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that affords convenience during rainy ing towns in Lancashire, and the west weather or intense heat, the invalids riding of the county of York. There are being able to walk there, secure from wet several shops in the place stocked with or heat; while they reap the additional articles of dress of all descriptions. A benefit of the well and baths, wbich are small commodious theatre is usually well both adjoining to the Crescent, apd the filled by a genteel audience, three erenOld-hali, a large boarding house, formerly ings in every week during the season, the only one of répute at Buxton, but and the performances are oftentimes by now not more frequented than many no means indifferently presented. Three others in the Crescent, and its vicinity evenings in the week there are also balls The Royal Hotel forms one corner of the at the rooms, and in the mornings and building, and contains, besides a number afternoons the public walks and rides of good apartments, a spacious ball-room, are thronged with carriages, persons on fitied up and finished in a style of pecu- horse-back, and parties of gay pedestriliar taste, neatness, and elegance, and ans, whose appearance altogether must universally admired by all who enter it, produce a striking effect upon a stranger, either for dancing, or during the per who, after travelling several hours, (as he formance of divine service, on Sunday must necessarily do, come which way be mornings; the parish-church being sinali, will) over moors and sterile heights, sudand at ioo great a distance to be con denly advances within view of this seveniently atiended by the greatest num- questered spot, rendered gay and lively ber of the invalids. The other corner in its appearance by its stately buildhouse is called the St. Ann's Hotel, froin ings, and its showy, dashing, temporary, its proximity to the well, thus named in inbabitants. honour of its patron saint. It is also a Buxton was famous for its baths, even commodious and spacious building, and in the time of the Romans; and it conusually resorted to by strangers of re- tinues to be much frequented, on the spectability and distinction. The inter- score of both health and amusement, niediate houses are for lodgings and The water is sulphureous and saline, but shops; a library, and news-room, to extremely palatable; and if drank in mowhich both ladies and gentlemen yub. deration, is efficacious in bilious, gravelscribe, and where there is a plentiful ish, and gouty complaints; as the baths supply of diurnal and provincial prints, are likewise in cases of rheumatic, and The well, covered over by a neat stone' paralytic affections of the Derbyshire edifice, is in front of the Crescent, and wonders, as they are usually termed, you the water is served by several women tell me in your last letter you have heard appointed for that purpose, who are paid so much, that your curiosity is quite a trifle by those who drink at the foun- afloat to have my description of them. tain, previous to quitting Buxton.
I fear, however, you will meet only disI be stables are built in the form of a appointment, if you have raised your ex. circus, and are at a little distance from pectations of these wonders so very high. the Crescent, on the opposite bank of a or have cherished the idea, that from me small rivulet. They are likewise com- you will receive romantic Rowery des modious aud extensive; collonaded round scriptions of places, such as were you the inside, for the convenience of the afterwards to visit, you would find fall grooms in wet weather, and in the centre far short of what you had been ied to there is a spacious ride. The pillars imagine. The talent of embellishing which support these arches, are about does not fall to my share; nor should I ten feet in height, and formied each of conceive myself justified'in sending you . one solid stone. The coach-houses are accounts of scenes and objects widely on an extensive scale, a little detached differing from the reality, in order to from the stables, and are said to contain adorn my narrative by Irigh-sounding about three-score carriages. The whole expressions, or romantic images. A building indeed is admirably planned plain unvarnishell detail of occurrences and executed, and the public are greatly and of scenes, is all you must expect indebted to the taste of the architect, as froin me; and as I cannot give a surer to the munificence of the noble propri- proof of my intentions, than by sending etor. There are several good inns and you a short account of my visit to Poole's Judying houses in the upper part of the Hole, a celebrated cavern in the vicinity town, with a number of inferior board. of Buxton, I will conclude ay letter by ing-houses, generally crouded with per- . the few words I have to say on that sub. Sous in the less elegant walks of life, who ject, and reserve for a future epistle my resort thither for amusement and health, excursion to the Peak and other places from the different populous manufacture in the neighbourhood,
