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Mr. GAMBLE. Thank

you. Senator NEUBERGER. What was paid for the Celilo; about $23,700,000, something like that, by the Corps of Engineers?

Mr. Bowles. The last figure that I recall, Senator, was something over $15 million. Now, I don't know. There were some outstanding claims that had not yet been settled, and it may eventually reach that. I know that the figure was discussed at $20 million in the original instance.

Senator NEUBERGER. Mr. Gamble says he thinks it is $21 million, but we can get that exact figure. Mr. Bowles, thank you for the very informative and instructive suggestions you have made, and your full statement will be inserted at this point.

(Mr. Bowles' full statement follows:)


OREGON DIVISION, IZAAK WALTON LEAGUE OF AMERICA, INC. My name is Rollin E. Bowles, Portland, Oreg., and I appear here in behalf of the Oregon division of the Izaak Walton League of America. I am past president of the Oregon division and presently chairman of its legislative committee.

As this committee knows, I appeared in behalf of the same organization at its hearing concerning Public Law 587 on October 18, 1956, at Klamath Falls. At that time I assured the committee in behalf of our organization that we sought nothing at the expense of the Indians themselves and our view in this respect has not changed in the slightest. We feel that the paramount consideration to be given in this matter is the welfare of the Indian people.

At the hearing of October 18, 1956, I recommended to this subcommittee on behalf of our organization that the entire reservation area should be acquired by the United States Government with the timber areas being attached too, by becoming a part of the Klamath and Fremont National Forests, and that the marsh areas which are a part of the Indian reservation be established in a wildlife management unit to be managed preferably between United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, or such State organizations as would best maintain and enhance the wildlife values inherent therein. This proposal has been reduced to legislative form in S. 2047.

During the intervening period since October 18, 1956, the views of our organization have, if anything, strengthened with respect to the recommendation of that time. It has been the good fortune of our people to have made a survey of some of the area as a group. Members individually have had additional opportunity to see the area and go over part of it on the ground. We have also had con Itations with the Management Specialists concerning the entire problem. Our recommendations to this committee in 1956 were based in part upon the following factors:

1. If the Indian people are to achieve a successful existence outside of reservation status, they must not be thrust into a community that is in economic distress as a result of the depressed timber prices.

2. If the reservation is broken up, as is contemplated by Public Law 587 and sold in small blocks, it will necessitate the immediate logging of the entire area by reason of economics alone, thus bringing about depressed timber prices in the Klamath Basin and depressed prices actually for the timber that is being sold. The Indians who wish to leave the reservation will be thrust into a community that is in economic difficulty and find themselves unable to becone incorporated into community life, and the funds they receive from their share in the sale of the reservation assets will not likely be sufficient to maintain themselves in any degree of stability and economic independence, unless supplemented by outside income. Thus, the sale of the assets of the reservation will be a twofold blow to the Indians themselves.

3. Studies indicate that some of the Indian people do not desire to be removed from the reservation status, and if a proportionate part of the reservation timber assets are maintained for the benefit of the remainder, which is calculated to be in the neighborhood of 30 percent, those Indians still remaining in reservation status will likewise be detrimentally affected by reason of timber prices, upon which they are at present, and, for the most part, in the future will be dependent for their existence.

4. A program of cutting such as will follow if Public Law 587 is carried into effect as presently written will inevitably have a serious and possibly catastrophic effect on the economy of the Klamath Basin and all of the people who reside there. Those people who are directly connected with the lumber industry will, of course, be affected at once. Unemployment, with all the attendant miseries, can readily be envisaged by flooding the market with upward of 3 billion board-feet of ponderosa pine timber in a relatively small area which depends for stable economic activity upon an industry which in Oregon is already beset with many difficulties. A longer term effect is inevitable in the farming community which is dependent, for the most part, upon irrigation and the water resources for the production of crops. When the pine timber is rapidly removed from the area there is bound to follow a decrease in the usable water supply in an already water-short area. The soil in the Klamath Reservation is of a coarse pumice type and the timber is the binding element that holds this soil in place. If this timber is gone, the soil will be subject to heavy washing in periods of high runoff, the water escaping at times of the year when it is least needed, and being totally absent in times when most needed. Once this erosive effect begins, the possibility of reestablishing ponderosa pine or other timber species is almost impossible to obtain.

