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from the human bladder, of such mag- quantity of albumen was gradually depitude, has been hitherto exbibited or posited, and litmus paper indicated the described in this country,
presence of acid. These effects were Mr. Home has communicated to the produced by a high electrical power upon Royal Society, some hints on the sub- serum. With a lower power where was no jeci of animal secretions, with a view of appearance of coagulation at either pole; throwing new lights on animal chemistry. in five minutes the positive wire became The discoveries of Mr. Davy suggested covered with a filin of albumen, and in to Mr. Home the idea, that the animal fifteen minutes a filament of about a secretions may be produced by chemical quarter of an inch in length, was seen changes effecied by the power of electric floating in the fluid, and adhering to the city. The Foltaic battery, he observes, same wire. By these, and other expeis met with in the torpedo and electrical riments, it was ascertained, that a low ecl, a circumstance ihat furnishes two negative power of electricity separates important facts: one, that voltaic from the serum of the blood an alkaline hattery can be formed in a living animal; solution of albumen ; that a low positive the other, that nerves are essentially ne. power separates albumen with acid, and cessary for its management; for in these the sales of the blood. That with one fish, the nerves connected with the elec- degree of power, albumen is separated in trical organs, exceed those that go to all a solid form, with a less degree it is see the other parts of the fish, in the propor. parated in a fluid form. From these tion of twenty to one. The nerves are facts the following queries are proposed : made up of an infinite nuinber of sinall (1). That such a decomposition of the fibres, a structure so different from that blood, by electricity, may he as near an of the electric organ, that they are evi. approach to secretion as could be ex. dently not fitted to form a voltaic battery pected to be produced by artificial of high power: but their structure ap. means, at present in our power,, .(2), pears to adapt them to receive, and pre. That a weaker power of electricity than serte a small electrical power. That any that can be kept up by art, may be the nerves arranged with muscles, so as capable of separating front the blood the to form a voliaic battery, have a power different parts of which it is composed, of accumulating and communicating and forming new combinations of the electricity, is proved by the well-known parts so separated. (3). That the strucexperiments of the frog. There are ture of the nerves may fit them to have several circumstances in the structure of a low electrical power; and as low powa the nerves, and their arrangements in ers are not influenced by imperfect cone animal bodies, which do not appear at ductors, as apimal fluids, the nerves will all applicable to the purposes of coinmon not be robbed of their electricity by the sensation, and whose uses have not even surrounding parts. (4). That the dis. been devised. The organs of secretion covery of an electrical power which can are principally made up of arteries and separate albumen from the blood in a veins; but there is nothing in the differ. fluid state, and another that separates it ent inodes in which these vessels ramify, in a solid state, may explain the mode in that can in any way account for the which different animal solids and fluids changes in the blood, out of which the may be produced, since albumen is the secretions arise. These organs are also principal material of which animat boe abundantly supplied with nerves. With dies are coinposed. (5). That the a view to determine how far any changes nerves of the torpedo may not only keep could be produced in the blood by elec- the electric organ under the command tricity, at all similar to secretion, Mr. of the will, but charge the battery, by Brande, at the suggestion of Mr. Davy, secrcting the fluid between the plates, made some experiments, first upon blood that is necessary for its activity. (6). recently drawn from the arm, and then As albumen becomes coagulated by the upon a deer, in order to obtain the blood effect of a power too low to affect the in a perfectly Ruid state. Finding, how- most delicate electrometer, may it not ever, the coagulation of the blood an in- occasionally be employed as a chemical surmountable obstacle to the long con- test of electricity, while the production tinued electrical action, the serum only . of acid and alkali, affected by still infe. was employed. In one experiment, co- rior degrees of electricity to those reagulated albumen was rapidly separated quired for the coagulation of albumeit, at the negative pole, and alkaline matter may likewise be regarded as auxiliary Evolved; at the positive pole, a small tests on such occasions
VARIETIES, VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL.
Including Notices of Works in Hund, Domestic and Foreign ** Authentic Communicutions for this Article will always be thankfully reccioed.