Poole's Hole is a natural excavation as they appeared to deem it prudent to Doderneath an hill, about half a mile explore. Having now conducted you from Buxton, into which the curious vi- out of this dismal place, I shall for the sitor is conducted by some hideous-look- present take iny leave of you, and reing old women, with farthing candles main, my dear friend, your's, with esteen stuck betwixt their fingers, and when the and regard,
Tue WANDERER. pale lights gleam on their haggard countenances and tattered garments, they For the Monthly Magazine. really appear most disgusting figures, OBSERVATIONS on the PRESENT STATE of " 80 withered and so wild," that even
the COTTON COLONIES. the witches of Macbeth might be ac- (Concluded from p. 5, of our last.) counted beautiful upon comparison. ITPON an average of three years preThis dark and dismal cavern is reported vious to 1808 (the two succeeding to have been the abode or hiding-place years being omitted on account of the Oba noted robber, of the name of Poole, American decrees and the unusual shortwho must have lived many centuries ness of crops) the plantation expences or ago, and whose rocky bed, parlour, and those incurred before shipmeni came to kitchen, widely differing from the luxe 7d. per Ib. The mercantile charges, uries and conveniences of modern times, including the duties (or those between ale pointed out to observation; as like the shipment and the sale,) amounted to wise an huge column of rock, called the 71d. per lb. So that the whole expence Queen of Scot's Pillar, in honour of that upon every pound of cotton, which must unfortunate princess, who visited this be deducted from the gross proceeds of cavern on the way to her confinement at the sale, is 1s. 24d. Chatsworth, a seat of the duke of De- But during the same period the aveyonshire, and distant from Buxton about rage sale price has never exceeded is. sixteen miles,
11d. per Ib., which leaves after ali dedunThough the entrance to Poole's Hole tions, only 8 d. as the receipt of the is low and inconvenient, it is yet visited proprietor. by all the gay and fine-dressed folks who Now it will readily be granted that, resort to its neighbouring baths; but I in speculations in which there is scarcely have rarely seen any person who are any risk, 10 per cent, upon the capital, peared to be much gratified by a view of after payment of all expences, is the its dismal recesses, or thought theinselves reward expected, and usually received, repaid for the trouble of exploring its Mercantile people know this too well damp unwholesome cavities, by any to require conviction from argument, thing they saw in them. The various Whenever the hazard is increased, the colours of the spar, or congealed waters, premium to the advantages is proportithat bang on the roof and sides, are seen onably augmented. Mr. Lowe, in his to great advantage from the exclusion of excellent pamphlet, has well insisted on External light, and the uncertain blinke the point. It will not be denied that ing of the pitiful luminaries within. In speculations in transatlantic property. admiring these, one may however pay are precarious in an eminent degree, dear for the gratification of his curio. The uncertainty of crops, risk of health sity, as they may chance to have a tum- from climate, of property from the ble and a severe bruise in consequence, enemy, and various other causes, all from the slipperiness of the rocks, which render it so. Ten per cent. then, as the are constantly moist by the wet drop, "lowest reward of speculation, may be piogs from the roof; and it behoves the assumed, as the minimum of return due admirer therefore to take good heed to to the cotton-planter. This will be more his ways, ere he ventures to look around easily conceded, as it is the general upon the beauties of the place, if, in fact, adınission that this is the proper per ! be can discover any in this chilling re- centage of the sugar-planter, and it is gion, where I was benumbed with cold well known that sugar crops are much and damp, and with pleasure bailed a less affected by contingencies of weather, return to the scorching rays of the sun, &c. &c. than those of cotton. in one of the warmest days in June. Assuming then ten per cent. as the This cave is said to be about half a mile reward of the planter, the value of each in length; but I am of opinion it is not acre to be 1401. sterling, and the quanBo much. It is also said that it commu- tity of cotton produced, to be 200lbs., nicates with other caves, at many miles the net receipt of the planter on each distant, but this too I imagine is an ex- pound of cotton wool should be is. 5d. aggeration; for the guides took me, and but the actual sum hie receives is 8fd. the person who accomnanied me, as far a certain loss to him of 84d, ; for if it he
opce granted, as it , undoubtedly must, the value of the produce. The limits of that 10 per cent. is the fair premium, all this essay do not permit further details; below it may be considered as taken out but should circumstances allow, they of the funds of the proprietor.
