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that of Poland; it was a republic of the state. They decided, at their own which the nobles were the citizen-sove- pleasure, upon all differences between seigas, under the presidency of a duke. Their subjects, and could even inflict The Poles pretended to unite this corporal punishment at their own duchy with their republic after the ex- option; so that a noble could punish one tinction of the house of Gothard Kettler, of his vassals whenever he thought fit; whom we have already mentioned; but but flogging by the public executioner, the nobility of Courland, supported by and banishments, were very rare, beRussia, maintained their right to choose cause the estate would thereby lose a a new prince. Poland was forced to ac. subject, whose preservation interested quiesce in 1736. Suon after the Coure the proprietor. If a peasant was accused luders received orders froin their august of any capital offence, the lord of the soil. protectress, the Czarina Elizabeth, to was obliged by the statutes, under a pe. elect the adventurer Biron, whom they nalty of an hundred florins, to cause hin before would not even adinit into their to be tried by a criminal court coinposed body as a simple noble. From that of nobles. To the honour of the indivia period, Courland was in fact no more duals it should be mentioned, that this uhran a province of Russia; and, in order despotic power was very rarely exercised to confirm their dependance, in 1795 the in a tyrannical manner. Courlanders demanded to be incorpo. The Duke, in his quality as vassal, was rated with the empire of the Czars. obliged to furnish Poland with 200 ca.
The nobility of Courland, proud of valry, or 500 infantry; he was not even their descent from the ancient Knights of permitted in time of peace, to keep more the Sword, tenaciously kept up the dise than 500 regular troops in pay; bis retinction between the ancient and modern venues were very considerable; they uobility. The ancients are those whose arose principally from the customs, the ancestors assisted at the last meetings of feudal taxes, and the ducal donnains, the knights in 1020, 1631, and 1634; which were supposed to consist of one they reckon several new families since third of the duchy: the total of these that time, who are not comprised in the different revenues was valued at three list of the members of these assemblies. millions two hundred and fifty thousand No knight of the new order can acquire Polish florins. About the middle of the any dignity, or hold any superior em 17th century, Duke James considerably ployment. A gentleman of Courland increased his revenues : he concluded enjoys the indigenat in Poland, the same treaties of commerce with different As a Pole enjoys it in Courland; but powers of Europe; and in 1664, England neither the one nor the other can claiin ceded to himn the Island of Tobago in the the privileges attached to this right, but West Indies. He even fitted out some from the time they were settled in either ships of war for other powers; and in country. The laws exempt the vassals of 1652, he sent the King of Poland, inde. the noblesse, and all those attached to pendently of his contingent as a vassal of their service, from all taxes and imposts that power, a thousand auxiliary iniupou whatever belongs to them. Their fantry.
W. B. H. Estates were exempted from the quare tering of troops upon them; they pos. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. sessed their domains in full sovereignty; - SIR, and, in order to preserve the fainily, they T SEND you a pleasing picture of the enjoyed the right of primogeniture: they inode of life of a catholic bishop at paid no sort of taxes but in time of war, Castello Branco, in Portugal, well wor29 vassals of Polaud, to serve on horse. thy the consideration of our heads of bark. Iw 1727, the contingent of the cathedrals, taken from a modern Ace nobiility was fixed by a convention at count of Portugal, by a clergyman at200 borse, and about as many infantry; tending General Moore's unfortunate they could, however, clain an exemption arıy: by publishing it you will do your from this by paying 30,000 crowns for duty, as every thing that tends to lessen the first year of the war, and 10,000 for the prejudices of mankind against each every year after during its continuance. other's religious principles, is serviceable The nobility had solely under their own to the whole world. dependance all subjects born on their “ We were lodged at the bishop's estates; they could even make bye. palace, and found him a man of most laws for them, provided there was no. amiable and interesting inanners. He is shyo contrary to the cominon laws of fur advanced in years, and uncorrupied
