida considered simplicity as the order of nature herself, equally necessary in a subject, an image, or a terin, as a perfection relative to the weakness of the human mind, and necessary towards the gradual acquisition of its intelligence, his instructions were conveyed in terms, simple, clear, and expressive of the qualities they were meant to define; while he sought to occupy without fatiguing attention; and as frequently proposed the pursuit of a pleasure as the acquirement of information. : Convinced that the gratitude of Ida still pointed to Heaven, as did her conduct to society; he gave her up without reserve to the influence of those pleasurable enjoyments, which nature so eloquently dictates, and which invariably characterise her sex, her years, and her country. The odeur of a perfumed atmosphere, the emanations of delicious flowers, were inhaled -- the luxury of a refreshing bath, the repose of a downy couch, was enjoyed; and while the sufferings of others, whose destiny was less fortunate, was beheld with tender sympathy and generous relief, the cheap and guileless pleasures of nature were enjoyed with that moderation which nature herself is sure to dictate. Thus the days of Ida and her preceptor flowed on in peace, characterised by a parriarchal simplicity and a polished intelligence: their duties were to succour their compatriots, to relieve the unfortunate, to enlighten the ignorant, to dispel error, to ranquish prejudice, and to promulgate truth; their pleasures were the discovery of a ruined fragment, the revivai of an ancient festival, the introduction of a French or English custom, the successful vegetation of their trees and flowers, the arrival of new books from Italy, or an occasional tour through Livadia, where every spot possessed a classic interest."
We shall conclude our extracts with the following observations on infidelity in wedded life, and on death, which exhibit a various compotnd of truth and falsehood, piety and irreligion, with rationality and fanaticism. Such
verbiage about nature, of which the author speaks so much and knows so little, betrays a design to raise the passions and appetites on the ruins of right reason. Still it would. be gratifying if these yolumes contained nothing more re, prehensible than the following,
« Love is an involuntary affection; it resists the lawr of volition; and deprives the mind of that free agency, which distinguishes it under the influence of other passions. Every one loves as long as he can; but the sentiment is not to be commanded into existence, nör iş the period of its duration to be defined. It argues' a profound ignorance of human nature to expect eternal fidelity in a lover; and the woman who lives only to Jament an inconstant, mistakes weakness, and want of pride and of reflexion, for sensibility and virtue. But inconstancy, so frequent, and perhaps venal in unwatched lovers, becomes at once fatal and criminal in those who stand accountable to society and each other for the observance of a tie formed by natural affection, and consecrăted by the laws and religion of their country: their sentiment is nourished by duty; their interests are blended with their affections; their cunstancy in Jove becomes a positive virtue, from the harmony and social con, cord it preseryes; and the lover still enamoured with the wife--the mistress still devoted to the husband — present to the happy offspring of a passionate and holy union an example of love and virtue, that seems symbolic of that pure beatitude which faith and fancy image to the soul as the reward of every human trial and mortal excellence.
" The fear of death was spoken of by Osmyn as an emotion ins compatible with true
tness of soul.
eatness of soul,' returned the diako, is sometimes affected by those who are led away by a false glory; and sometimes by those who only labour for their own elevation in life. True greatness of soul is, so to serve society as to deserve its applause, without making that applause the sole object of our exertion. The fear of death, however, is in. compatible with a 'life of virtue - with reason and experience. We all know that generations press after generations tó:vards eternity, and that, in the last hour of existence, when the factitious passions appear divested of all their gaudy covering - appear in all their original folly and meanness - it is then that the affections and sentiments of nature cling to its last struggle, and the dear consciousness of an useful and benevolent life comes, like an angel of comfort, to sooth and solace us for the loss of ties death only severs. It was through that Pericles, a victorious warrior, and a successful legislator, dying in the arms of his devoted friends, smiled, and owned, that not all the trophies his valour had won, and patriotism bad erected to the honour of his country and the defeat of his enemies -- not even the glorious reign of forty prosperous years - brought to his life's last hour a joy so pure, as the conviction
, that no act of his had ever thrown a imourning robe upon the shoulders of a fellow-citizen.
f. Oh yes, virtue is but an abstract term for positive affection