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cotton imported into Great Britain being and all the taxes now paid by them, must derived from them.

be drawn from the parent state. Mr. Brougham * has shewn, that in the It is an awful and important truth, shipping employed between this country that Britain cannot exist with a smaller and the West India colonies, there are revenue than she at present possesses. more seanien in proportion to the tonnage Landholders, as well as the mercantile than in any other trade, being that of interest, should weigh well this fact, and one man to every fourteen tons.

act in such a manner as to promote their From the official reports made to the own interests no less than those of their House of Commons of the tonnage and fellow-subjects. seamen employed in that trade, during These circumstances apply perbaps in the year 1804, it appears that the former a greater degree to the sugar than to the amounted to 236,580 tons of shipping; cotton colonies: there is another peculiari. and that 17,680 seamen were engaged on y connected with the latter. board of those vessels. The proportion, Raw cotton has become nearly with in this instance, exceeds the estimate of wool, a staple of these kingdoms. The Mr. Brougham; there being one man to unrivalled excellence of our inanufactures every Thirteen tons. But Mr. Lowet ensures us the market wherever we have estimates the number of men, including access. At present we derive the cottonthose engaged in fisheries dependent on wool which is manufactured or exported the colonies, at 25,000 men, which would in its raw state, from our own colonies, reduce the proportion to one man to from the United States of America, the about each nine tons. The same gentle. Brazils, the Spanish colonies, the Levant, man has stated most decisive reasons for and the East Indies. Of the whole of the preference given to this trade by the tbis, above one-third is imported from the lower classes; and he has also shewn, that British colonies. On this we can always the inducements held out by it, are so great calculate, barring the risk of crops, and as to lead many to enter into the sea of capture; the last being much lessened service, who would otherwise have shune : by the expulsion of the French fruin the ned it. He has done this, and indeed western hemisphere. All obtained froin erery part of his subject, such ample foreigners is dependent on their caprice : justice, that the repetition of the facts of this America has afforded an admira. in this place would be a superfluous ble illustration. labour.

In 1808, the quantity of cotton imThere is another consideration which ported from North America was only 10 has been too generally overlooked: that millions of lbs. being thus reduced to the intercourse between Britain and her little more tban one-third of what it had colonies, replaces iwo British -capitals, been for the three preceding years, and while all others replaces only one.

to one-fifth of what it has since been, Such are a few of the advantages en. The other independent states may be joyed by the parent state: the next object equally whimsical, or their interests may of attention is the disadvantages onder be different from what they now are. which the colonists labour. They are too There are also physical objections to some goading to be overlooked. To a large class of the cotton-wool obtained from foreign of them the legislature has of late sources: that from the Levant being afforded some relief, which has however only fit for the coarsest manufactures, been imperfect. To another (the cotton. that from India is either coarse or fine planters) there appears to be no intention in the extreme, and cannot be generally of affording any aid; for every petition used. The expence, too, of freight is four that has been forwarded to the Board of lines that froin the West Indies. Trade, has been dismissed without the Unless the colonists obtain relief, they relief sought. .

must and they will seek it for themselves. Every man in this empire is deeply It is true that they are without the means affected by the prosperity or adversity of of revolt; their peculiar situation, their the colonies; for should the evil become inclinations, all concur to oppose such a too great to be borne, ruin must ensue to design. This furnishes an additional those immediately dependent on them: claim on generosity.

There is a pitch, however, to'which only * Colonial Policy, vol. 1. p. 17.

the chords of attachment can be tuued ; if of Inquiry, &c. p. 11. '.:. wound fartber, discord is produced, and

at last they are broken for ever. Men

who who are then rendered active from ne- occurred, the North Americans have cessity, will devise means of relief; those introduced enormous and increasing of active redress are not in their power, quantities of cotton-wool. The produce but they may share their wrongs with of the Brazils was monopolized by Porthose who now inflict them, by withdraw. tugal previous to the occupation of the ing themselves and their slaves to soine latter country by the French; it has country, where they will receive that pro- since found a vent in Great Britain, tection which is denied at home. And even Unimportant as the quantities undoubt, should this dread alternative not be edly are that are derived from other adopted, the dissatisfaction excited by sources, they also increase. Foreigners, such real causes will not be confined to as well as our fellow-citizens, are thus the breasts of the immediate sufferers. protected, in a way that does not seem It will spread rapidly, and may ultimately quite congenial to the common notions escite efforts which are much to be de- of justice. precated. Men will not be oppressed, The following statement will enable nay absolutely defrauded, without a mur. the reader to appreciate fairly the real mur or complaict.

