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“These are all the formations and movements essential to piker men in the field, and scarcely any others should be practised, par. ticularly in action. Much of the difficulty and confusion of raw troops in the battalion service, arises from their being too many modes in use of producing one and the same effect. When not in actual battle it may be useful to alter the direction of the proper front of the battalion. This I recommend should be done by the formation of a close column to the required front, and then a des ployment into line: it might be done somewhat quicker by the cventail, echelon, or filing of divisions, but the few additional seconds are well bestowed on the firmness, simplicity, and uniformity of the other mode. It sometimes may happen in action that the battalions must have recourse to the close column, or even the doubling of divisions, in order to diminish their front; but these occasions cannot occur often, and ought to be avoided." A small inclination obliquely may be managed, by bringing up a shoulder, without encumbering the system with the usual maneuvres employed for this purpose.
" With this principle of qualifying the population for close combat established, we may consider that order of attack which in the hands of a determined general, having a superiority of troops competently disciplined, and willing to meet their enemy hand to hand, is invincible. This principle is that of breaking the enemy's line, establishing a transverse position across that of the enemy, and keeping one part in check while such a body of force is thrown on the other as to disperse it, annihilate it, or compel it to surrender
. Upon this principle our naval triumphs have been produced. The battle of the Nile strikingly exemplified it, and upon this principle also Buonaparte has achieved his chief victories. This mode of assault may be illustrated by the subjoined diagram.
! Let A B be the line of regulars of the invaded people, and o
a double line of pikemen in reserve. An opening has been made in the line at E for columns of pikemen to advance, who charge through the enemy's line at F G H, and halt at I. These are immediately followed by a train of light artillery, who take up their ground successively from a to b, beginning at a, and are protected by lines of pikemen in their rear. A similar plan of cannonáde is adopted on the left wing of the enemy at'd e, on which the grand attack is intended. For this the cavalry moves to ww to fall on the rear, and with the whole of the right wing, preceded by the pike. men, are prepared to charge, when the enemy shall give way before the artillery at de.
“ In such an attack, much of the effect of the artillery would depend on the selection of a proper place for breaking the line. . A moderate eminence, with open ground to each flank, would afford wonderful execution. A greater portion of the enemy's line should not be attempted to be cut off than could be effectually dealt with; a fourth or less might be a good proportion; and when that was carried, the same plan of assault might be repeated with the remainder, or a general attack might be then made along the front and on the flanks, FGH.
" To enumerate all the purposes of war to which battalions of pikemen may be applied, would require a volume rather than a pamphlet, and would rather clog than elucidate the principle of their utility. I must, however, state, that although I have only considered the pike as an auxiliary, its effects are superior as a chief instrument of war. The objection to the advance of an army of pikemen is, that it would be exposed to the missiles of a retreating army, with which it might not be able to close; but there are nights, fogs, and rains, when a retreat cannot be conducted ad. vantageously, nor missiles employed. Attacks at such times bave often afforded the most complete victories: an objection, however, lies against such attacks, which is, that the armies are apt to fire on their own bodies, through mistake; but this defect could only operate against the enemy: pikemen could not harm their comrades until closed to them, and then their appearance would be different to that of regular soldiers, that the error must be discovered. Under such circumstances, then, a population, when collected in superior numbers, might pour in upon their adversaries, en masse, without the aid of missiles. Military skill must then vanish, and the encounter be decided simply by individual prowess."
The country, we understand, is indebted to Major Barber, the commander of the Duke of Cumberland's sharpshooters, for the well-written and ingenious tract before us. This gentleman was one of the first whose skill and patriotism were directed to the formation and improvement of rifle corps. His enlightened and patriotic exertions sufficiently prove, that if our arms are not successful, it is not for want of talents and military skill, but want of common sense or common honesty to select and appoint men qualified to command. We wish we could auticipate the same
success to the project of the pike exercise that has attended the formation of rifle-corps, as both have obtained the ingenuous approbation of some of the best officers in the British service. Surely the eagerness manifested by our troops in every actiou with the enemy to use the bayonet, should teach commanders the importance of this instrument, and the propriety of forniing corps of pikemen. Whenever the French come MAN TO MAN, their own weakness and the superior strength of the English are soon placed beyond the possibility of misrepresentation. It ought also to be remembered, that such is the superiority of the French exer, cise, they can fire* five times for twice by the English; hence their advantage and our disadvantage in firing. Can it then be surprising, that in the battle of Corunna an English regiment called out “No ball !” in order that they might charge with the bayonet? Are our English commanders so dead to the lessons of experience, as not to profit by the occurrence of such facts? Will they persevere in a system which gives the enemy five chances to their two?
