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section of the Union illustrate this fact. The Union armies of the Tennessee, the Cumberland, and the Potomac, under GENERALS SHERMAN, ROSECRANS, THOMAS, and HOOKER, all finally united under GENERAL GRANT, are equally interested in preserving the lines of this extended and notable battle ground.
On the Confederate side the armies of the Tennessee, of Northern Virginia through GENERAL LONGSTREET's corps, of the Mississippi through GENERAL JOHNston's troops, and GENERAL BUCKNER’s army from East Tennessee were all engaged.
The regular army had nine regiments and seven batteries on these fields, while the following eighteen states had troops in the Union army engaged in these movements: Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, and Tennessee. Every Confederate state had troops on these fields, while Kentucky, Missouri, and Tennessee contributed numerously to both armies.
As already stated, the figures show Chickamauga to rank for the numbers engaged and the time of their fighting among the most noted battles of the modern world.
WELLINGTON lost 12 per cent at Waterloo ; NAPOLEON 144 per cent at Austerlitz and 14 per cent at Marengo. The average losses of both armies at Magenta and Solferino, in 1859, was less than 9 per cent. At Königgrätz, in 1866, it was 6 per cent. At Wörth, Mars-la-Tour, Gravelotte, and Sedan, in 1870, the average loss was 12 per cent.
The marvel of German fighting in the Franco-Prussian war was by the Third Westphalian Infantry at Mars-la-Tour. It took 3,000 men into action and lost 49.4 per cent. Next to this record was that of the Garde-Schútzen battalion, 1,000 strong, at Metz, which lost 46.1 per cent. There were several brigades on each side at Chickamauga and very many regiments whose losses exceeded these figures for Mars-la-Tour and Metz.
The average losses on each side for the troops which fought through the two days were fully 33 per cent, while for many portions
of each line the losses reached 50 per cent, and for some even 75 per cent.
A field as renowned as this for the stubborness and brilliancy of its fighting, not only in our own war, but when compared with all modern wars, has an importance to the nation as an object-lesson of what is possible in American fighting, and the national value of the preservation of such lines for historical and professional study must be apparent to all reflecting minds. The political questions which were involved in the contest do not enter into this view of the subject, nor do they belong to it. The proposition for establishing the park is in all its aspects a purely military project.
The Eastern armies have already the noted field of Gettysburg upon which to mark and preserve the history of their movements and their renowned fighting. To this the government has already made liberal appropriations to mark the positions of the regular forces there engaged and for other purposes.
It seems fitting that the Western armies should select a field and be assisted in preserving it by the general government. It is easy to see from the facts presented that there is no other field upon which all the armies were as fully represented. There is probably no other in the world which presents more formidable natural obstacles to great military operations than the slopes of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, while, as shown, there is no field that surpasses Chickamauga in the deadliness and persistence of its fighting.
The tactical movements were numerous and brilliant on each field and many of them remarkable. Indeed, both are as noted in this respect as in the character of the fighting.
There were present upon one or the other and in the case of most, upon both fields, GRANT, SHERMAN, THOMAS, ROSECRANS, HOOKER, SHERIDAN, AND GRANGER, of the Union army, and BRAGG, LONGSTREET, HOOD, HARDEE, BUCKNER, POLK, D. H. Hill, WHEELER, FORREST, and JOHNSTON, of the Confederate forces. The preservation of these fields will preserve to the nation for historical and military study the best efforts which these noted officers, commanding American veterans, were able to put forth.
The two together form one of the most valuable object lessons in the art of war, and one which, looking solely to the interests of the public, may properly be preserved.
Your committee, therefore, recommend the passage of the bill with the amendment on page 6, which is inserted for the purpose of enabling the Secretary of War to take advantage of the whole of the coming season in expediting the establishment of the park, it having been made to appear to your committee that much preliminary work can be done while awaiting the process of condemning the land and the action of the state legislatures in ceding jurisdiction. The accompanying map shows the outlines of the proposed park and the location of the approaches.
