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During the last fifteen years, great and extraordinary events have crowded on each other in such rapid succession, that the human mind, untutored for the convulsive scene, with difficulty developes the main spring of this new era, and estimates the ex: isting state of the civilised world. In this short period we have seen empires, which, in their antiquity aud greatness, seemed to indicate a duration equal to that of the soil whereon they were implanted, obliterated from the map of Europe - princes and potentates - brought to the scaffold, or driven from sovereign authority to a wretched dependence - families distinguished by titles and possessions, the inheritance of illustrious ancestors, reduced from their lofty stations to mendicity; while their domains have been usurped by lawless ruffians, and their rank affected by the basest of mankind - systems of jurisprudence, the result of many centuries' practical wisdom, overthrown and supplanted by demagogues and tyrants; nay, religion itself insulted, its temples pillaged, and its holy ministers forced from their pastoral charge with mockery and violence. A cruel warfare, accompanied by coldblooded murders and massacres, rapine, and spoliation, has defaced the fairest portion of the earth: and Europe has exhibited the disa gusting spectacle of such multitudes of armed men, arranged for the destruction of each other, as until the present iron age never afflicted the Christian world,

“ With the faith and honour of governments, and the allegiance of the people, the accustomed relations of social intercourse between man and man have been broken asunder; and that nation in particular, whose utopian schemes of political perfection, liberty, and equality, gave date to these calamities, presents the melancholy picture of an enlightened and ingenious people reduced, by the furious edicts of a foreigner who has usurped their government, from a state of comparative happiness to be the veriest slaves beneath the sun; denied the transmarine supplies necessary to the comforts of life --- shut out from information on the passing events of the world, with death denounced against those who dare to reveal truths unpleasant to the tyrant, or presume to reason on the true state of their condition

their persons subject to incessant conscriptions, dragged from their homes, and goaded to fields of slaughter, wherever his ambition directs, wherever a germ of

раtriotism yet unsubdued may be found, or a semblance of an independent force exists, to alarm his guilty fears. To this condition are the once gay and cheerful French reduced, the lowly instrument of a foreign master; with this miserable consolation, that they form so vast a military machine as to be dreadful to Europe, and to be enabled to assimilate the condition of surrounding nations to their own level of degradation and wretchedness."

The author proceeds to state the national energy acquired by revolution, and its necessary effects in producing à martial people.

Alas! statesmen had yet to learn, that an extensive population, çapable of martial enthusiasmy converging their views to military

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achievement, may be at once formidable combatants, and ac-
quiring an ascendancy, although bankrupts themselves, may enjoy
the benefit of plenty from the ill-defended stores of their neigh-
bours. France has taught this lesson: -a military spirit was
excited throughout the country; to this all civil and commercial
relations were sacrificed; the field of Mars became the only theatre
of glory; thither the enterprising rushed; and the gradations of
rank became determined, not according to a scale of prices, not
according to family influence, but according to the relative abilities
of the candidate for command, their genius, courage, and energy.
Frequently, indeed, do we find the leaders of the revolutionary
armies to be men of the vilest moral character, and indebted for
their advancement to acts which disgrace human nature; still,
however, their qualities are all of the powerful cast, and such as
acquire, although they may not deserve, the dominion of mankind.
Thus radically constituted, with scarcely any military training,
and almost without arms, the French levies soon gained an ascen-
dancy over the confederated and veteran armies of Europe.
then vainly hoped, that the career of French victories would subside
with the influence of the faction which assunied its government,
of the good fortune and reputation of its generals; but it remained
to be shown, that a military people so constituted, must prove terrible
to their adversaries, notwithstanding the errors of their government,
and could never be in want of able leaders, even if deprived of
their favourite generals. Robespierre, Carnot, Barras, Rewbell,
and Buonaparte, successively entered into the black catalogue of
its rulers; but the military prowess of France continued entire;
and its armies were hailed by victory, whether led on by Dua,
mourier, Pichegru, Moreau, or the Corsican.
:“ A military creation, so vast, would prove formidable to the
liberties of Europe, even under the sway of a mild and beneficent
prince; how much more so, then, must it be at the entire disposal
of a desperate adventurer who delights in bloodshed, whose aspiring
soul the dominion of the world would not satiate, and to whom
rest is torment?-an unprincipled wretch, to whom no means are
objectionable than can further his purpose: at one time a canting
hypocrite; then a remorseless executioner;-a fawning sycophant;
an abusive rushan;-an artful prevaricator, or shameless liar;-
an atheist, mussulman, catholic, or jew, as may serve his turn, he
combines the arts of the most depraved swindler with the arms of
an Alexander. That such a man, with such means, should be
able to extend the work of devastation far and wide is not sura
prising; indeed, until the gleam of returning freedom which the
events of the last few months have afforded, so effectually were
the
powers

