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&c. to other parts of the country; and, and might therefore shine as voluntary if generally adopted, it would ultimately, benefactors to the box of the society: by advancing the price of labour, fall thus the opulent would, in fact, obtain on the consumer of manufactures and greater advantages than the objects agricultural produce, and the employer whom they pretend to serve. Had the of menial servants. The master, on committees of enquiry commenced their John's refusal to belong to the society, is operations years before; had peculation Tepresented by Mr. Fosbrooke as de. of the public money been prevented, and claring, “ Then, I will not give you but so good management in the expenditure much." Whether the master speaks good been practiced; the poor would not have or bad English, John understands him to been so numerous. I shall not enlarge mean, “I will give you but so much." on the consequences of war: it has not Why not suppose another case, and that operated to decrease their nuniber. in the agreement for wages the servant Parliament will, I hope, be better en. shall say, “ Reinember that you insist on gaged than in seeking to escape Mr. my entering the benefit-club, that you Fosbrooke's censures. Apprehensive and your parish may be relieved from lest my remarks should occupy too largo the burden of the poor's rates. I may a portion of your publication, I hasten not live to want any benefit - I may not to conclude with deprecating a system be so poor as to solicit it. You are of arrangement wbich will adinit private planning for your own security, and I individuals to acquire the authority of expect, therefore, that you will pay this legislators, destroy the activity of the new property tax, imposed on us who energies of the human mind, annihilate bave no property, or give me higher independency of spirit; and, having first wages that I may pay it myself."

probibited a labouring man from beBut what is the principal object for coming the owner of a cottage, lest he thus compelling men to consult their

should mortgage or sell it, may, at the own good? Why neither more nor less

next step of legislation, exclude the inthan a plan, which, under a specious

dustrious tradesman, on a sinall scale, pretext of a benevolent concern for the from purchasing a freehold of forty shil. welfare of the poor, aims to remove the

lings a-year; and ultimately, the exburden of the rates froin the owners and

tension of this system of management, occupiers of houses and land; that is,

sacrifice the freedom of British subjects the opulent part of society, to place it on

beneath the ponderosity of accidental, the poor themselves.

or ill-acquired, wealth or power. Oor politician argues, that to “render

BRITANICUL wisdom and prudence compulsatory in

Ipswich, Nov. 14, 1810. them, (that is, the poor) by the autho. P.S.-Mr. Fosbrooke mistakes the Qua. nity of a master, is nu hardship, unless it kers' proceedings respecting their own poor : can be deemed one to convert a fool into so far are they from abolishing the poor's. a sensible man, or make a thoughtless rates, they rate themselves for the poor of fellow less injurious to society.”

their own society, whilst they are subjected Do we say that a clock possesses wise

to the legal rates for the maintenance of the dom, because, by the mechanic's legis.

poor members of other societies. To avoid lation, it points the hour? Yet, as well

farther prolixity, I desist from enlarging on might we ascribe wisdom to a piece of

the contrast between the reverend gentle.

man's assertion, that nothing but military mechanism, as say that a fool is converted discipline can reform the drunken or worthinto a wise man by an act of compulsion, less character; and those old-fashioned obliging him to place in the hands of opinions which encouraged a hope of success others a sum of money, to provide for from teaching and preaching. Our projector Wants in sickness or in age. Wisdom is appears fully persuaded in his own mind, the result of an improvement of the in that "the custom of sending such persons tellectual powers; it is an acquired abi. on board a tender, is the wisest that can be lity of judging rightly; but the automata

adopted,” as if it were the bese school for in. parishioners can have no title to wisdom

culcating the doctrine, “ Repent and bring for moving merely as puppets at the

forth fruits meet for repentance." command of their directors.