by commerce with the world ; has a pri- post, where foor roads meet; go on onmitive and patriarchal simplicity in every der St. Ann's.bill, on the Chertsey road, word and look, and gesture. When I till you skirt the park-paling of Mr. first saw him, he was employed in car. Fox's delightful seat, at the end of wbich rying fruit for our entertainment into is a public-house, where you may leave tbe parlour; and I was, you may sape your horse, and ascend on foot about pose, somewhat surprised to find hiin half-a-mile or less to the house, be. occupied by so humble an oftice, llisyond which is a white bench, where lordship and three agreeable priests there is a fine prospect from the top of dined with us on the day of our arrival: St. Ann's hill. By swerving two miles the next being a fast-day, they sat and a half to the left, yot may visit Bot. at table, and carved for us, but did not ley's, Sir J. Mawby's, and Attersbaw, the partake : there was a liberality and con. seat of
two considerable descension in this, which pleased me parks: but you must retum from Artermuch. We were attended, during din- sbaw by Bowstey-farm and Ongar-bill, ner, by four fomiliaros,
across Orockford common to Woburt“ The chaplain, an intelligent young place; thence to Weybridge, close to man, informed me, that the value of the which lies Oatlands, the seat of the Duke see was thirty thousand crusados novos of York. Proceed along the side of Oala year, or four thousand five hundred lands to Burwood-park, pass through the pounds sterling; but that the bishop was pack by Burhill, about half a mile beyond by no means rich, for one-third of his to Burwood-house and Pain's bill, income went to the poor, one to hospic (which is a straight line of about two Cality, and the remainder to the repair miles above the river Mole from Barand maintenance of his churches: this wood-park-gate to Pain's-bill) late the 15 tbe ancient division of monastic seat of B. Bond Hopkins; from Pain's wealth; and in those countries where hill, about a mile of good road brings celibacy is enjoined to the clergy, a more you to Cobbarn, where you cross the just and proper one could not have been Mole, and see Mr. Perry's very wild and devised."
beautiful park; çross Cobham-common Such a lesson as this would be well by Nir. Page's new farm, a straight and emplored, if any one would quote it in good road into Bookham-common; by a the House of Lords.
G. C. gate, take a sweep to the left round the
top of the bill, among some loose trees, To the Editor of the Monthly Mugazine. and following the park-paling of EasiSIR,
wick-park, which you see before you, T SHOULD be much obliged to any enter a lane at the corner of the com1 of your correspondients who would mon where you see a house, and artise inform me of any English work which at great Bookham, where there is a good treats of the art of Foundery, more par. inil, and Eastwich-park;cross the Guildticularly the casting of iron.
ford road here, and proceed across a fine London, Sept. 15, 1810. S. W. sloping cominon field to Pulsden arbour.
through a beautiful natural avenue to For the Monthly Alagazine. . Polsden, the delightful seat of Mr.
RIDE in SURRY and BÈRKS. Sheridan; from whence a lovely lane, TROM Bishopsgate along the park through groves, leads to Banmer-com
I palings by Mrs. Solway's to Wick mon (a common of no common sort). heath, round the King's Nursery into Here ask for the Fox public-house, which the great Portsmouth road, near the is at the top of the hill, a little to the left, 20 mile-stone, iure up short to the and they will direct you where to enter left, and making for the clumps of the wood at Baumer, that leads down o firs in the heath, on a high hill to the narrow lane to Combe Farm, nor occuleft, pass by a farm-house and enter a pied by a Mr. Steadman, and which narrow lane just beyond in a corner, stands in the bottom of a lovely valley. which leads down a steep hill to Stroud. Pass through his farm-yard up to tbe par green; keep to the right till you ascend sonage, where is a most rural habitation to St. Ann's heath, keep the left green (Mr.Tyler's); pass through bis farm-yard, read on the heath, and enter the first and descend, leaving a chapel and white turning on the right, which takes you to house to the right; from whence a sloping Trump's-mill, where you pass a brickhill leads you to a gate that opens oppobridge, and soon come to a direction- site a clean white public-bouse, wbere
