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sóns also possessed a deeper insight into the human heart, or a more accurate and ready discrimivation of character*.

" He paid great attention to the trade and manufactures of this country, particularly to those which Great Britain carried on with the American colonies, and which the place of auditor of the foreign plantations rendered, according to his own expression, no less an object of duty than of information. The treatises which he published, and many which he left in manuscript, prove his minute and extensive knowledge of those subjects. There is scarcely an article of trade, commerce, and manufacture, both native and foreign, on which documents are not found among his papers,

interspersed with occasional remarks in his own hand-writing. These remarks show great liberality of sentiments, and the most extensive views with respect to the freedom of trade, the abolition of monopolies, and the prevention of smuggling. His acquaintance with these subjects was so well known and appreciated, that, 'not only during the administration of Sir Robert Walpole, but even in subsequent periods, he was consulted, and had the principal share in preparing many acts of Parliament relating to the increase of trade, or the improvement of manufactures.

From the time of his brother's resignation, till his own death, he neither desired nor courted any official employment. During this period he acted a part which every man of moderation and integrity will admire and imitate. Instead of going into petulant opposition, or publicly combating the measures of government, he thought it his duty openly to support them, whenever they deserved approbation. When he differed from the King and ministers in essential points, he always privately delivered his opinion, either in person, or by letter.

Whenever be was convinced that government was pursuing weak or improper measures, he gave his sentiments with a respect, firmness, and perseverance, which few persons bred in courts would have the courage and integrity to imitate. His private correspondence, in this publication, displays many instances in which his frankness and perseverance offended the King and the ministers, and drew on himself the imputation of officiousness.

« Lord Walpole understood and wrote French with great fluency and propriety, and spoke it with equal facility, though with a foreign accent.

Cardinal Fleury, alluding to his pronunciation, used to say of him, Il est diablement eloquent avec son mauvais François. His knowledge of classical literature was very consideTable, and formed a great fund of amusement during his retirement in the country, and in the latter period of his life. In his letters to his friends he often dwells with peculiar pleasure on the writings of antiquity, and proves his knowledge and taste by frequent and appo. site quotations. He maintained a constant intercourse with men of letters, both native and foreign. Pope presented him with a copy of his works, which is still preserved in the library at Wolterton, as

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* The reverse of this is true: his greatest defect was the want of @subtle discrimination of character. Rev.

VOL. 11.

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a mark of gratitude for obtaining from Cardinal Fleury a benefice
for his friend the Abbé Southcote, and he maintained an epistolary
correspondence with Maittaire, the learned author of the Annales
Typographici, and editor of Corpus Poetarum Latinorum."
P. 451.

To the general fidelity of this portrait we cheerfully subscribe; yet we are surprised that the author should have praised Lord Walpole's great knowledge of character, when he bimself admits bis lordship’s abuse of the talents of Sir Luke Schaub was erroneous and prejudiced; and when his lordship confessed himself deceived at first in the very

intelligible character of Cardinal Fleury. In fact, Lord Walpole was a man replete with good sense, who always separated the practical from the fanciful, and adhered most obstinately to the former: he was frank and sincere, believed all men like himself, and never suspected any artifice till it had rendered itself too palpable to be any longer misconceived. His good sense, supported by his great personal integrity and disinterestedness (which appear in various in. stances), seem to have been the sole basis of his success in negociating. The honesty and veracity of the man inspired a confidence which eventually effected much greater advantage to his country, than more splendid talents and artifice could have done. His whole political system, as well as that of his brother, was founded on a laudable desire of maintaining a long and honourable peace. In this view he was cordially joined by the good Cardinal Fleury : but it must be confessed that the measures preferred by both these statesmen, to attain such a desirable end, savoured more of the nature of expedients than of permanent or efficient principles. Lord Walpole appears also to have been fully convinced of George the Second's German prejudices, to have regretted his attachment to Hanover and the Queen of Hungary, and to have felt the ruinous effects of continental subsidies and Austrian alliances. The pacific system was the only means of reconciling conscience and office; for, notwithstanding the length and influence of the Walpole administration, it was not able to check or modulate either the warlike or Hanoverian propensities of the King. This was reserved for the independent genius of

great Chatham, who grounded his measures on solid principles of political justice, without regard to the prejudices of whigs or tories.

These Memoirs are illustrated by well-executed portraits of all the principal characters, both male and female, con

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nected with the subject. We could wish that this practice would become general. We oftener gain more just ideas of a character from a tolerably good delineation of the face, than from whole volumes of declamation. In the counte. nance of Lord Walpole every observer of nature will recognise the features of benevolence and good sense;- in that of the others, prudence, temperance, reservedness, acuteness, wit, and epicureanism, or empty vanity, are sufficiently manifest. In addition to the portraits, Mr. Coxe has given short biographical notes, which his readers will find very convenient, and even interesting. These illustrations, indeed, were in some measure necessary to enliven an otherwise dry detail of politics, which tend rather to inspire contempt than respect for statesmen. How far Mr. Coxe's plan of writing Memoirs is laudable or defective in this age of conceited sentiment, we cannot now inquire; but we have seldom read a work in which the author so rarely delivers his own opinion, so cautiously avoids discussing any abstract principles, or abstains from all those reflexions and digressions which have been not inaptly termed the philosophy of history. It would be unjust, however, to disguise the modest merit which seeks not to elevate itself, but the noble subject with which it is occupied. Had these Memoirs been written by Lord Walpole himself, they could not perhaps have been more copious in facts and details of his own opinions on men and measures. In bis lordship's letters we observed many French idioms and expressions which would not now be tolerated; but we do not think them worthy of farther notice in this place. To the historian, the statesman, legislator, and general politician, these to: lumes will furnish instruction and entertainment,

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Londina Illustrata; or, a Collection of Plates, consisting

of Engravings from original Paintings and Drawings, and fac-simile Copies of scarce Prints, displaying the State of the Metropolis from the Reign of Elisabeth to the Revolution, and adapted to illustrate the admired Topographical Works of Strype, Store, Pennant, &c. with Descriptions original and compiled. Nos. I, 11. and III. 4to. Price 8s. Atlas 4to. 10s. 6d., and Proofs on India Paper, 10s. 6d., but without the Letter-press. Wilkinson. 1808.