The poor's-rates are heavy burdens; To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. and were this specious plan adopted, SIR, they who now pay annually large sums, To the distressing accounts of the would not be compelled to pay any thing, I storm on the late memorable 10th of November, received from other guare was to hear the mournful lowings of the ters, I beg permission to add a few partie bullocks, which, although part of every culars, which principally fell under my field was still fooded, in vain tried to own observation. Šust as the inhabi. quench their thirst, and could obtain no tants of Surdieet, a village near Spalding relief from their owners, who are themin Lincolnshire, had retired to bed, they selves in the greatest want of that neces. were alarmed by the information that the sary article, fresh water. sea-banks were broken, and the sheep Upon the whole, it is supposed that swimming in the pastures. Immediately about fifteen thousand valuable sheep, the graziers exerted then selves with the besides other cattle, have been lost; and greatest activity, and bore " the pelting upwards of twenty thousand acres of the of the pitiless storm," to rescue their dis- richest land in the kingdom deeply trest focks, in waggons and carts. Several fooded, froin Wainfleet to the neighfarmers and graziers have sustained very bourhood of Spalding. The losses also serious losses of catile; and the greatest at sea have been immense. Not fewer damage has been done to their winter than forty wrecks are thrown up along stock of calc and turnips, as well as to the Lincolnshire coast; and dead bodies of the wew-sown wheat, and fine grazingland. poor sailors are brought in with every ride.


The Reservoir presents a melancholy I could mention several other circumscene of ruin: the road gulled in vari. stances; but as I have, doubtless, been ous places; the sluice of the Verpati's anticipated by former accounts, I will drain separated from the shore, and the close my tale of wae with the consolasalt water rushing in. Amongst dume. tory reflection, that God has been mercirous other losses, a barn and corn-stacks ful' to the old enclosures of Surteet, belonging tu Mr. Wheat, near the new which were in the most perilous situation, sea-bank, have been completely swept from the apprehended blowing up of the away. A great many sheep, the pro. Glen sluice. This sluice was expected perty of the same person, were drowned; to give way every moment, but prokand the cottage of bis shepherd totally dentially weathered the late most tregutted by the tide, and the poor inhabi. mendous storm, which the memory of the tants compelled to wade to the bouse of oldest pian living cannot parallel. their neighbour, Mr. Beasley, whose loss “ The waves of the sea are mighty, has been very extensive.

and rage horribly: but yet the Lord, who But the most afflicting scene was at dwelletly on high, is mightier." Fosdyke, from which place to Boston, it

SAMUEL ELSDALE. appeared one sheet of water, and both Surfleet, Nov. 19, 1810, new and old banks were broken on every side. The inn was in the most imminent To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. slanger of being swept away, and the SIR, stables were demolished. Owing to the BSERVING in your publication violence of the rain from above, and the some remarks upon the former ex. fury of the waves from below, there was istence of vineyards in this country, (of not a dry room in the house. In addio which I was from old authors qware), I tion to the accumulated horrors of this should feel obliged to your correspondent most tempestuous night, the poor suf- for any hints which would enable me to ferers who dwelt near the sea, were ascertain what kind of grapes were for alarined at intervals by the crash of the merly raised here: and also whether banks, which blew up with a loud noise there is any published treatise on the resembling a clap of thunder. It was management of the vine, agreeably to shocking to see the sheep lying dead; the plan followed in the wine countries, and the corn, hay, and household furni- where they grow in the open air, tramed ture, floating in every direction. I my- to stakes, or otherwise. self counted nearly forty drowned sheep

A CoXSTANT READER. in a field of about tive acres. Mr. Bir Yorkshire, Nov. 10, 1810. kett has been a great sufferer in the loss both of live and dead stock; and to com. To the Editor of the Alonthly Mugesint. plete the dreadful scene, he had been SIR, winnowing wheat, which stood deep in AS the present communication consacks, and near them lay the corpses of A tains some important facts, which two women, one of then aged eighty are so little nown in this country, that years. What inuch added to the dise you will not, I think, at present recente tress, (a day or two after the inundation, them froin any other quarter, I shall when the dry land began to be seen,) make no apology for trausmitting them.

