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not yet been initiated in the secrets of captivation by false predences and love swindling, or of eking nut a skeleton figure by a cork rump, a muslin bosom, and a buckram stomacher; for though they reckon corpulence a beauty in a man, they think it a most palpable blemish in their own sex; they therefore pay particular attention to the slimness of their shape, and have the art of preserving it in all its ease and delicacy without effort or compression.
Though a Chinese has properly hut one wise at the head of his family, the number of his concubines de rends on his own opulence and discretion. So far, in this point, Chinese and European manners seem pretty much alike; but they difier widely in another: the mistresses of a Chinese live in tolerable harmony together in the same house, and even under the authority of the wife, who adopts and educates their children; and these children inherit from the father equally with their own.” P. 428.
The distinction between the Chinese and Tartars is still very evident; and the latter have usurped all the authority over the former, and retain the superiority of victors, even after the lapse of five centuries.
The population of China is estimated, by his lordship, ar 333 millions, on an extent of 1,297,999 square miles, or 830,719,360 acres. If one fourth of this surface be deducted for roads, canals, marshes, mountains, and incultivable grounds, there will still remain very nearly tivo acres to each individual, or a square mile to every 337 persons, which is but about as three to tivo of the population of some European states.
The annual revenues of China are likewise estimated at 66,666,6661. sterling The incidental expenses of military and other establishments of her provinces are discharged on the spot, and the surplus remitted to the imperial treasury at Pekin. In 1792 this surplus amounted to about 124 millions sterling. The arny in time of peace consists of a million of infantry and 800,000 cavalry: swords, bows and arrows, and matchlocks, are their principal implements of war.
To the Appendix is subjoined a humourous account of a Chinese merchant who came with his ship to trade in London, his petition to the “Great Colao Dandas,” &c. in which the exactions of the excise and custom-house officers are ludicrously detailed, the seisure of his ship and his subsequent confinement in prison are all related, and the great injustice and tyranny of such regulations happily contrasted with those of China. The Chinaman's mode of reasoning is very natural; he thought that if the Emperor of China admitted all English ships without dis
tinction to trade to Canton, the King of England would not forbid any Chinese ship from trading to London." We have, however, already extended this article to an unusual length, and can only recommend these volumes as worthy a place in the library of every scholar and statesman. We repeat our hope, that the entire writings of his lordship will soon be laid before the public in a convenient form and more perfect manner; although Mr. Barrow certainly deserves our thanks for thus promptly furnishing so much.
Observations on the Influence of Soil and Climate upon Wool;
from which is deduced, a certain and easy Method of improving the Quality of English clothing Wools, and preserving the Health of Sheep; with Hints for the Management of Sheep after shearing; an Inquiry into the Structure, Growth, and Formation of Wool and Hair; and Remarks on the Means by which the Spanish Breed of Sheep may be made to preserve the best Qualities of its Fleece unchanged in different Climates. By Robert Bakeweil. With occasional Notes and Remarks by the Right Hon. Lord Somerville. 8vo. pp. 166. 6s. 6d.
6s. 68. Harding 1808.
AFTER noticing the work of Mr. Luccock, a practical writer on wool, in our 23d volume, we expected that some more experienced and scientific author would take up the subject and avail himself of the mass of observations which that work contains, in order to furnish a treatise better adapted to the taste of the public., Mr. Bakewell seems better acquainted with the art of book-making than his predecessor, but he is as much less acquainted with his subject. He has indeed charged his reader 6s. 6d. for about one third of the information for which Mr. Luccock charged only 5s.6d.; yet he assures us that he has not written to censure, or to supply (and why not?]; the defects of other writers, but to direct the attention of wool-growers to objects of practical utility." This object could certainly have been attained much better by a shilling pamphlet, or by communication to a newspaper, than by the volunie before us, even although it is enriched with Lord Somerville's annotations. He adds, with as much confidence as if he had actually made a discovery, "Should it be found that the management I recommend is not new, this will not lessen its value; for if the practice be of considerable antiquity, its
application for the direct purpose of ameliorating (melio-
smearing sheep with a mixture of tar and grease, is no
Two of his five chapters are dedicated to explain the nature and causes of “ the soft and hard qualities of wool." The hardness of wool, which is rightly considered as distinct from the fineness of the pile, he ascribes in general to lime, where the sheep depasture on chalk soils, or even on marble or limestone. This fact is sufficiently obvious; and it cannot for a moment he doubted, that wherever sheep lie often on chalk, pulverised limestone or marble, Fuller's-earth or gypsum, these substances will absorb much of the natural moisture necessary to the preservation of the wool, and will consequently render it harder, and brittler, and less disposed to felt. Mr. Bakewell's observations, although made on different soils, have not extended to marie, Fuller'searth, and gypsum, although the latter is well known to be highly injurious to wool in Spain; and in those provinces or districts in which it abounds, especially in Arragon, no fine-woolled sheep are bred. Is to the author's modestly-enough termed “conjecture,” that wool (as well
as hair, feathers, and horn) is an " animal excrescence, composed of albumen differently modified by the secreting vessels," he probably confounds albumen with gelatin. The supposition that the "absorption of oxygen near the surface of the skin," may contribute to the formation of the wool, is a mere play upon words, which have become useful tó philosophical juggling As we were advocates for the practice of greasing and cotting long before our author, we most willingly subjoin his additional recommendations of a system which carries with it positive and direct advantages, not only to the sheep-breeder, but also to the consumer of mutton, the clothier, and the weaver of cloth.