of the continent subdued, and the other governments of the earth intimidated, that it seemed as if the arch tyrapt had only to choose the order in which he would command nations to surrender their remnant of independence, and take their allotted stations in his plan of univeral empire. But happily for human mature, the domination that depends on the sword is as mutable as it is odious. The glorious efforts of Spain have shown the secret

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workings of an enlightened people, and the achievements of which they are capable, although for a time constrained to wear the chains of slavery with seeming compliance. The revolutionary conquerors of the regular armies of Europe have, in their turn, found themselves reduced to the condition of those whom they have conquered the mere instruments of a tyrant--- and, in their turn also, have been beaten by the armed population of a country which they had overrun, and driven from their spoil with trepi. datiou aud disgrace!”

Admirably have the Spaniards told their wrongs, and exposed the demon to the world. What heart is there that has not bied at the tale of their distresses what bosom that does not swell with sentiments of vengeance against the oppressor? His phrenzied ambition has at length rent asunder the veil in which a specious hypocrisy had shrouded his real nature from beholders; and he now stands detected and exposed, the arch hypocrite, tyrant, and destroyer of the human race. Henceforth his military power must he his sole reliance; be that successfully resisted in the present glorious struggle, and the talisman of the Buonaparte dynasty will be effectually broken. Retribution! Retribution! will be the

cry

of emancipated millions."

This animated and faithful portrait of the tyrant of France is followed by an apostrophe which does honour to the author's head and heart.

Happy, thrice happy inhabitants of Britain, who, amid the sanguinary scenes of Europe, have enjoyed the uninterrupted tranquillity of the most peaceful times; who have not seen a hostile banner, but among your trophies of victory; nor heard the roaring of cannon, but in token of rejoicings! Britain, truly great among nations, has preserved her attitude with unshaken firmness, amid the convulsions of society, and the utmost efforts of the arch, tyrant's fury. The patriotic and brave among her continental brethren ask not her aid in vain; but equally impervious to assault, in herself, and capable of the most valorous external achievements, she is recognised by the good and wise of all nations, as the shield of aflicted humanity! the citadel of a suffering world!"

After noticing the meanness and folly of Alexander in going to Erfurth, it is justly asked, “ In the closet, any more than in the field, against such as rise to rule, what chance have those who rule by inheritance?." In estimating the sentiments of the French on the usurpation of-Spain, the author evinces his knowledge of human" nature, which is the basis of all military excellence.

“ The common feelings of civilised society justified us in the belief, that the French themselves are greatly dissatisfied with the aggressions of the Corsican towards Spain; yet we must not estimate the amount of tiis dissatisfaction by our own sensations. Enormousi

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as his crimes are to the minds of freemen, they cannot have an
equal effect on slaves precluded from their just knowledge, whose
source of ideas is confined to the picture which their master chooses
to place before them, and from which their least devious glance is
met by edicts, and punished with the severest penalties: still the
French are men; they formerly felt the amor patriæ themselves;
they even dared to converse freely on the passing events of the
world; and although now, poor souls! they dare not speak of news
otherwise than as their tyrant pleases to offer it to them, yet his
own fabricated sophistical tale sufficiently betrays the cloven foot,
and must convince the French, if they reflect at all, that they are
the dupes of a low tricking fellow, for whose aggrandisement,
rather than their own happiness, they are compelled to surrender
the enjoynients of individual existence, and their good name as a
people.

