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Premonstratensian canons, about the latter end of the reign of Henry the Second, and to them the manor of Eggleston was given by Gilbert de Leya, by a grant, wherein the name of Ralph de Multon occurs as witness. On the surrender of the abbey possessions, in the reign of Henry the Eighth, the revenues of the canons were estimated, according to Speed, at 65l. 5s.6d. annually; but Dugdale records them at 361. 8s. 3d. only. In the third of Edward the Sixth, the site of the abbey was granted to Robert Strelly, who alienated it by license to the Saville family, in the fifth year of Queen Elizabeth. How it descended from them is uncertain : but in the year 1672 it became the property of Sir John Lowther, of Lowther, Bart. Henry, third Lord Lonsdale, grandson to Sir John Lowther, sold the abbey, in the year 1740, to the late Sir Thoinas Robinson, of Rokeby; and of him it was, purchased, in 1769, by John Sawrey Morritt, esq. the present possessor.
* The principal feature in the ruins of the abbey, is the church, which was built in the pointed style of architecture, and still displays many traces of elegance. An ancient tomb of grey marble, yet preserved here, is supposed to be the same mentioned by Leland, as containing the remains of Sir Ralph Bowes.”
In Number II. are views of Conway Castle, Dover Castle, Byland Abbey, and Bethgelert bridge, all from drawings by Mr. Munn; whose excellencies in landscape consist principally in the striking effect which he contrives to introduce by the breadth and brilliancy of his lights, and in the general felicity of his choice. His detail, however, is not unfrequently inaccurate, as we could evince by several instances from the subjects before us. In the view of Conway Castle, the relative situation of that noble building with the surrounding country is better displayed than in almost any other representation of the same object that we have seen. Dover Castle is not so good: its towering sublimity and stupendous character are partly lost, through the point of view being too contiguous to the fortress itself: it seems to have been taken about midway up the hill, on the road to Deal. We shall insert the description accompanying it, as we can vouch
for its accuracy.
" Dover. Castle, Kent. « The white cliffs of Dover have been celebrated from the earliest period of our annals; their extent, magnitude, and stuperidous grandeur, exciting the admiration of all who view them. On the summit of one of these tre nendous heights, of steep and difficult access, stands Dover Castle, an immense congeries of every kind of fortification which the art of war has contrived to render a station impregnable. So highly important, indeed, was this fortress for
merly considered, that Matthew Paris calls it, Clavis et Repagulum totius Reyni; the lock and key of the whole kingrlom! And other writers have not been deficient in recording the distinguished superiority that was thought to be attached to its possession. Though still of vast strength, and additionally secured by entrenchments and out works of more recent date, its consequence has been much lessened since the invention of cannon, the eminences to the northwest by west and south west being considerably higher than the site even of the citadel itself.
“ The foundation of Dover Castle is generally attributed to the Romans; yei as the natural strength of the situation must have rendered it a very obvious post for defence, and as its contiguity to an enemy's shore must have pointed it out as very necessary to be defended, probability cannot be violated by assigning it to the Britons. That the Romans greatly increased and improved the fortifications, there is no doubt; and part of the Roman buildings is yet distinguishable in the remains of a pharos, or light-house, within an advanced circular work in the southern division of the castle. This was originally much higher than at present; and is built with Roman tiles intermixed with flints; its outward form is octagonal, but the interior is square. Adjoining to it is the shell of an ancient church, in which also are evident remains of Roman workmanship: this is said to have been the first Christian church in Britain.
The buildings of the castle are very extensive, and of almost every age from that of the Romans to the present. Within the outer walls is included an area of thirty-five acres; and of these about six are taken up by the more ancient parts; in the midst of which; proudly pre-eminent, rises the keep, or citadel. The views from the north turret are almost unequalled both for extent and beauty. The whole breadth of the channel is distinctly beheld, together with the coast of France, including Dunkirk, Calais, and the hills between Calais and Boulogue. The most remarkable objects on the English side, are the town and singularly situated harbour of Dover, the North-Foreland light-house, the towns of Ramsgate and Sandwich, Richborough Castle, and Reculver and Minster churches: these are beautifully interiningled with a wide extent of country; and the interest is still increased by the vicinity of the sea, though, to use the language of the immortal Shakspeare,
The murmuring surge,
Topple down headlong.'
of a page, is impossible. They comprehend a most interesting variety of secimens of the styles of fortification adopted for defence in ancien and modern warfare, and are now garrisoned by a strong force. The distant parts of the works are connected with each other by subierranean passages and covered ways, cut through the solid rock. Tha
hills opposite to the castle have also been fortified; and
every means has been employed to render the works impervious to assault.”
Byland Abbey is a most sweetly picturesque scene, and
“ Bethgelert, Carnartonshire, North Wales.
pass of Pont Aberglasly, the only road by which Carnarvon-
« The legend from which the name of this village is generally
the grave of
. And there be hung his horn and spear,
• And there, as ev’ning fell,
• Poor Gelert's dying yell.