Sir Frederic Evelyn's tenant, a decent hill; and returning by Bishopsgate, visit landlord, takes care of his visitors' horses, the Great Lodge, and go back to Wind(good hay, and home-brewed beer, fine sor by the grand avenue. white bread, &c. but no lodging, for obvious reasons): the house is caller Woot To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, ton-hatch, and is only four miles from SIR, Dorking. From Wootton-hatch to the The information relative to the in. right, and at the first turning, descend to 1 vention of the piano-forte, which Wootton-house, where all the woody Mr. Lydiatt has cominunicated, p. 411, grounds, &c. are well worth seeing; from agrees in some measure with a letter I hence you ascend by a very narrow and received from Mr. James Broadwood, on Tural sandy lane, to a gate that brings you this subject. to the top of Leith-hill, where you enter “The first maker of the grand pianoan avenue of firs in clumps; and go on forte was H. Baccers, a Dutchman, bearing to the right a little, at the end of who, in 1772, invented nearly its inecha. the avenue to Tanburst, on the edge of nism, by which it is distinguished from Leith-hill, from whence you proceed to the instrument with that name made in Leith-hill Place, late Mr. Thompson's, Germany." a magnificent situation; ascend again, I should esteem it a favour if Mr. and pursue your road along the edge of Lydiatt would state what he knows with Leith-hill to the tower, and still pårsue respect to an instrument invented by the edge of this wonderful mound, till Mr. Clagget, viz. his forks struck by you come to Cold-harbour; from thence hainmers, as on the sinall piano-forte, through a very grand wood, winding to When I saw this instrument, some years the left from the ridge, turn down the ago, at Mr. Clagger's, it was incomplete; first turning to the right to Folly-farm, or, not having at that time dampers applied crossing some open ground, take the to it, to stop the resonance of the forks, second to the right, by Ridland-farm, after the fingers were taken off the keys. entering the high road froni Horsham, The tone was fluty, and made its way, about the 2-mile stone from Dorking though not disagreeably loud, to the From Dorking ride to Beechworth Cas performer. According to the best of tle, about a mile to Brookham-green; my recollection, the voicing was not sufcross the Mole here, and proceed ficiently equal. It had ihe compass, to Beechworth, Tranquil Dale; and if I mistake not, of a common pianoreturn short to the left by Box-hill farm forte; but I do not recollect whether it to Box-hill, from whence you see below was an octare above concert-pitch, as Mr. Boccat's and Mr. Bouverie's, both was the aieuton. of which rural places, if possible, you An instrument on this construction, should visit. Next ascend to Norbury would probably never require tuning Park (Mr. Locke's); turning off the road after the pitch of the forks had once been at Juniper-hill, proceed to Leatherhead; adjusted ; and perhaps there is little reafrom Leatherhead to the left, visit Ran- son for apprehending that any change of dall-house, whose park is skirted by the temperature would affect, in any sensible Mole; go on to Platsome-green to Lea- degree, their relative proportion of vitherhead-common, after passing about brations. I once tried an experiment one mile of which you come to Ockshott. by tuning an organ-pipe to a pitch-fork, From Ockshott, two miles of a straight and then warming the pitcb-fork in a road through Esher-common brings you much greater degree ihan it would have to Clarediont Park, close to which is been affected by any change of heat or Esher Place, where a bridge crosses the cold, to which, in the common state of Mole; three miles from whence is Wal- things, it could have been subject. The ton-on-Thames, and Ashley Park. Cross fork and the organ-pipe bent slowly, Walton-bridge to Shepperton, Abby- which proved that the vibrations of the mill, and Laleham; proceed to Staines, fork bad been altered in a very small Cross Staines-bridge, and just before you degree. When the fork was made abcome to Egham, enter Runnymeed to solutely hot, its tone became very feeble, the right, where the road leads along the but the beats were more rapid, perhaps river by Anchorwick-house, to the Bells about eight in a second. If care were of Oseley, a public-house; and by a road taken to procure a fork whose vibra. called Priest's-hill you ascend to Engle- tions are 480 in a second, or any other field-green, where you should walk on known number, some valuable experiLord Shuldham's terrace to Cooper'se meuts might be tried, especially if the MONTHLY Mac, No, 207,
exact heat of the fork could be ascer- a voluntary penance, which the exiled tained. I have below subjoined the monarch bad imposed on himself. beats of two imperfect unisons, the dif. The Ciceroni performing this delicate ference of each from 480, gives the beats task, was, however, the ordinary shos. in 1 second:
man, dressed out in the tawdry livery of 480 beatsin 1 second.