Before concluding our remarks on this important tract; we must express our hope that the late campaign will have tanght our generals the necessity of having soldiers who caui march as well as twirl a musket. The first thing at, tempted by French officers with their conscripts, is ta teach them to march in columns so many hours together overa certain distance. The whole ground traversed every day generally amounts to about fifteen leagues, or forty English iniles: this training is usually continued for a month before a musket is ever placed in their hands. Had the British troops, before their tour through Spain, been inyred to marching forty miles a day, for ten or twelve successive
* It should here be remarked, that the French never ram down their ball, but only knock the but of their muskets on the ground. The stocks of French muskets are not so crooked as those of the English, and instead of polished brass they are generally mounted with a piece of steel. The French system, nevertheless, has two very great defects; the first is, that their muskets are very short, although adapted to the bodily strength of their men; the second, that their balls are all cast too small for the calibre of their guns. These facts sufficiently explain why so few of their shots take effect. But there is another motive for their firing rapidly; it tends to diminish timidity and diffuse enthusiasm throughout their ranks. The asto nishing quickness of their fire also intimidates their enemies, who think it much more dangerous than it reallye is. - Rev.
days, the result of the campaign would have been very different. No man is capable of being a soldier who cannot march such a length, and carry his musket. Our generals seem véver to have thought of the necessity of bearing long marches without fatigue, although it is the first requisite of a soldier.
Clutterbuck's Inquiry into the Seat and Nature of Fever.
(Concluded from p. 137 of this Volume.] DR. CLUTTERBUCK treats next of sudorifies in the cure of fever,
Sweating for the cure of fevers has been excited by very various means. Every kind of stimulant, external and internal; beat, both dry and moist; diluents, relaxants as they are called, volatiles, spices, the essential oils; balsams and resins; opiates simply or variously combined; have all at different tiines been employed for the purpose, and all of them with unquestionable şuccess. Some of these have been supposed to possess specific properties in the cure of fever, and have been especially complimented with the epithet febrifuge; such are the antimonial preparations, which have scarcely ever been omitted in the treatment of fever. But there appears to be ļittle foundation for this.”
P. 311. Of all these sudorifics, as they are called, our author gives the preference to heat.
“ The most simple mode of exciting sweat” (says he), "and the most free from the objections stated,' appears to be by the application of external heat to the skin, by bathing, or other ways. With proper management, it is probable that sweating might be thus produced, without materially increasing the action of the general sanguiferous system. Thus, among rude nations, fevers are commonly treated successfully by the vapour bath.” P. 315,
But why should Dr. Clutterbuck be afraid of “increasing the action of the general sanguiferous system?" Has be forgot that “whatever is capable of producing any considerable impression on the system, or of changing its biode of acting, may become a remedy for its disorders ??? Surely it is in this way that sudorifics produce their salutary effects, and not by the flowing of the sweat, which is merely a consequence of their operation. Let our author speak to this.
** But when more correct notions of the animal economy began šo be entertained when it was perceived that the humoral patho.
logy, and the doctrine of concoction and expulsion of morbific
In order to produce sweat, then, we must “increase the
“ The cure of fever, by sweating, has a perfect analogy in other. inflammations, which are found to yield in a large proportion to a similar mpile of treatment. In many topical inflammations, after bleeding has been had recourse to, and in many, also, that do not admit of this evacuation, sweating is a common and an effectual remedy. The restrictions proper to be observed with regard to it, are precisely the same both in fever and inflammation; for when either of them is attended with much general vascular action, as pointed out by a full, hard, and strong pulse, sudorific remedies can scarcely be employed with safety; at least till the vigour of the system has been in some degree reduced by previous blood-Jetting, abstinence, or other means. But where the action of the heart and arteries is irritated, rather than increased, in point of force; where the pulse is contracted, quick, and weak, and the general habit of the patient feeble; neither in fever, nor in topical inflammation of other parts, is blood-letting properly indicated. In such cases, sweating, with an appropriate regimen, forms our principal means of cure. We have here, therefore, another point of resemblance between fever and inflammation, affording an additional argument of their common nature." P. 312.
About inflammation in fever we do not at present dispute; but we cannot admit the '** vigour of the system." What cause of fever is there that can possibly produce vigour? And where is the fever, strictly so termed, in which the action of the heart and arteries is not irritated rather than increased in point of force, and in which the pulse is not contracted quick and weak, and the general babit of the patient feeble?" If enfeebling powers operate upon the body, why enfeeble it still further, either by blood-letting, abstinence, or other means," before you apply those of an opposite tendency? Sudorifics may or may not be proper in the treatment of fever, but we cannot admit that they are contra-indicated on the score of vigour; for it is this, comparatively speaking, that favours