The name of Gelert's Grave.'
Number III. contains Framlingham Castle, from a drawing by the late M. A. Rooker; and Naworth Castle, Pont-y-Pair, and Brinkburn Priory, from drawings by P. S. Munn. The two latter of these views are very beautiful: Pont-y-Pair has all the charms of romantic grandeur, and Brinkburn Priory possesses the more elegant forms of the picturesque. The account of Pont-y-Pair is given in in these words.
“ Pont-y-Pair, Carnarvonshire, North Wales. · Pont-y-Pair, or the Bridge of the Cauldron, is a singular and fofty structure of five arches, erected over the river Llugwy, which falls into the Conway at a little distance below. The scenery on both sides of the bridge is very, romantic, the bed of the river being covered with masses of rock, of most strange and uncouth forms, over which the foaming stream rushes with impetuous velocity. The vicinity of the mountains, whose aspiring fronts rise, range above range, till they terminate in the heights of Snowdon, increases the grandeur of the prospects, and give birth to the kindred emotions of admiration and sublimity. Though both rivers, before their junction, dart furiously along their rugged beds in broken torrents, yet they afterwards assume a more placid character, and flow with chastened vigour between the counties of Carnarvon and Denbigh, till they fall into the estuary of the Menai.
“? The many beautiful scenes in the vicinity of Pont-y-Pair, oc, casion this neighbourhood to be frequently visited. The celebrated cataract, called Rhaiadr-y-Wenol, or the Cataract of the Swallow, is scarcely more than a mile distant on the road towards Capel Curig. This is situated in a deep and narrow glen, through which the river Llugwy foams with vehement rapidity, and in a wet season exhibits all the wildness and fury of an Alpine stream. The water is at first precipitated in a broad sheet over a rock almost perpendi: cular; but below that it descends in a varied course along a smooth and slanting bed. The banks of the glen are adorned by oak, birch, and hazel, hanging from the rocks, and composing, with the cataract, a most picturesque and charming landscape.”
In No. IV. are views of the Peak Cavernand Newark Castle, by P. S. Muun; Oakhampton Chapel, by J. C. Smiths; and Rivaulx Abbey, by F. Nicholson. The subject called the Peak Cavern is improperly designated. It represents only, the passage
between the cliffs which leads to that tremendous hollow from the village of Castleton ; but the cavern itself is far beyond. We have more than onee visited the interior of this gulph, and can again pledge our credit 02 the veracity of the accompanying description.
“ The Peak Cavern, or Devil's Cave, Derbyshire. " The Peak Cavern is one of the greatest and' most singular: natural curiosities in Great Britain. The entrance is most extraordinarily magnificent : its situation is in a dark and gloomy recesi, formed by a chasm in the rocks, which range perpendicularly on each side to a great height; having, on the left, a rivulet that issues from the cavern, and pursues its foaming way over craggy masses of limestone; and, on the summit of the steep above, the ins of a Norman castle, which was built here; on an almost impregnable site, by William Peverel, natural son to the Conqueror. A vast canopy of unpillared rock, assuming the appearance of a surbased arch, forms the mouth of this stupendous excavation : the arch is about one hundred and twenty feet wide, upwards of forty in height, and in receding depth about ninety. Proceeding about thirty yards, the roof becomes lower, and a gentle descent conducts, by a detached rock, to the interior entrance of this tremendous hollow. Here the blaze of day, which had been gradually softening, wholly disappears, and all further passage must be explored by torch-light,
" The visitor is now obliged to proceed in a stooping posture for twenty or thirty yards, when a spacivus opening, called the BellHouse, again permits him to stand upright. Hence the path conducts to the margin of a small lake, locally termed the First Water, where a boat, provided by the guide, is ready to convey the passenger to the interior of the cavern, beneath a massive vavit of rock, which in one part descends to within eighteen or twenty inches of the water. 'Beyond the lake, a spacious vacuity, 200 feet in length, 200 feet broad, and in some parts 120 feet high, opens in the heart of the rocks. In a passage at the inner extremity, the stream which flows through the bottom spreads into what is called the Second Water : this can generally be passed on foot: at other times the visitor is carried over on the shoulders of the guide. Near the end of this passage is a projecting pile of rocks, distinguished by the name of Roger Rain's House, where the water incessantly falls in large drops through the crevices of the roof. Beyond is the entrance to another fearful hollow, called the Chancel: here the rocks are much dislocated and broken, and large masses of stalactite incrust the sides and prominent points. The path now con. ducts to the Devil's Cellar, and thence, by a somewhat rapid descent of about 150 feet, to the Half-way House. Further on, the way proceeds beneath three natural arches, pretty regularly formed; beyond which is another vast concavity in the root, assuming the