It is wisely concluded that no resistance to Buonaparte
is to be expected from the French; but some consolation is
found in that necessary “decline of patriotism and courage,
along with the other virtues, which attends a state of mi-
litary subjection.” The farther he advances the deeper
he will be involved in guilt, and consequently obliged to
select those fit for base purposes rather than those of high
and commanding qualities. Hence his power tends to
destroy itself. We shall now turn to the author's “Plan
of National Defence,” which is equally practicable, in-
genious, and we doubt not would be effectual.

" Reverting, then, to the essential principles of political arrangements, we have to consider what portion of a population can be sustained as an army? If we divide the whole of a population in war into sixteen parts, we shall find,that nearly nine parts will be fernale *; that of the remaining seven parts being males, four are too young or too old for military services. e. under seventeen, or above fifty years of age; that one may be reckoned for the infirm and the privileged in indolence; so that only two sixteenths, or one eighth of the whole population, are fit to, bear arms, But this is also the chief productive class of inhabitants, and as all the necessaries and comforts of life are the produce of industry, what would become of the remaining seven eighths of a people, if the productive labourers were converted into unproductive soldiers ? and what would become of the soldiers themselves, who, in that situation, would have much greater demands on the proceeds of industry than in their civil employments? It is plain, that with the demand increased, and the supply cut off, neither the political nor physical existence could be long protracted. Hence it is that,

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in the

* In modern France above ten parts in sixteen are females. This
fact is ascertained both by personal observation and by the ina
spection of the prefects' returns to M. Chaptal.-Red.
No. 129. Vol. 32. Mar. 1809.

T

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in a practical view, we find that, even in the most populous and
wealthy countries, not more than one fifth of this chief effective class,
or å fortieth part of the whole population, can be allotted to the
army; and that proportion can only be sustained for a short time,
and by great privation, and great exertion, on the part of the
remainder*, When a greater proportion is attempted, it must be
supported by the pillage of other countries, as with the French;
by the anticipation of future revenues, as with the English; or by
an exhaustion of present stock, and with it all the produce and
revenue, as with many states whose wars have been followed by
famine and pestilence. France has a population † of from thirty
to forty millions, at the least, beneath her control; of which it
appears that her army comprises nearly one million; constituted,
too, on the principles already considered. Against this force, what
have the other states of Europe to oppose? No one singly can
bring into the field and sustain an army of three hundred thousand
men; and we know by experience how they are constituted.

As it is plain that the regular armies of France cannot be
withstood by any other regular armies, and that, only numerically
considered, they require nearly the whole effective population
of any country exposed to their attack, to meet theni on even
terms;- the question then is, can the whole effective population
of countries be rendered efficient combatants for defence and if
so, can they with safety to their permanent interest.-The inquiry
on these questions, it is believed, will neither be useless nor un-
gratifying; I undertake to prove, that the mode of conflict which is
most decisive, and which the enemy is least capable of sustuining, is
that which a whole population may be rendered equally cupable to
exert with the regular army, and with safety to their permanent
interests."

Here the author takes a review of tlle different modes of warfare adopted since the days of the Romans; the success of Charles Martel's attack with hammers against the Arabs; that of the American riflemen behind trees against the English; and lastly, that of the first revolutionary armies with the pike... The introduction of scientific warfare is also noticed

« But, even in the battles of regular armies, it has been found,
that the elementary principles, when recurred to have proved

asimiromania
* An eminent historian (Gibbon) says, ' It has been calculated
by the ublest politicians, that no state, without being soon ex-

hausted, can maintain above the hundredth part of its number
s in arms and idleness."

+ Buonaparte certainly commands this number, although France properly so called does not now contain twenty millions of souls. This statement is founded on the same authority as the preceding.--Reo.

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