An act to establish a national military park at the battle field of Chick
amauga. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That for the purpose of preserving and suitably marking for historical and professional military study the fields of some of the most remarkable maneuvers and most brilliant fighting in the war of the rebellion, and upon the ceding of jurisdiction to the United States by the States of Tennessee and Georgia, respectively, and the report of the Attorney-General of the United States that the title to the lands thus ceded is perfect, the following described highways in those states are hereby declared to be approaches to and parts of the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park as established by the second section of this act, to-wit: First-The Missionary Ridge Crest road from Sherman Heights at the north end of Missionary Ridge, in Tennessee, where the said road enters upon the ground occupied by the Army of the Tennessee under MAJOR-GENERAL WILLIAM T. SHERMAN, in the military operations of November twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth, eighteen hundred and sixty-three; thence along said road through the positions occupied by the army of GENERAL BRAXTON BRAGG on
November twenty-fifth, eighteen hundred and sixty-three, and which were assaulted by the Army of the Cumberland under MAJOR-GENERAL GEORGE H. Thomas on that date, to where the said road crosses the southern boundary of the State of Tennessee, near Rossville Gap, Georgia, upon the ground occupied by the troops of MAJOR-GENERAL JOSEPH HOOKER, from the Army of the Potomac, and thence in the State of Georgia to the junction of said road with the Chattanooga and Lafayette or State road at Rossville Gap; second, the Lafayette or State road from Rossville, Georgia, to Lee and Gordon's Mills, Georgia ; third, the road from Lee and Gordon's Mills, Georgia, to Crawfish Springs, Georgia ; fourth, the road from Crawfish Springs, Georgia, to the crossing of the Chickamauga at Glass' Mills, Georgia; fifth, the Dry Valley road from Rossville, Georgia, to the southern limits of McFarland's Gap in Missionary Ridge; sixth, the Dry Valley and Crawfish Springs road from McFarland's Gap to the intersection of the road from Crawfish Springs to Lee and Gordon's Mills; seventh, the road from Ringold, Georgia, to Reed's Bridge on the Chickamauga River; eighth, the roads from the crossing of Lookout Creek across the northern slope of Lookout Mountain and thence to the old Summertown Road and to the valley on the east slope of the said mountain, and thence by the route of GENERAL JOSEPH HOOKER's troops to Rossville, Georgia, and each and all of these herein described roads shall, after the passage of this act, remain open as free public highways, and all rights of way now existing through the grounds of the said park and its approaches shall be continued.
SEC. 2. That upon the ceding of jurisdiction by the legislature of the State of Georgia, and the report of the Attorney-General of the United States that a perfect title has been secured under the provisions of the act approved August first, eighteen hundred and eighty-eight, entitled "An act to authorize condemnation of land for sites of public buildings, and for other purposes,” the lands and roads embraced in the area bounded as herein described, together with the roads described in section one of this act, are hereby declared to be a national park, to be known as the Chickamauga and Chattanooga
National Park; that is to say, the area inclosed by a line beginning on the Lafayette or State road, in Georgia, at a point where the bottom of the ravine next north of the house known on the field of Chickamauga as the Cloud House, and being about six hundred yards north of said house, due east to the Chickamauga River and due west to the intersection of the Dry Valley road at McFarland's Gap; thence along the west side of the Dry Valley and Crawfish Springs roads to the south side of the road from Crawfish Springs to Lee and Gordon's Mills; thence along the south side of the last named road to Lee and Gordon's Mills; thence along the channel of the Chickamauga River to the line forming the northern boundary of the park, as herein before described, containing seven thousand six hundred acres, more or less.
Sec. 3. That the said Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park, and the approaches thereto, shall be under the control of the Secretary of War, and it shall be his duty, immediately after the passage of this act to notify the Attorney-General of the purpose of the United States to acquire title to the roads and lands described in the previous sections of this act under the provisions of the act of August first, eighteen hundred and eighty-eight; and the said Secretary, upon receiving notice from the Attorney-General of the United States that perfect titles have been secured to the said lands and roads shall at once proceed to establish and substantially mark the boundaries of the said park.
SEC. 4. That the Secretary of War is hereby authorized to enter into agreements, upon such nominal terms as he may prescribe, with such present owners of the land as may desire to remain upon it, to occupy and cultivate their present holdings, upon condition that they will preserve the present buildings and roads, and the present outlines of field and forest, and that they will only cut trees or underbrush under such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, and that they will assist in caring for and protecting all tablets, monuments, or such other artificial works as may from time to time be erected by proper authority.
SEC. 5. That the affairs of the Chickamauga and Chattanooga