T ITERATURE languishes in coin. works of PORTEUS, late Bishop of Lon1 mon with the manufacturer's cre- dun, in six volunies, oclave. dit and exterm commerce of the coun- Mr. Coxe is engaged on a llistory of try. There never were so few works in the Life and Age of Stillioyfleet. the press, and printers for a long time Mr. BELOE bias in the press, a fifth have not complained so much of want of volume of his interesting Anecdotes of employment. Still, owing to the increased Literature, number of readers, and the eagerness in A work on the Law of Vendor and the inass of the people for information on Purchaser of Personal Property, consi. all subjects, the trade in useful books dered with a view to mercanule transwas never more steady than at this time, actions, by GEORGE Ross, esq. of the and large editions are demanded of all Inner Temple, is preparing for publilimproved books on education. The ex- cation, tra: agant price of paper, owing to ino. Mr. CAMPBELL, Comptroller of the nopolies of rays, together with the res. Legacy Duty, lias in the press, a respect. ject paid to the inpertinencies of ano- able work on the Value of Annuities nymous criticism, are fatal to the interests from 11. to 1000l. per Annum on single of clegant literature in England, and must Lives, from the Aye of One tu Ninety render all extensive or bold book-making Years; with the pumber of years' pura speculations ultimately ruinous to those chase each annuity is worth, and the rate who engage in them. Hence it is that of interest the purchaser receives for huis the English publisher is obliged to suc- money. Ile las subjoined, for the incumb before the magnificence of the formation and convenience of the proe Frencly press, which every month suc. fession, and of executors and adminiscessfully produces, works, that in England trators, the annount of the several rates would be destroyed by the pestilential of Legacy Duty payable on the value of breath of hired anonymous critics. In each annuity, France too there is a spirit of patronage A religious poem, called Joseph, in among the great, and at the head of blauk verse, historical, patriarchal, and every subscription list stands “ Napoleon typical, with natos, by the Rev. CHARLES le Grand," followed by those of the tri- Lucas, A.M. curatę vf Avebury, Wilts, botary kings, and newly-created princes is in the press. and dukes; while on the other hand in A new edition of the poetical works of England, it inust be confessed, that the Drydex, in an uniform size with Mr. Jate Marquis of Lansdown was the last Malone's edition of the prose works, of our noble patrons of letters, and that with the nutes of the late Dr. Warton, since the Earl of Bute, we have not had Mr. Jobn Warton, and others, is in the 'a minister, who, as a minister, has not press, and will appear early in the winter, been studious to express his utter disre. · The Rev. James Rupee, Lecturer of gard of science and literature.
Limehouse, is preparing for the press Mr. Ruding's great work on the Coin. Twentrative Discourses on the Creed, de. age of the Kingdoin and of its Depen. livered in the parish Church of St. Anne, dencies, is in considerable forwardness, Linehouse, at the afternoon lecture. and may be expected to appear in the Dr. WAIKINS is engaged in a History next year.
of the Bible, or a connected View of the A new edition is in preparation of Sacred Records; with copious dissertas DUGDALE's Warwickshire, with the ed- tions and notes, forming an entire come ditionis by Dr. Thomas, and a variety of mentary on the inspired volunie; with new inatter.
an appendix, cuniaining, Mennirs of Mr. A. CHALMERS, F.S.A. (late of the Apostolic Age, and Chronological Aberdeen), is preparmg a History of the Tables of Sacred and Profane History. Public Bulidings of Oxford.
. This work will be comprised in two 410, New editions are in forwardness of volumnes. Ex DERBIE'S Cambria Trumpbans; and A work called Hints on Toleration, in of LLOYD's History of Cambria.
five essays, submitted to the Right Hon, The fourth and last voluine of Stew. Lord Viscount Sidmouzlo and the Disn ARI'. Athens, will be published in the senters, is in the press, and will speedily ensuing winter,
be published. An edition is nearly completed of the A work is in the press, giving an ac.