miseries of the British cotton planter, These evils will result from the cala- who suffers for the benefit of foreigners." mities of the whole of the West India co. In the British cotton-colonies inmense Ionies; if a part only saffers, the mischief, capitals have been vested, and large though less general, will be proportionably tracts of country have been devoted ia destructive to all connecied with them. the cultivation of this article. In point The cotton colonies are therefore entitled of national importance, these colonies to their due share of attention from the have been rapidly increasing, as will be legislature. A statement of their former seen by reference to table C. (in our and present situation, in all respects, will next.) next be given; it is fatally correct, and The original expence of forming plan. needs no embellishments to heighten the tations, and of rendering them fit for the miseries it contains.

purposes for which they are now used. Ever since the British have engaged in was very considerable, as will be more colonial speculations in the West Indies, evident when it is recollected that the they have made the culture of the cotton barren uncultivated tracts which have tree in some degree an object of attenbeer rendered productive and fruitful, tion. For a long time it was partial, were remote from all those facilities * and confined to very few situations: the which we possess so ainply at home : increasing enterprise of the mother that the whole labour of clearing away country did not, however, allow West immense forests, and of draining swamps Indian industry to be exclusively con- or unhealthy lands, was performed by fined to sugar; but, by improving the negroes brought from Africa at a heavy manufactures at home, it gave a new expence, wins for a tine were entirely inpulse to the western world, and cotton dependent on foreign supplies for supe has gradually become an object of more port. A calculation might be insti. general attention,

tuted; but the facts are so strong, that The West Indies, for a considerable the general po-ition may be assumed period, supplied nearly the whole of the without fear of being questioned. British demand. About thirty years Froni the very nature of our West ago, the Dutch settlements on the coast India colonies, they must even now, and of Guyana first attracted the attention at all periods, be in a great measure of the cotton-planters; and about the dependent on other countries for some same time North America engaged in of the most important necessaries of life. similar pursuits in her southern states. The constitution of the society precludes

During the progress of this cultivation, manufacturing the inost cominon articles, the extension of manufactories at home, and they do not possess all the means of produced a corresponding demand for support. the raw material; wbich was principally T he monopoly secured by Britain to supplied by the British colonies, including herself, enhances the price of whatever Those on the coast of Guyana, and which is derived froin her, as provisions can xere captured in 1796 by the British, always be obtained much cheaper from A few years ago, the foreign planter dis- North America-but this is inconsistent covered that Britain was the best mar- with the notions of those who have the ket for this produce; and since that power of remedying the mischief,


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The effects of this monopoly are deci- to year, and from generation to genededly hostile to the British cotton- ration, rich in the use of their customers' planter, for it increases the real cost of money, and living in great style on the his property, while it depresses the principle of never settling accounts. value of his produce. Of this, however, Were bankers in general called upon more will be said hereafter: at present, to pay back to every one his own, and the allusion is sufficient to confirm the balance with the world, is it not to be estimate of the value of such property. feared that not one in ten would prove It may be here remarked that clothing of solvent, nor one in four be able to pay every kind, as well as provisions, is ex- ten shillings in the pound? How often ported from this country,

has it happened, on the failure of a large It appears from a careful comparison banking-house, which has for years mainof these circumstances of the real value tained in insolent splendour the families of cotton estates, (taking every source of of five or six partners, that a tardy diviexpence into consideration), that the dend has been obtained of half-a-crown, average value of each acre of land or five shillings, in the pound! inay be stated at between 1.101. and 150l. At the beginning of the French revo. sterling.

lution, the bankers of France lost the Each acre (as proved by an average public confidence, and ruined thousands of ten years) produces about 200lbs. net of families, paying in general but trilling of cotton wool.

dividends; and the consequent exaspera- "> (To be concluded in our next.) tion of the public mind, led to inany of

the horrors of the revolution. The same To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. effects would probably arise in England SIR

on an invasion, or on any public event URING the current month, various that mighị create general alarm.

dealers in money and negociable It is my advice then, that the banking vaper, commonly called Bankers, have system be placed under legislative restopt payınent in town and country, and gulation; that bankers be compelled to ruined many honest people.