Serious Serious are the restrictions, the em- tains, and to arrive at the same river by barrassments, and the perils, to which the this long, though much shorter, route. commerce of the United States is ex- Captain Meriwether Lewis, of the 1st posed; and their government, dissatisfied regiment of United States iniantry, was with the present, is looking forward to the gentleman who, under the appointe the future. But it does more than look ment of the executive government, in forward. It silently acts. It is prepar. company with lieutenant Clarke and ing for rendering the trans-atlantic re. thirty-one other persons, followed the public more independent of Europe. Missouri, from its mouth to its source; That its manufactures are rapidly ad. and, in the years 1804, 1805, and 1800, vancing, the official article inserted in explored this new route to the Pacific the last Number of your Magazine, is a route never before traversed by civi. sufficient to prove. It is also laving the lized man. It was on the 16th of Ocfoundations for a great extension of its tober, 1805, that they penetrated to the foreign trade; and, in fact, for the wider banks of the Columbia ; that river, at the diffusion of the English language and point where they reached it, being nearly literature: and such will be the progress halt a mile broad. But they will not, of commerce, of navigation, and of lan, in the present lind-expedition, have the guage, that the same language, that of benefit of captain Lewis's advice and asEngland and the American republic, sistance, he having, it is stated, put an will hereafter afford the singular instance end to his life. of two opposite phrases, the riches of The former expedition was preparathe East, and the riches of the West, tory. The design of the present is to meaning precisely the same thing. settle a new colony either in the bay of

Though the republic of the United the Coluinbia, or, more probably, at its States is a severe sufferer from the pro. mouth, or on its shores; a colony which longation of the contests of Europe, the will hereafter conduct a vast trade with Western hemisphere is nevertheless ri- different parts of the East. The maritime sing in importance. Whilst a dark part of the expedition is conveying stores cloud is hanging over the fortunes of and necessaries for the settlement of the Europe, a new spirit of light, energy, infant colony. and improvement, is diffusing itself A principal object in view is to open through the immense territories of Spa- a communication between the Missouri nish America: her example, and encreased and the Columbia ; or, in other words, activity, and the presence of the supreme between the Atlantic and Pacific, with government, are giving a stimulus to the as short or as commodious a carryingarts, the industry, and the population, of place over the mountain tract, as can Brasil, and will call forth some of its in- possibly be found. The great obstacle, exhaustible resources. British capital indeed, to an extensive intercourse beand enterprise continue to enrich Dutch tween the eastern and western sicies of Guiana. Powerful causes are operating the North American continent, an oh. to render the United States a successor stacle which ciine only can surmount, to the provinces of the Baltic, with re- and after all imperfectly surmount, is spect to the supply of corn or flour, and the intervening ridge of mountains, to make Canada, in some degree, a suc- which is broad, and supposed to be free cessor to those provinces with respect to from now only about three or four the supply of timber and nasal stores; months in the year. These months, and the government of those States has therefore, will hereafter be busy months secently adopted a measure, which will for the transport of commodities. The lead to a memorable change in the com- want of roads, of culture, and of popuplexion of human affairs. That govern- lation, time and industry will remedy. ment, some time since, sent out two most That the Anglo-Americans will hereafter important expeditions, which, I believe, carry on, across the Pacific, a vaji am have never yet been announced so the lucrative commerce with China and British public, and which are intended to Japan, in spite of the present timid &ct in concert-on expedition by sea,' and jealous character of their governand another by land.

ments, can scarcely be doubteal; but inThe former set sail to the southward, numerable reflections, which I shall abfor the purpose of doubling cape Horn, stain from entering upon, crowd upon the of traversiog the Pacific, and reaching muind in comexion with the preceding the Columbia. The latter was to pro- facts.

H.S.S. ceed to the westward, 10 follow the Nis. Nov, 20, 1810. souri, to cross the great ridge of mduna MONTHLY Mag. No, 200,



ALBERTINUS MUSSATUS, himself to acquire a perfect knowledge AN historian and poet of Padua, of the laws, and became conversant in A flourished at the close of the 19th, the business of the state. As an adro. and the commencement of the 18th, cencate he acquired both reputation and turies. le deserves to be better known wealth: his merit became conspicuous, as one of the carliest who attempted the and he rose rapidly to the highest honours restoration of classic literature in Italy. of the state. He was advanced to the The following particulars of his life are equestrian rank, and a seat in the senate. deduced from his own writings, at once The government of Padua was at that the best and most satisfactory source. time a popular one, and he was the fa.