count of the present State of the Spanish immersion in a saturated solution of Colonies in America, and a particular salt, the smaller-grained varieties answer report on Hispaniola, the Spanish divi- equally well; or, on account of their sion of the Island of Santo Domingo, greater solubility, even better. with a gencral survey of the Settlements Messrs. CUTHBERTSON and SINGEN on the Continent of America, their have lately published the following coin. history, trade, navigation, productions, parison of the cylinder and plate exciters population, custoins, inanners, &c. in electrical machines: The principal
Messrs. Smith and Son, of Glasgow, advantages in the cylinder are, 1st, ihe have in the press, a Catalogue containe positive and negative powers are obtained ing many works that will interest the in equal perfection; 2dly, it has but one bibliographer from their extreme rarity. rubber to keep in order; 3dly, it is less The black letter and early printer books liable (from the security of its form) to are most of them in fine condition. accidental fracture, than the plate; 4thly,
Bir. W. MOORE, of the Royal Academy its insulation is more perfect; and 5thly, at Woolwich, has in forwardness a Treatise from the peculiarity of its structure, on the Doctrine of Fluxions, with its ap- larger multiplying wheels may be emplication to all the most useful parts of ployed, and thus a considerable dimi. the true Theory of Gunnery, and other nution of friction be obtained. The very important matters relating to Mili- advantages of the plate machines are, tary and Naval Science. The fiuxions 1st, they are less expensive than cylinders will be preceded by such parts of the of equal power; 2aly, they occupy less science of inechanics, as are necessary room; 3dly, may be constructed of a for reading the work without referring much larger size, as instanced by Mr. to other authors.
Cuthbertson's large machine at Harlem ; The death of the Rev. RICHARD CE- Athly, several plates, to act jointly, may CIL baving taken place during the pro- be more easily combined, than several gress of his works through the press, it cylinders could ; 5thly, the multiplying is intended to add a fourth volume to power may be applied to them to a much the three already announced. This greater extent than it could to cylinders, fourth volume, consisting of Remarks without rendering the motion ioo rapid; made by Mr. Cecil, in conversation, on a 6thly, plates of equal diameters may be great variety of topics in Life and Re- made to act with a uniform and equal ligion, could not, from the nature of degree of power, a circumstance seliom its contents, be published with propriety attained by cylinders. before his death; but that event having At the Medical School of Guy's Hos. now occurred, it is become desirable to pital, the autumnal course of Lectures publish together all that will ever appear will commence in the beginning of Oc. of his works. A Memoir of Mr. Cecil tober, viz. The Practice of Medicine, hy will be prefixed to the first volume; and Dr. BABINGTON and Dr. CURRY; Chica it is hoped the whole will be ready by mistry, by Dr. BABINGTON, Dr. MARChristmas.
CET, and Mr. ALLEN; Esperimental Mr. HENRY, of Manchester, has lately l'hilosophy, by Mr. ALLI; Theory of published An Analysis of several varie. Medicine, and Materia Medica, by Dr. ties of British and foreign salt (muriate Curry and Dr. CHOLMELEY; Mida of soda), with a view to explain their wifery, and Diseases of Women and Chile fitness for different economnical purposes. dren, by Dr. HAIGHTON; Physiology, or He proves Wiat British salts are no way in- Laws of the Aniinal (Economy, by Dr. ferior to foreign salts; and states, that that HAIGHTON; Structure and Diseases of kind of salt which possesses most emni- the Teeth, by Mr. Fox. These several nentiy the combined properties of hard. Lectures, with those on Anatomy and ness, compactness, and perfection, of on the Principles and Practice of Surgery, crystals, will be best adapted to the pure given at the Theatre of St. Thomas's pose of packing fish and other provision; Hospital adjoining, are so arranged, that because it will remain permanently be- no two of them interfere in the hours of Iseen the different layers, or will be attendance; and the whole is calculated very gradually dissolved by the Auids to form a complete course of medical and that exude froin the provision; thus fur. chirurgical instruction, alishing a slow, but constant, supply of Dr. Reid's next course of Lectures on saturated brine. On the other hand, the Theory and Practice of Medicine for the purpose of preparing the pickle, will commence on Mouday the eiglith Mr vi striking the ineat, which is done by of October, and will conclude on Dione