give security to public functionaries for As however it is the professed object amounts proportioned to the extent of of this description of traders to become their credits, and especially to their the depositories of other persons' spare issues of notes--a regulation adopted in cash, and as they seldom or never lend the United States. At present ibey are money for any useful or benevolent dangerous, because delusive, establishpurpose, it appears to me that no banker ments; they encourage and sustain mo. can' honestly become a bankrupt; and nopolists and monopolies, and they play therefore, that when he does, he ouglit tricks with the circulating medium, to be rendered the object of suine espe, which ought not itself to be an object of cial punishment.

traffic! Men whose sole business is that of

Common Sense, receiving other peoples' money, of which they are bound to be the guardians, do To the Editor of the Monthly Maguzine. not live in the same relation to society

SIR, as traders in merchandize. These latter THE bishop of Lincoln, in his Elcare liable to bad debts, unsuccessful 1 m ents of Theology, says, that speculations, fluctuations in markets, and “after a certain time, the whole race of even in money matters are subject to men moved from their original liabilathe tricks, mari@uvres, and illiberal tions in Armenia, and settled in the practices of bankers themselves. Bank- plains of Shinar, near the Euphrates, in ers, bowever, who obtain the use of Assyria or Chaldæa.” The Scripture Jarúe sums without interest, are morally says, “ It came to pass, as they journeyed bound to enter into no speculations from the east, that they found a plain in which place at hazard the money con. the land of Shinar; and they dwelt fided to them; and ought every night to there." If we consider the position of compare their obligations with their re- Armenia and of Shinar, we shall find sources, and be able, if needful, at a few that the journey here mentioned could hours notice, to restore to every man not have been from the direction of Arthat which has been conGded to them. menia. 1. Armenia is a province of Yet so little is this the practice, that Asia, and consists of the modern Turbankers proceed in business from year comania, and part of Persia. It is


bounded on the north by Georgia, on the form certain parts; and I think that this soub by Curdistan, the ancient Assyria, opinion is not only extremely probable, and on the west by Natolia, or the Les but corroborated by biblical history. In ser Asia. This province includes the considering the geography of Eden and sources of the Tigris and Euphrates, of Paradise, captain Wilförd observes, that the Araxis and Phasis. 2. Shinar was a “ according to a uniforin tradition of a considerable extent of level country, and very long standing, as it is countenanced included Babylon, and probably a tract by the Hindu sacred books and Persian of land farther south. Moses expressly authors, the progenitors of mankind lived says, that Babel (Babylon) and Erech in that mountainous tract which extends were situated in the land of Shinar. from Balkh and Candáhár to the Hence it would seem, that Babylonia Ganges.*" llence it would appear, that formed a part of the land of Shinar, in the same country as the first father of rather than the land of Shinar a part of mankind inhabited in the early days of Babylonia; and this would lead us to the world, the second father of inankind consider the land of Shinar as that tract quitted that floating residence which of country which was situated between had been the means of his deliverance; the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, and and that from the same country, the de. which was afterwards called Mesopota- scendants of Noah and his sons migrated, mia. With tbis agrees the opinion of and as the Scripture says, journeyed Michaelis, who extends Shinar so far westward, and settled in the land of north as to include Nisibis and Edessa. Shinar.t. It therefore appears, that Armenia is not The learned prelate says, that the only not east, but that it is very much to whole race of men moved from their the north, and considerably to the west original habitations in Armenia, and of Shinar. This difficulty has been ob- settled in the plains of Shinar. In a served by commentators, and different nole he says, “In the first two editions of solutions have been offered. Bochart this work, I stated that a part only of the says, that Assyria being divided into two inhabitants of the earth journeyed from parts, one on this, and the other on the the east' and settled in the plains of further side of the Tigris, they denomi- Shinar; but from a more attentive conbated that part beyond the Tigris the sideration of the subject, to which I have east country, though a great part of it been led by the learned and ingenious was really north of Arinenia. It would, Remarks on the Eastern Origination of however, have been more to the purpose, Mankind, by Mr. Granville Penn, pub. had it been supposed that mankind jour: lished in the second volume of the neyed from some other place than Ar. Eastern Collections, I hare been induced menia, and that as they travelled from to change my opinion." However, conthe east, they must have come to Shinar siderable doubts may arise whether the from a tract of land east of that country. whole race of mankind moved in a wes. Captain Wilford says, that "according tern direction. It seems, indeed, en. to the Pauranics, and the followers of tirely unaccountable and incredible, that Burdha, the ark rested on the mountain all mankind should have journeyed west, of Aryavarta, Aryawart, or India, an from any supposeable point where they appellation which has no small affinity were originally settled, and that none of with the Araraut of Scripture. These them should have journeyed in any other moontains were a great way to the east- direction. The eastern parts were ward of the plains of Shinar or Mesopo- equally inviting to colonies, and at this tamia, for it is said in Genesis, that some day are at least equally populous as the time after the flood they journeyed west. If we suppose that all mankind from the east' till they found a plain in journeyed west, we must suppose that the land of Shinar, in which they setuled, the east was left without people; and This sorely implies that they came from this is an absurdity which few, I apprea very distant country eastward of Shi, hend, will atteinpt to defend. The reaDat.** We are therefore led to suppose, son of our attributing so much to the that mankind, after the flood, migrated west is, because we are seated in the frin the vicinage of Caucasus, a series west, and derire our information from of mountains of which Ararat and Taurus