Under the management that has been practiced on the Klamath Reservation by the Indian Forest Service of the Department of the Interior, a stable soil condition has been maintained, even though extensive logging has been conducted over a long period of time. The timber management has been predicated upon a sustained-yield philosophy both as to timber and water. The Klamath Reservation controls the watershed of Williamson River, Lost River, and other streams vital to the water supply of the Klamath Basin, and unless these supplies are maintained in a somewhat constant condition the economic condition of those agricultural pursuits dependent upon irrigation water is in extreme jeopardy. Plans have already been discusssed looking toward the draining of upper Klamath Marsh, which is the headwater of Williamson River, the most important water source of the entire basin, and practically all of which is controlled by the reservation. If this marsh were drained it would not be possible for it to act as a sponge which soaks up the water during the periods of heavy runoff to release it slowly into the Klamath Lake throughout the entire year, making it available to the agriculturist at times when his, crops need it the most.

It is not difficult to see what the effect of drainage is likely to be, for on the west side of Highway No. 97 we find a. pumice desert growing sagebrush, some lodgepole, and jack pine, but providing little forage for cattle or other animals. On the east side of that same highway the stable marsh condition existing at present provides a lush pasture which offers forage for cattle in great numbers. Likewise, this great marsh provides nesting, feeding, and resting grounds for many thousands of waterfowl using the Pacific ilyway. In fact, it is one of the key segments in the Pacific flyway system and must be maintained if we are to maintain a stable population of migratory birds throughout the Western States.

Approximately 80 percent of all the migratory birds using the Pacific flyway are at some time of the year to be found in the Klamath Basin. Reclamation of the lands in the lower basin, as well as many of the marshlands around Klamath and Agency Lakes have restricted the availability of suitable nesting and brooding areas to an absolute minimum for maintenance of stable populations of migratory birds. Upper Klamath Marsh is a vital segment of this program. The highest brood counts of waterfowl in the United States are annually recorded in this marsh In the event the marsh should be drained or its use to the waterfowl denied, me early migrations of pintails and other ducks would be forced into the highl productive agricultural areas of central and southern California, where crop predations would result in the elmination of substantial numbers to the detrinient of a flyway and waterfowl populations that are now in an extraordinarily fine condition; in fact, the best of any of the four flyways in the United States.

It must be remembered in any problem in which migratory birds are a consideration that the United States has treaties with Canada and Mexico relating to this subject and no action should be taken by the Government that will lead the Governments of Mexico or Canada to feel that the treaties have by indirect means been abrogated, which could well be the case here.

This great marsh is not at present fulfilling its highest potential because it is not under an active management program since it is inside the reservation

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area. Any hasty act seeking to relieve the United States Government of its responsibility to the Klamath Indians without proper consideration being given to all of the attendant factors and the wide ring of effect that a determination might have upon other people and natural resources could bring disaster not only to those immediately affected but potentially to the Indian people themselves. The water resources must be protected and in order to do this the timber stands on the reservation must be utilized and harvested with the water resources a definite consideration in any harvest plan. This cannot be done in a program that envisages a relatively small acreage sale which will, by virtue of the economic facts of life, make sustained yield impossible.

The marshlands which provide a stable waterflow throughout the irrigation season are likewise a vital element in the water stabilization program in the Klamath Basin and any termination program must take these factors into consideration in view of the effect that they inevitably will have on the overall economy of the people in the area as well as upon the Indian people themselves.