day the thirty-first of December. The lated to ascertain its strength, as coinlectures will be given at nine o'clock in pared with the same length and welgbt the morning, on Mondays, Wednesdays, of common hempen cord, the result was and Fridays, at Dr. Reid's house, Gren- very satisfactory, it being found that ville street, Brunswick-square, where hempen cord broke with a weight of $3ibs. further particulars may be known. three-fifths, while the Alrican cord did
Dr. DENNISON and Dr. Bram Den- not give way to less weight than 53ibs. RISON, will commence their course of two-tifths, making a difference in favour Lectures on the Theory and Practice of of the latter of 10lbs. in 43111s. Midwifery, and the Diseases of Woinen Captain MANBY, whose ingenious in. and Children, at the London Hospital, vention for preserving the crews, &c. of on Monday, October 8th, at eleven such vessels as inay be stranded on the o'clock
coast, lately obtained parliamentary Dr. Buxton's autumnal course of reward, bas made some iinprorenient Lectures on the Practice of Medicine, on his invention, and exhibited cheia will be coininenced on Monday, the 1st on the beech at Cromer; the ex. October,
periments consisted in projecting the The winter course of Dr. CLARKE's grapple, log-line, &c. from the mortar and Mr. CI ARKE's Lectures on Mid to the distance of 404 yards, wifery, and the Diseases of Women and Some police has recently been taken Children, will commence on Friday, the of the art of printing from stone, known 5th October, at the house of Mr. Clarke, in Germany by the name of " chemical No. 10, Upper John-street, Golden printing." In the clienical printing of square. The Lectures are read every tice at Vienna, three different methods day from a quarter past ten o'clock in are employed; but that termed in relief the morning till a quarter past eleven, is most frequently used. This is the gefor the convenience of students attending neral mode of printing inusic. The se. the hospitals. The students will have cond method is the sunk. This is prelabours' when properly qualified.
ferred for prints. The third method is In pursuance of a petition to the the flat, or neither raised nor sunk. House of Commons from the trustees of. This is useful for imitating drawings, parthe British Museum, Mr. Greville's col. ticularly where the impression is intended lection of miverals has been valued by to resemble crayons. For printing or Drs. Babington and Wollaston, and engraving in this method a block of unarfive other gentlemen, who report that ble is employed, or any other calcareous the whole collection consists of about stone, that is easily corroded, and will 20,000 specimens; that the series of take a good polish. It should be two crystallized rubellites, diamonds, and inches or two inches and a half thick, and precious stones in general, as well as of a size proportioned to the purpose for the series of the various ores, far surpass which it is intended. A close texture is any that are known to thein in the dif- considered as advantageous. When the ferent collections, and that the value of stone is well polished and dry, the first the whole is 13,7271. including the ca. 'step is to trace the drawing, notes, or 'binets, which cost 16001.
letters, to be printed, with a pencil. A canal has been projected from Bris. The design is noë very conspicuous, but tol to join the Wiltshire and Berkshire it is rendered so by passing over the canal, ac or near Foxham. By this com- strokes of the pencil a particular ink, of *munication, and through the medium of which a great secret is made. This ink the intended Western Junction and the is made of a solution of lac in potash, Grand Junction Canals, a regular and which is coloured with the soot from Bare navigation will be opened with the burning wax. This appears to be the 'ports of London and Bristol, and all most suitable black for the purpose.