Mussato was born at Padua, in the year vourite of the people, who were pleased 1961. Unfavoured by birth or fortune, with him both on account of his plebeian he was early inured to hardships and origin, and because he took part with difficulties. The indigence of his parents them, on all occasions, public and priscarcely afforded him the hrst rudiments vate, against the nobility." of education; and his father dying while He was sent at different times on the he was yet a youth, he had to discharge most honourable public missions, both to the paternal office to his brothers and a Rome and other stares of Italy. Upon piscer, all younger than himself. Mura, one of these occasions he obtained from tori, in his preface to the Ilistorical Books the haughty Boniface VIII.. the abbey of Mussatn, among the " Rerum Itali. carum Scriptores," has given a concise

• Mussatus (De Gest. Ital. lib. 4. Rube sketch of the life of Mussato, written by 2d.) calls this Pontiff « Virum nostri temXicco Polentonus, a Paduan, who lived poris mundo formidabilem.” If his power not long after him, and who, as he him had equalled his ambition, he might well have self informs us, inhabited the same house, been styled formidable. The following clie Tiear the Pons Molinus, that Mussato bad rious correspondence is given by one of Mus formerly occupied. Polentonus says, that Sato's commentators, (borrowed from the at the age of twenty-one he lost his father;

be lost his fatber: “ Decreta Ecclesiae Gallicanæ,'') berweca and that he had to support his mother,

this proud pope and Philip king of France. seven sisters, and two brothers; but Boniface, servant of tbe servants of God, w Mussato himself seems not to confirm

Pbilip, King of the Frencb. this. In his first elegy he tells us :

Fear God, and keep his commandments, Bina mihi fratrum series adjuncta sorori,

We will that thou know thyself to be both

in spiritual and temporal matters our vissal. Et tamen illorum de grege major eram;

The collation to benefices and prebends doth His pater, ut major, patris post fata relinquor ; in nu wise pertain unto thee : and if thou hast Quan fueram pubes, sic pater ar:te fui.

the keeping of any such that may be vacant, In order to procure subsistence for him thou wilt reserve the profits thereof for the self and the charge thus devolved upon successors therein; and if thou hast collated hiin, he embraced the laborious occupa,' to any such, we decree such collations to le tions of schoolmaster and scribe. While void, and they are hereby wholly annulled. motives thas imperious confined his exer- Those who hold any other opinion on this tions within this humble spbere it is head, we denounce as heretics. Giver a the Dôt improbable that his acquaintance

Lateran, Dec. 4, in tbe sixta year of our pr with classic authors was promoted by his care. transcribing, for hire, various of their

THE ANSWER OF PHILIY. works. Notwithstanding his circum. Pbilip, by the grace of God, King of the Frembo stances, he in forins us that he felt a strong to Boniface, bolding bimself forrb as tbe sort attachment to the pursuits of science, reign Pontiff-Healtb little or none. and especially to the study of medicine know thy exalted fatuity, that in tempo. and philosophy; but when arrived nearly ral matters we own subjection to none; that at the age of thirty-five, we find bim be.

the collation to benefices and prebends is of ginning to practise as an advocate in the

our royal prerogative, and that their profits,

vacatione durante, are our's; that the collations courts of Padua. The popularity he had

hitherto made, or hereafter to be made, by us, already acquired as a poet and a gram

are declared valid, and shall be by ns mainmarian, contributed to promote his suce

tained against all gainsayers. Furthermore, cess in this new profession. He had al. those who hold any other opinion on this seady been distinguished by the appel- head, we denounce as fools and lunatics. lation of the Poet, He now applied Giver, Si.

of Santa Justina, near Padua, for his renewed. Early in the year 1314, a vin. brother Gualbertinus.