THE nature and intention of this work is fully displayed by the title; and, as far as it has yet proceeded, it seems

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well calculated to answer its professed purposes. The
first number contains the Royal Exchange, as it appeared
in 1.566, reduced from a print by Vertue; two views of
the Palace of Whitehall, the one from a very scarce print
by Silvestre, etched about 1638, and the other from a
pen-and-ink drawing made about the reign of James the
Second; and St. Saviour's Church, Southwark, copied from
one of the prints etched by Hollar to illustrate Dugdale's
Monasticon. No. II. consists of four views, viz. the
Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, from an etching by
Hollar, executed for the Monasticon; Suffolk House; York
House; and the Houses of Durhani, Salisbury, and
Worcester-all of them from drawings by the same artist,
now preserved in the Pepysian Collection at Cambridge.
No. III. contains Cheapside Cross, as it appeared on the
eve of the coronation of Edward VI., from a print pub-
lished by the Society of Antiquaries; Cheapside Cross, as
rebuilt in 1606; and Paul's Cross and preaching there:”
the two latter from drawings in the Pepysiau Library,
apparently by Hollar.
· Each subject is accompanied by a letter-press description;
and those of the second and third numbers, with one ex-
„ception, have also a brief account engraved beneath. This
is a good plan, as it serves the more indelibly to impress the
memory with the history of the object represented. The
descriptions appear to be drawn up with proper attention
to accuracy, and the language is plain and unaffected.
As a specimen both of the manner of composition and of
the authorities consulted, we insert the account of Durham,
Salisbury, and Worcester Houses; all which stood within
a short distance of each other near the banks of the Thames,
and are engraved on the same plate.

Durham House,
The first in the plate, stood on the site of the present Durham
Yard, and occupied that space of ground now covered by the
buildings of the Adelphi. It was for many ages the town residence
of the Bishops of Durham, and was erected, according to Stowe,
by Thomas de Hatfield, who was made bishop of that see in
1345* Mr. Pennant says, it was originally built by the famous

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" * So Strype, who quotes the following entry, MS. Will, de Chambre, Bodi. Lib. Oxon. • Manerium sive Hospitium Episcopale Londoniæ cum capella et cameris sumptuosissime construxit. This bishop died May 8, 1381, at his manor near London, called Alford, now Oldford, near Stratford-le-Bow.-Strype's Stowe, v: il. p. 2.-6. vi.

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Anthony Bec, Bishop of Durham, in the reign of Edward I., and that Bishop Hatfield was only à refounder*.

Spelman (Reliquiæ Spelmanianæ) informs us, that Bishop Tonstal, in 26 Henry VIII. exchanged this mansion with the King for the building called “ Coldharborough," in Thames Street, and other premises in London, and converted it into a royal palace. Edward VI. gave it to his sister Elizabeth as a temporary residence; and the see of Durham being soon afterwards dissolved by a smuggled act, which gave its rich possessions to the crown, the same monarch bestowed Coldharbour on the Earl of Shrewsbury. Queen Mary, who considered the gift as sacrilege, permitted the earl to retain Coldharbour; but to compensate the see of Durham for that loss, gave her reversion of Durham House to the bishop next in succession, when Elizabeth's life-interest expired. In consequence of this grant, Sir Walter Raleigh (to whom the Queen had given the use of it during her life) was in the next reign obliged to resign the possession to the then Bishop of Durham, Toby Matthew, afterwards Archbishop of York t.

“ In 1608 a new Exchange was built by the Earl of Salisbury, on the site of the stables of this house which fronted the Strand, and which were ħovels of too mean a description for so public a situation. The mansion itself was soon afterwards forsaken, and was in 1640 purchased and built on by Philip Earl of Pembroke. The Exchange flourished longer, but at length the shops, says Maitland, being deserted by the mercers, were in the year 1737 pulled down, and the spot covered with houses. Mr. Smith (Antiq. Westminster, p.5.) has given the view of a fragment of the front of this Exchange, destroyed in the year 1790, and then called Durham House. A small portion of ancient stone wall still remains at the corner of Durham Yard.

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Salisbury House “ Was a noble turretted mansion, built by the famous Secretary Cecil, afterwards Earl of Salisbury, and Lord Treasurer 10 James I., evidently in a style of architecture which prevailed at that period. After the founder's death, being thought too extensive for the residence of the then, earl, it was divided into two mansions, the Jesser of which, itself a large house, was let to persons of quality: some years afterwards it was divided into various tenements, till at length it was purchased by builders, and • Salisbury Street, erected

Another part adjoining • Great Salisbury House, and over the long gallery, was converted into an Exchange, and called the Middle Exchange, which consisted of a very long and large room, with shops on both sides, having a passage from the Strand down to the water side, at the bottom of which was a handsome flight of stairs to take boat at; but it had, says Strype,

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« * London ed. 1805.


120. ~ + Bishop of Durham's case.

For an account of this Exchange, and likewise the great feast held at Durham House by Henry VIII., see Strype and Maitlande

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