towns, and places contiguous to, or com When the design has been gone over imunicating, with them: 400,0001. has with this ink, it is left to dry, which come
been subscribed to carry the plan into monly takes about two hours; but this execution),
depends much on the temperature and 2. A species of hemp, manufactured from dryness of tbe air. After the ink is dry, the leaves of a particular kind of palm, nitric acid, more or less dilated, accordwhich abounds in Sierra Leone and its ing to the degree of relief desired, is neighbourhood, has recently been sent poured on the stone, aod corrodes to this country; and being made into every part of it, except where defended cord, subjected to experiments calcu- by the resinous ink. The block being
washed with water, an ink similar to rished in their sleep. A transport bem that commonly used for printing, is dis- longing to the India Company, which had tributed over it by means of printer's been carried into the river by a tempest balls, a sheet of paper disposed on a in 1808, was raised by the waves and frame is laid on it, and this is pressed driven into the middle of the town. down by means of a copper roller, or cop M. TAUSCHER the botanist, who is per press. The sunk, or cbalk method employed by Count Alexei Rasumowski, differs from that termed in relief only in has arrived at Sarepta, on the Wolga, haring the stone much more corrroded with a rich collection of rare and unknown by the nitric acid. In the flat method less plants, collected in the steppes or desert nitric acid is used. It is not to be suppo- plains, northward of the Caspian Sea, sed, that the surface is quite plain in this This traveller has also visited the islands way; but the lines are very little raised in that sea, where he has found the Ina so that they can scarcely be perceived to dian lotus. The governor of Casas stand above the ground but by the finger. gave M. Tauscher an escort of 100 Cose
Mr. I, D. Ross, of Princes-street, has sacks, with one piece of cannon, which invented an eye-bath, to clear the eye enabled him to disperse a troop of 600 froin extraneous matters, and to assist Kergises, assembled with the intention of the sight; which he makes as an orna pillaging him. This is the first time that ment for a lady's or gentleman's dressing a botanist ever travelled with cannon. Joom,
Last summer an experiment of a new In an account of some recent ex. kind was tried at Philipschal, ja East periments of M. DE SAUSSURE, it is Prussia. This was, to 'split a rock' by stated that the weight of a cubic means of lightning. All iron rod, siinilar decinetre (60·895 cub. in.] of humid to a conductor, was fixed in the rock, oxygen gas, the therinometer at 12:50 and on the occurrence of the first tbuna (545° F.] and barometer at 0.758 of der storm the lightning was conducted a metre (29.82 in.) is, according to down the red, and split the rock into Lavoisier - . 1.3583 gram. 20.9725crs. several pieces without displacing it. Seguin, Fourcroy,
IIUNGARY, and Vauquelin 1:3523 20 8798 From the report of three 'professors of Bint . - 1.3538 20 9030 Pest, sent to examine into the cause of His observation 1.3563 20.9416 the earthquake in this country, in Janue
ary last, it appears that the centre from Meao .. 1.3552 20.9242 which the shocks were cominuoicated is Some other experiments of M. de Saus. in the environs of the mountain of Czoka. sure deterinined that a thousand parts of: At their departure, the shocks, though hydrogen gas obtained from the solution feeble, were still perceptible. The numa of zinc purified by sublimation, when ber distinctly felt between the 14th Ja. detonated with 1000 parts of oxigen gas, nuary and 14th February, was 1000. atiorded 3 parts of carbonic acid gas..
ITALY. Ilydrogen gas obtained from the zinc of In prosecuting the researches at Pome the shops, which had not been sublimed, peli, there has been discovered a large produced the saine quantity of acid as edifice adorned with columns, which the preceding.-A 1000 parts of hydrogen appears to have been one of the chief gas from the solution of iron produced public buildings of the town. 4.5 of acid gas in a similar process. In consequence of a particular report The hydrogen gas from solution of tin in made by the Coinnittee of Arts,' ac muriatic acid afforded 9 parts of carbonic Rome, orders have been issued for the acid. That from the decomposition of repairing, with all possible dispatch, of the water by Volta's pile, 3 parts. --That from two very elegant temples of Vesta and the decomposition of ammonia, 10 parts. Fortuna Tirilis, great part of which yed RUSSIA.
exist between the great sewer and the At Ochotsk, in Siberia, a dreadful gale ancient bridge of the Senate. The of wind from the south-enst, cajne on to former, though the precise period of its wards the end of January, and lasted construction is unknown, appears bowa two days. The waters of the Ochota, ever to have been built about the time which, after passing through the town, of Augustus. This conjecture is founded discharges itself into the sea, were raised on the extreme elegance of its form, the twelve feet above their ordinary level, and variety of its ornaments, and the natore carried wer the tops of the houses. The of the marbles employed in its embellishtempest coming on at night, between two ment. The just lamentations of artists,