lent tumult of the populace took place When Henry VII, who had recently in Padua; the house of Mussato was assumed the title of King of the Romans, plundered, and he himself narrowly eswas at Milan, receiving the homage of caped, on horseback, with life, from the the Italian states, Mussato was deputed city. Of this event he gives a full acto wait upon himn in the name of his count, De Gest, post llen. Lib. iv. Rub. 1. countrymen, and obtained a promise of But his fellow-citizens were soon sen. peculiar privileges and favour for them. sible of the injustice of this outrage offered At the coronation of the emperor and to a man who was an ornament to his empress in 1311, he tells us he had the country; and it was voted by all ranks honour to hear the train of the latter that he should be invited to assist again Notwithstanding the Paduans had sworn at the public and private councils of the fidelity to llenry, they frequently en- state ; and that, tó coinpensate in some deavoured to shake off his authority, but measure for the indignities offered bim, were reconciled and bad their pardon ob he should be honoured with new testi. tained by the influence of Mussato, who monies of the public gratitucle and esteem. has left an account of these his missions Præterea A. Mussatum, ignara plebis and his addresses to the king.

prolapsu indigne molestatum, secretis The resistance of the Paduans lost them publicisque consiliis evocandun, baben. first Vicenza and its dependencies, which duin, conciliandum, proque accepta revolted to Henry in 1311. Mussato, contumeliâ præstantioribus honoribus ex. on his return from his last inission, laid tollendum, memoriâ rerum gestarum & before the senate of Padua the result of Jacobo de Carrariâ et gravioribus multi his embassy; but so strong a party was elegantia commendatum. Hæc omnia formed against the prudent measures ex plesbicito senatûsque consulto paribus which he recommended, that, inflamed votis constituta sunt A. D. nri, 1914. by an barangue, in a truly republican Maias kalendas. style, from Rolando de Plaziola, two. Thus bonourably invited back to his thirds of the senate voted for the rejection country, in a public address he enume. of the terms offered them by the empe- rates his services, and represents bow ror, and Mussato in vain endeavoured to little he had merited the injurious treatstem the torrent.

ment which he had so lately experienced, The Paduans having thus defied the Ile thus concludes his harangue : “0) resentment of Henry, Canis Grandis fratres, O tribuni plebis, o civium mei della Scala, to whose government of Ve- visendi gratiâ, consolandi, amplectandı rona the emperor nad annexed Vicenza, aggregata concio! non eam ignavam proceeded to hostilities against Padua. turbam alloquor, quæ eum, qui Bonifa. We find Mussato (A. D. 1312) preferring cium Papam VIII. virum nostri teinstill his country to the favour of the mo poris mundo formidabilem, sibi placabilemn Darch, which he certainly possessed in a ac munificum,--qui magnanimum llenrihigh degree, and acting iú a skirmislı as cum VII. orbis terrarum principem suis standard-hearer for the division of the consiliis acquiescentem fecit,qui sumcity in which be lived. The events of mæ Imperatricis purpureum paludamenthis war, and his own share in it, he relates tum sustulit in incessu, quem intimno cum in his History of the Transactions of Italy. caris admisit in thalaino ; qui Vicentian Warton, in his History of English Poetry, Paduæ municipein fecerat; qui patria vol. 2. p. 409, says, that the three books libertatem in asperrimis anfractibus vid ., written by Mussato in heroic verse, on dicaverat, turba illa infesta non accepit, the subject of this war, are anong his Dignè equidem auratz pecudis vellus inedited works; but they are evidently grex inquinatus abhorret. Absit a vobis, the 9th, 10th, and 11th, of the history tribuni, vilium belluarum feritas, salle last mentioned, the rest being written guinem sitiens, innocentiun. Salutem, in prose.

fortunasque mens, et si quid restat, quod On the death of Henry in 1313, a ne mea possint ingenia, facultates, salvatus gociation for peace was set on foot be. evoveo patribus, proceribus, et populo Iween the Paduans and Canis Grandis saniori." della Scala ; but the latter refusing to W e learn from Ferretus Vicentinus, a comply with the deinand made by Muso contemporary historian and poet, (of sato, on behalf of his countrymen, for the considerable merit, though now almost restoration of Vicenza to Padua, the con- wholly unknown) that Mussato bad not, ference was soon terminated, and the war in the year 1311, been crowned as poeta


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