Recently the management agencies employed by the Secretary of the Interior to develop a program in conformity with Public Law 587 have suggested a plan which is fundamentally the same as was suggested by our organization in October 1956. Some of the details of that plan we object to. The suggestion that the hunting and fishing rights be continued in the presently enrolled tribal members throughout the natural life we cannot agree with since the potential of this great area cannot under such a program be realized for wildlife purposes as no public agency would undertake a game and fisheries management program under such circumstances. Such a program is sadly needed in the area and the tribal members themselves, if utilizing these resources in common with the rest of the citizens of the State and Nation will soon find their harvest of game and fish substantially enhanced over present levels as the result of a management program of the various agencies of the State and Federal Governments.

Experiences with situations such as proposed by the Management Specialists, of retaining certain rights in the Indians, are already a matt of record in this area.

They stem from the construction by the Corps of Engineers, United States Army, the Bonneville and the Dalles Dams. Certain fishing rights were guaranteeed to the Indians by Government agencies in lieu of sites that were flooded by construction of Bonneville and the Indians at The Dalles contend that their fishing rights established by treaty at Celilo Falls are still in existence irrespective of the fact that substantial sums—several millions of dollars-have been paid to them by the Government as a result of the construction of the Dalles Dam. These questions lend themselves definitely to litigation and difficulty as would any comparable situation with respect to the Klamath Reservation. In the interests of settling any potential controversies, and getting on with a badly needed management program of the wildlife and fisheries assets of the area, it would be far wiser to terminate all such rights should the United States purchase the reservation lands. All treaty rights stemming from the treaty that established the Klamath Reservation should be completely eliminated with the exceptions specifically noted in the legislation itself.

We do favor, however, the right of the tribal members to purchase those lands now within the reservation which are used for either home sites or agricultural purposes. The Indians themselves should have the first right of purchase of these lands, those Indians occupying the lands being given first consideration. Likewise those Indians presently holding grazing rights in conjunction with other agricultural lands should be given first preference on the grazing lands. All water rights appurtenant to the agricultural lands should pass to the purchasers with the land and be registered with the appropriate State authority so that subsequent withdrawals of water would not affect the present users. Such mineral rights as may be reserved to the tribe for any period of time should be exercised only in conformity with the existing laws of the State and Federal Governments in connection therewith. This position is taken in view of prior experiences that have been found detrimental when mining claims were taken for timber or small home sites or for the water resources in connection therewith.

It must be thoroughly understood by this committee that our program is not by our recommendations here attempting in any way to criticize any person or group but only for the purpose of presenting our views that we might fulfill our function in helping to preserve for posterity as well as those presently concerned some of the natural resources upon which this Nation will be dependent for its existence into a future beyond which none of us will be able to take part.

It is our firm belief, after the studies we have made and in viewing this situation at substantial length that the entire reservation, as has been previously suggested, should be purchased by the Federal Government with the exceptions that we have noted here. We wish again to reaffirm our previous statement that there is no desire on the part of this organization to in any way deprive the Indians of anything that they have. They are entitled to receive full value for the reservation assets and their welfare must be, of course, the first consideration, but we feel that the program that we have here outlined will be in the long run to the best advantage of the Indians themselves and will have the least detrimental effect to all persons concerned. We can predict from the policies that we suggest here, from experience in this field and other areas, that many of the potential values that now exist in this reservation can be more fully realized to the benefit of all people, including the Indians.

Senator NEUBERGER. Our next witness is Dr. John A. Rademaker, who is professor of sociology at Willamette University in Salem, Oreg.

Before Dr. Rademaker commences his testimony, I just want to note that the subcommittee has received a telegram from Martha Ferguson McKeown, noted Oregon authoress and school teacher who has written extensively on Indian problems and on the communal tribal life of the Indians, informing us that she will be unable to testify today because of the serious illness of her husband. We regret the reason for Mrs. McKeown's absence and we wish to Mr. McKeown a complete and early recovery. Mrs. McKeown's telegram will appear without objection in the record at this point.