“ Investigation” (observes Mr. Bakewell)" has enabled me to state as a general position, that, by the application of a well-chosen unguent, wool may be defended from the action of the soil and elements, and improved more than can be effected by any other means, except an entire change of breed. Not only will the quality of the wool be ensured by this practice, but it will become finer, and the quantity will be increased : it is also found to preserve the sheep in situations where they would inevitably perish, without this defence. Where the practice of greasing the sheep has prevailed, the great quantity of tar which was always combined with the unguent, prevented the advantages of ițs application to the wool from being discovered; and the breed of sheep on which it is most practised, is naturally the worst which exist in Britain for the production of wool. It is only in Northumberland, and in some parts of the neighbouring counties, that flocks of fine-woolled sheep have received the benefit of greasing with a mixture, in which the tar used was mérely sufficient to give it tenacity. The ignorance or the selfishness of the wool-buyers, for a long time prevented the acknowledgement of the advantage which the wool received from the ointment. Many were afraid to purchase it, from the extra weight of grease in the fleece, and made its dirty appearance a pretence for reducing the price below what ougit to have been allowed for the weight of the ointment it contained. The nature of this wool is now better understood: when sorted, it is purchased by the manufacturers of coloured cloth in preference to any other. The same preference is given to the clothis when sold in an unfinished state, in the Yorkshire cloth-halls, and they always have a ready sale, whatever may be the general depression of trade.
“ When these cloths are finished, their superiority is still more apparent. I am informed from authority which I cannot doubt, that many cloths, made from greased Northumberland wool, have been sold as cloths made from good Spanish wool, and have equalled then in their texture and softness; ungreased wools equally fine, and manufactured in the same way, would have made a cloth, the value of which would not have equalled the former by at least thirty per cent."
It is unnecessary that we should notice the author's
· attempt to explain the nature of these effects, as we have before stated that the ointment being a non-conductor, prevented the escape of heat, and consequently kept the animal in a uniform temperature as well as in a healthy state--the sure means of having fine and strong fleeces. Mr. Bakewell, however, very properly corrects Luccock for saying that the practice of anointing sleep "is not necessary to the health of the flock, or the good quality of the fleece; the reverse of which is true. Our author's directions for the application of the ointment are judicions
"Some skill is required in the application of the ointment, the ignorance of which has prevented the extension of the operation in many places. If the ointment be merely rubbed on the wool, it collects in the top of the staple, attracts und mixes with the soil, and is rather injurious than beneficial to the fleece. The proper method is to divide the staples with one hand, and apply the ointment to the skin with the finger of the other hand, by which means the ointment is kept constantly soft by the warmth of the skin, and is equally diffused through the fleece. Attention to this trifling circumstance is of the greatest importance to the success of this practice. The quantity of the mixture laid upon the sheep, varies with the size of the animal, and the practice of different farmers. In the lighter mode of greasing, one gallon of tar and twenty pounds of butter will be sufficient for forty-five or fifty sheep. Some piles of fine fleeces from Scotland, which I have lately seen, have been greased in the improper manner here described, by laying the ointment upon the wool, instead of applying it close to the skin: the benefit of the application is thus lost to the wool, and the upper part of the staple rendered useless. An inspection of a few fleeces greased in the best and worst manner, would prove most clearly the advantages of this practice, and how its misappli. cation might be avoided."
P. 51. Mr. Bakewell, indeed, is grievously at a loss to know how to make a serviceable ointment, as tar injures the colour of the wool, and olive oil and butter only are not sufficiently tenacious. To obviate this, he recommends the substitution of the expensive article of bees-wax for tar. We can teach him, however, to make a cheaper and more efficacious ointment than
any which he mentions, or which we believe has hitherto been used, except under the direction of the writer. It is composed of good spermaceti oil, either boiled or burnt till it attains a consistency and tenacity sufficient to cover and adhere to the skin and wool of the animal. If it is too thick, butter, lard, oil, or goose-grease, may