bis office, flippantly sporting his MousComma · 477,0277
2.9723 sheers, his tossicated Bacchus's, his Leais's, "Comma · 47 4,07.45
5.9253 and other John-Bullisms; and vaunting 468,7499
11-2501 about the thousands of the Mounskeers dig. -
that were killed, taken prisoners, &c. &c. In the above experiment, therefore,
ore, in every battle! In vain did I take him the fork by being made very hot, had not aside, and apprize him that the decencies flattened more than about a comma and
of hospitality, and the quality and intela half.
C. I, SMYTH.
ligence of his visitors, rendered feirer
explanations necessary “I likes it," To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. said he, “ I likes to tell him the truth;" SIN,
winking his eye at the same instant, and TN making a tour in June, 1809, I smiling with excessive gratification. :1 passed through the wretched town of When he came to the battle of Mal. Woodstock, and of course went with my plaquet, he entered into a fourishing family to view the contrast afforded by Thodomontade about the vast superithe adjoining palace of Blenheim. ority of the French, their total roat, &c.
After paying the fines which are im- &c, when Louis, a little piqued, exclainposed at two or three passes on travel. ed, “ Yes, it was a very bloody battle!" jers, for attempting to gratify their curio- “Ah," said the fellow, « twenty thousity in viewing this national edifice, we sand of the lounsheers were kiled on the reached the flight of steps leading into spot!" the great hall; but were told by our con- His Majesty appeared to have a very ductor, tlrar Louis XVIII. the exile King correct liste in matters of art, dwelt with of France, was then viewing Blenhem; pleasure on the fine Carlo Dolci's, de and, finding that we might join his party Rubens's, &c. &c, and, evidently as a by missing two or three rooms which he compliment to my party, praised some had seen, we gladly embraced the offer, faded groupes of Sir Joshua Reynolds, and joined the party of his Most Christian representing some matter-of-fact rigures Majesty.
in the uncouth costume of the year 1770 Entering suddenly by a side door, in a Ilis conduct and observations, made party of six or eight, Ilis Majesty ap- in pretty good English, evinced an peared to take aların, and retreated for active intelligence on historical and other a momeni through an open door into subjects. He spoke with evident reanother room; but observing that we serve; but I hope he was satisfied that bore the open visages of Englishmen, he some of the English of the party felt a instantly returned, and surveyed us with strong desire to shew him erery possible much complacency. Ile was accom- respect, and were much allected by panied by the Duke de Grammont, and the vulgar spirit of the ciceroni. iwo or three nther French noblemen, At the tomb, in the chapel, this fellos whose names I knew not; but many was more than coinmonly boisterous in powerful associations gave the groupe a his descriptions of the allegories of vicstroug interest with me.