(The telegram referred to is as follows:) Senator RICHARD NEUBERGER, 1910 Southwest Clifton Street,

Portland, Oreg.: Your telegram received. Tried to phone you through your office. Impossible for me to attend Indian Affairs Subcommittee hearing October 4. Archie seriously ill. We have picture documented Columbia River Indian information available. Our concern deepened for the nonreservation Indians of the gorge.

MARTHA FERGUSON MCKEOWN, Senator NEUBERGER. Dr. Rademaker, we are glad you are here.


SOCIOLOGY, WILLAMETTE UNIVERSITY, SALEM, OREG. Dr. RADEMAKER. Thank you, Senator Neuberger. I want to express my appreciation to all Members of the Congress for the passage of Senate bill 469, which has postponed completion of the action of Public Law 587. In my view, this action has made possible the avoidance of great injury to the men, women, and children of the Klamath Falls Tribe, and also of the entire State of Oregon. But the delay which has been made possible through passage of Senate bill 469 will be of little value unless we make good use of the time thus gained. The question before us is, then, what can we do between now and next July, in all probability, to improve the situation with regard to terminating Federal trusteeship over the Klamath Falls tribal members.

It is extremely difficult to chart a clear and effective solution. It may help to clarify the situation if we review the objectives which should be attained by any further acts of the Congress. A sound and


desirable solution would answer the following criteria affirmatively.

I am afraid there is going to be a good deal of repetition here, because Mr. Chandler and a number of others have very cogently stated a great many of these same ideas.

Senator NEUBERGER. Repetition adds emphasis, particularly from illustrious citizens of our State, Mr. Rademaker, so continue.

Dr. RADEMAKER. Thank you. First, it must help the members of the Klamath Falls Tribe to contribute constructively to the living of their own lives in the light of their just expectations and aspirations, in full view of past history and the obligations and opportunities which it has awarded or assured, and in view of present possibilities of growth toward final competence as free and equal citizens, and equal opportunities to exercise that competence.

We must point out that many members are already fully competent, but that past experiences have failed to provide many other members with training, education, and skills adequate to enable them to meet confidently and successfully the competition which they will encounter in a free society without help from responsible governmental agencies. Assuming that the ultimate goal for all is real competence to live as any other citizen would live, with skills, knowledge, and understanding which would enable them to be successful in business, industry, education, social activities, and the professions, how can those who are not now competent be aided in becoming so?

Some persons have stated that the per capita allotment system was bad, because it robbed the Indians of incentive to get out and work for a living. There is more to it than this, however, for we have not heard these same persons complaining about Nelson Rockefeller, Edsel Ford, and many others who had even less incentive to get out and work for a living which their ancestors' efforts had already provided in generous amounts and ample quantity. Personal responsibility and practice in exercising it helps, but only if it begins under adequate and benevolent supervision, with adequate educational background and information. Then we can proceed to greater and greater degrees of responsibility with success. This cannot be done in the short space of 2 years, even though our present efforts at education are more effective and work faster than in the past, thanks to Harvey Wright's efforts and the work of local school people and some of the neighbors of the Klamaths. Trips off the reservation, and encouragement to youngsters who are growing up to be given the experience of living in an adequate and friendly home whose members take time to help these youngsters to acquire the understanding and the skills they need, will help greatly, and they both require cooperation from non-Indian citizens of our State.

I suspect that some sort of selective graduation process will be neded to provide the insights and training, and to award increasing degrees of self-dependence to go with the insight. Services of educators and social workers will be needed to effect this without prejudice and with a wholehearted concern for the most rapid sound progress possible for each family. And this implies that when any family has achieved a given degree of competence, that it will be given, enthusiastically and ungrudgingly, the rights and freedom which


with it—and this includes the families which are wholly competent today. This makes it even more complex of a problem than many people have supposed.

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