• Asiatic Researches. * Asiatic Researches...

+ Taylor's Sacred Geography.

* writers

writers whose works inay be easily pro. kind did not migrate in a western direccured, and who live nearer to our situ- tion after the food. If we adopt that atiun. It we had possessed equal access situation of Paradise, and of the first to eastern writers, or had sufficiently settlement of Noah after the food, which esteemed thein, we should have been led appears in the Indian accounts, and to think that some early tribes settled far which is placed much farther east than east in Asia. It is not improbable that has been bitherto supposed, in the saine certain names of fathers of nations re- proportion we facilitate the population Corded in Scripture, are preserved to this of the east of Asia. We must suppose very time, in places of which we have that in aucient times, migratory colonies some, though by reason of their rernote were influenced by natural causes, as situation, perhaps iinperfect, informa- they are at present; and we cannot but rion. Captain Wilford, in an Essay on observe that the courses of rivers must Egypt and the Nile, has given, from the have been at that time as they are now Indian Puranas, some account of the first the guides of settlers, and of inhabitants settlement of nations after the food. in a state of progress. If we inspect the " It is related in the Padman-Purana, inap of Asia, we shall perceive that most that Satyavrata,t whose miraculous pre of ihe considerable streams issue from servation from a general deluge is told at Caucasus; and that froin this mountain, length in the Matsya, had three sons, the largely taken, the course of these eldest of whom was named Iyapeti, or streains may be considered as marking “ Lord of the Earth;" the oibers were the course of inankind to remote parts Charma and Sharma, which last words of this continent. In fact, they diverge are, in the vulgar dialects, usually pro- on all sides; south to India, east to nounced Cham and Sham, as we fre. China, north to Siberia, and west quently bear bishir for Krisbua. The towards the Caspian Sea. If it should nyal patriarch, for such is his character be thought, as some have supposed, that in the Puran, was particularly fond of Shein took no part in the building of Iyaperi, to whoin he gave all the regions Babel, this will afford an additional arguto the north of Ilianalaya or the Snowyment in favour of the opinion that the Mountains, which extend from sea to whole race of mankind did not migrale in sea, and of which Caucasus is a part; to a western direction. Sharma he allotted the countries to the Ravenstonedale,

J. ROBINSON, siurb of those mountains : but he cursed June 11, 1810. Charma; because, when the old joonarch was accidentally inebriated with a strong To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, liquor inade of fermented rice, Charına laughed, and it was in consequence of SIR, his father's iinprecation that he became LTAVING been lately a witness to a slave to the slaves of his brother." 11 the very great labour, expense, “ The children of Charma travelled a and frequent disappointinent, attendant long time, until they arrived at the bank on the making of Galvanic troughs in the of Tlie river Nila, or Cali, in Egypt; and common way, with wood, and the joints a Brahmin informs me, that their journey covered with cement, Í ium induced to began after the building of the Padma propose, through the medium of your Mandira, which appears to be the tower most respectable and widely-circulated of Babel, on the banks of the river Cu. Journal, an idea that struck me of submudvali, which can be no other than the stituting trouglis inade of earthenware, Euphrates."I These extracts are core for the abore-inentioned purpose. soborative of the geography of Moses, They could be constructed with only and prove that the geographical docus one or two cells in each piece, by which ments preserved to us in Holy Writ, are means they might be afforded very cheap; in perfect unison with the mwst ancient and by placing any number of those histories of the people who, after the ine pieces in continuation in a simple box spired writers, possessed the most au- or trough, made for the purpose, the thentic sources of information. They power could be increased to any degree aleo shew, that the whole race of inan. required.


RODERT Davis * Taylor's Sacred Geography.

June 24, 1810. + Noah. I Asiagic Researches.

* Sacred Geography.

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