tury, of prostrate nations, &c. &c. es. I could not but marvel at thus meeting hibited by the sculptor. But I lost all with a King of France, a grand grand-son patience when, on departing, I saw hira of Louis XIV. in the very palace which bold out his land to the royal party, and had been erected by the parliament of receive a fee of a guinea ! On this subject England, as a troplay to the General who I remonstrated with him again, but was had so often in the field humbled the told, he did not get a royal customer pride of that ambitious Bourbon. The every day, and instead of not paying at incident tov was rendered more curious all, he thought they ought tu pay better from ihe circuinstance, that all the walls than other people." of Blenheim are covered with graphic The profile of Louis XVIII. is exactly representations of the triumphs of the that of the unhappy Louis XVI, and I do Duke of Marlboroughi, anii to view not doubt but his wbole contour is very these exaggcrated representations was like that of his brother, lle is very fat; and waddles or rolls ongracefully in his of Injuries, and concessions of Civil Liwalk. He has a piercing black eye, and berty to the People. takes a great deal of snuff, his face and
COMMON SENSE. clothes being discoloured by it. Habitual good temper appears to be the preFailing quality of his mind, and he bears
For the Monthly Magazine. no outward sign of anxiety to recover the
LETTERS DESCRIPTIVE of CIELTENIAM fortunes of his lamily. If he is not too
and its VICINITY.--No, VII. easy, and too likely to be misled by favour
Cheltenban, August 21, 1808. ites, I should think him the very man
TUE distance from Winchcombe to, under whom a people might live happy
Hailes is within the limit of a mounder their laws, without disturbance
derate walk, and we observed at intervals:
in our way thither, many traces of the from his ill-humour or ambition. In short, Louis XVIII. carries in his
original footpath that connected these appearance so much of the well-fed citi
adjoining monasteries in the days of their zen, or easy country gentleman, that one prosperity,
The village of Hailes consists of a few of my sons, a little boy of seven years of aye, who had been used to see pictures of
' respectable farm-houses and picturesque Kings with crowns on their heads, and
cottages, prettily scattered round a neat generally dressed in armour, could with
rustic church. The venerable ruins of
the abbey are beautifully situated in a difficulty be persuaded that that gentle
rich tract of meadow land, bounded on man was a king; and be sometimes amuses us by stalking or waddling across
the north and cast by gentle and wella the room, and exclaiming, “I am
wooded declivities. a
Their present exKing !"
tent and appearance afford ainple proof We afterwards met with His Majesty
of former magnificence and splendour,
but alas! at Oxford, where he recognized us, and
“Where reverend shrines in Gothic grandeur we left that city at the same instant, his Maiesty for Gosfield, and I, with my fa.
The nettle or the noxious nightshade mily, for London.
spreads; On our route, I amused myself in pro. And ashlings wafted from the neighbouring jecting a plan for his restoration, which, wood, for the sake of the peace of Europe, I Through broken arches wave their trembe conceived, and still conceive, may be . ling heads." effected, by his publicly announcing to This, which was a mitred abbey, was the French people
founded by Richard earl of Cornwall 1. A general amnesty.
and king of the Romans, who being born 2. Property to reniain as it is, or as in 1209, was still in his childhood at the A life interest in the occupier; and in death of his father, King Jobn. As he disputable cases, to be referable to arbi- advanced to manhood, he was distina tration.
guished as much for wisdom and pru3. Military, and other promotions and dence in the cabinet, as for valour and preferments, to be respecied so far as re- skill in the field. In the year 1256 be gards rank and pay.
was elected to the Roman crown, and 4. A solemn pledge to be made to soon after visited Germany with a splena establish a constitution, in spirit like that did train, and was there invested with of Englaod, and to govern according to the insignia of royalty. Ifis estate was laws made by a free legislature. O princely, and was reported to be equal
5. The limits of France to be the great to the expenditure of 400 marks a-day rivers and chains of mountains.
for ten years; indeed, ke seems to bave 6. Equitable indemnities to families been no less conspicuous for opulence who have lost their estates or preferments. than his brother Henry III. for poverty.
7. Toleration in matters of religion, His treasures, however, were conside
8. General risings to take place on rably diminished by the contest for sove, fised days.
reignty, so that he is said to have rePerhaps, however, such an extinction turned from Gerinany “a poorer king of prejudices is expecting too much of than he went out an earl,". human nature; and Louis and his cour. The monastery of laites was erected tiers may probably prefer Exile, the spi. and endowed in pursuance of a vow which rit of Revenge, and the hopes of arbitrary he made when exposed to imminent danPower, to a Kingdom, with Forgiveness ger of shipwreck on his return from Casa