may perhaps be laid before the public. Such is the state of the British cotton- At present, it inay suffice to state that planter. That of his North Ameriif the North American planter nets 6d. can rival is much superior. Situate in per lb., he can afford to cultivate cotton, the midst of the necessaries of life, he Now the expences of cultivation, of nadepends on himself or his neighbours for vigation, &c. are very trifting. Hence he support. He purchases land at a can always undersell the British planter. cheaper rate, and imported his negroes Similar local adventitious advantages at an inferior expence. Every thing operate in favour of the Brazil planter, diminislies the intrinsic cost of cotton and his receipts from the greater fineness properties in the United States, and the of his produce, are still higher. Yegulations of Great Britain incrcase TABLE of the PRICES of the best COTTON WOOL, per lb. Tbose of inferior quality sell from 28.
to 3d. per lb. less. (A.)
Is. d. s. d. s. d. S. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. $. d. s. 1781 2 24 4 2 71791 1 5 2 6 1 93 1801 2 4 2 9 2 7 1-2 2 31 3 102 101 -2 1 11 20 421 -21 94 2 5 2 0
20 5+ lb the present Time 16 10
1 or 21 11 or 25 31
or 95 31 | 16 108 | 25 2 * In British sirips it pays the same as British produce. + 11. 55. when direct, 211, 11d. indirect, I 11. 55. 3 d. in British bottom. Turkish cotton pays the same.
"TAHLE of cotton 'imported annually into GREAT BRITAIN, from 1797 to 1810.
The condition to which the cotton- but was very unsteady. The average of planter is reduced, as well as the nature the whole term, was a fraction more than of his claims, having been already stated, 1s. 6d. per lb. the next object of attention is bis former - The horizon of the planter seems to situation, which is best learnt from the have been illumined for the next five preceding tables. The inost superficial years (until 1801); for the minimum of observer must be struck with the first the annual average was, during that time, of these, containing the prices of cotton. 2s. 7d. and the maximum 3s. 1d., and Fond from the year 1781 to 1809. . the total average 2s. 74. · Although the annual average fluctu- In the year of peace it fell to the ated very considerably from the com. average of 2s. From that year to 1807, menceinent of that period to the year it fluctuated between 15. 10.1d. and 25. 1788, it never was less than 1s. 11d. 24d., averaging, upon the whole, 25. per lb, while, on a majority of years, it per lb. exceeded 2s. making a total average of The prices during 1808 and 1809 were 2s. 2 d. per lb.
better, but cannot be admitted into a During the next cight years, (from general statement, as they originated in 1788 to 1796) the political derangements causes so novel and unnatural, that a reof Europe produced serere consequences currence of tbein cannot be expected to the colonists. In 1789, cotton-wool during another century. fell to an average of 1s. 5d. In the The average of the current year is subsequent years it rose as high as 25. below 1s. 10d. and will probably be
This head comprises East Indian colton, of which considerable quantities have been iin. ported likewise in the years preteding 1805, and in 1810, but we have not any documents at baod, shewing the quantity in each year..
+ The extraordinary diminution of these two years, arose from the cession of the colonies of Demerary, issequido, Berbicc, and Surinam, to Holand; and from the war, which confined the importation to uur own produce. On the re-capture of the above-nanied colonies, the quantly immediately increased.,