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Topeka, which set on foot the system of railroads that now gridirons the state. He was also a member of the first state senate, in 1861.
Such a man could not be inactive when the call to arms came. In the summer of 1861, he was very active in raising the 8th Kansas Infantry; and, in October, when it was organized, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, its first colonel being MAJOR Henry W. WESSELS, of the 6th U. S. Infantry. The young lieutenantcolonel soon became a model officer, under the skillful traiving of his colonel. The early winter was spent in drill and garrison duty at Forts Leavenworth, Riley, and Kearney. In February, 1862, COLONEL WESSELS was called to Washington, to resume command of his own regiment in the regular service, and the command of the 8th Kansas devolved on LIEUTENANT-COLONEL MARTIN. The spring was passed in varied and useful service on the borders of Kansas and Missouri. In June came orders sending it to Corinth, Mississippi, where it was assigned to the division of BRIGADIER-GENERAL JEFF. C. Davis, of the Army of Mississippi. The regiment was in a high state of discipline, and GENERAL ROSECRANS stated to COLONEL MARTIN that "no volunteer regiment in the army had received so favorable report from the inspector.”
After a short service here, Davis's division was sent to Tennessee to reinforce the army under GENERAL BUELL. On September 3d, the 8th Kansas reached Nashville, and thus became part and parcel of the Army of the Cumberland.
With that army, it marched through Kentucky, in pursuit of BRAGG. At the battle of Perryville, on the 7th of October, 1862, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL MARTIN commanded his regiment with skill and courage. Ho had been assigned to MITCHELL'S division, which, in the battle, made the principal aggressive movement. But the 8th Kansas was in reserve, and had no opportunity to show its real quality. It took active part in the pursuit of the retreating rebel army, as far as Lancaster. At Bowling Green, on the first of November, while on the return to Nashville, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL MARTIN received his commission as colonel of the regiment he had so long and efficiently commanded.
At Nashville, it was made provost-guard of the city, of which COLONEL MARTIN was appointed provost-marshal, on the 20th of September. It was a most exacting and irksome position. The whole army was encamped about the town, which was also overrun with convalescents, camp followers of both sexes, and all the debased characters that are found in the wake of a great army. COLONEL Martin, at all times, displayed vigilance, good judgment, courage, and decision. He was only twenty-three years of age, yet he gave an example of just and firm and faithful government which few men could surpass. During the time he served as provost-marshal, law and order were maintained, and he gained the respect of both citizens and soldiers.
In June, 1863, when the army advanced from Murfreesboro, COLONEL MARTIN rejoined his old brigade, taking an active part in the Tullahoma and Middle Tennessee campaign. He was assigned to the 31 Brigade (HEG's), Davis's division, 20th Corps, and with it crossed the mountain ranges, and found itself, on the night of September 18th, on the borders of Chickamauga. In the terrific contest of the 19th, COLONEL HEG, brigade commander, was killed about the middle of the afternoon, and the command of the brigade fell to COLONEL MARTIN. The fierce fight of the next day, and its sad disasters, are parts of the same story. COLONEL MARTIN bravely and coolly led his command where the fight was hottest, and withdrew, at last, under orders. Out of the 1,218 men who went into action on the morning of September 19th, 586 were killed and wounded, and 110 missing, when night fell on the 20th-a total of nearly 700, or almost sixty per cent of the number engaged. His own regiment, the 8th Kansas, lost 220 out of 406, with only 25 missing.
When, at Chattanooga, the army was reorganized, the 8th Kansas was assigned to Willicu's brigade, Wood's division, 4th Corps. Of the conduct of the regiment under COLONEL MARTIN, at the capture of Orchard Knob, November 230, GENERAL WILLICH says: “Only a short time before, the 8th Kansas had been attached to my old brigade. The splendid advance of its skirmish line established between it and the old regiments of my brigade a feeling of companionship and mutual confidence.” In the magnificent assault on Missionary Ridge, on the 25th, COLONEL MARTIN was among the first to reach the summit. Afterward, he was among those who marched to the relief of GENERAL BURNSIDE at Knoxville. He passed the winter at Dandridge in command of the brigade.
Returning to Chattanooga, he took part in the Atlanta campaign, commanding his regiment from May 4 till August 25, 1864, when he was again assigned to command the 3d brigade, 3d division, Ath Corps. In this position he served till his muster out, November 17, 1864, on the expiration of bis term of service. In February, 1865, he received the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers " for faithful and meritorious services.”
Returning once more to civil life, he took up the occupation he had laid down when he entered the military service. He brought to his duties enlarged experience and greater vigor of mind and body. In March, 1865, his paper, hitherto a weekly, was made a daily. Even this additional labor did not exhaust his vitality or his round of duties. Perhaps no citizen of Kansas ever served in so many and so important trusts. In 1865, he was elected mayor of Atchison. Subsequently, and for twelve years, he was postmaster of that city. In 1884, he was chosen governor of the state, and was re-electod in 1886, filling that high position for four years with fidelity and dignity. He was a member of the Republican National Committee from 1868 to 1884, and for four years its secretary. He was one of the commissioners at the Centennial Exhibition, at Philadelphia, in 1876. He was one of the founders of the “Kansas Magazine ;” a member of the Kansas Historical Society, and its president. From 1878 to his death, he was one of the managers of the National Soldiers' Home. In all his undertakings, he was faithful, painstaking, and trustworthy. In civil life he showed the same qualities that distinguished him as a soldier-steadfastness, devotion, a high sense of honor, a calm courage that never wavered, perfect sincerity, strict integrity, and indominable industry.
In January, 1889, at the expiration of his gubernatorial term,
he returned to Atchison and resumed his editorial duties. He was then forty-nine years old, in the very prime of life, his strong frame apparently unbroken, even seeming strengthened by the passing of
His friends looked for nothing, wished nothing, for him save length of days and a healthy old age, like that of his father before him. Suddenly, a paragraph from · his own hand announced the call of a stranger upon him-illness. He suffered quietly and patiently, as was his wont. Words of sympathy and expressions of gratitude from comrades and friends cheered him. But nothing could hinder the “inevitable hand."
COLONEL MARTIN, as he liked to be called, cherished with peculiar affection and tenacity his military associations. Early a comrade of the Grand Army of the Republic, he was commander of the state department. He joined the Society of the Army of the Cumberland in 1870, and was, for many years, a vice-president for Kansas. He was one of the charter members of the Kansas Commandery of the Loyal Legion, and, at his death, was senior vice-commander.
His funeral was the occasion of the most imposing and affecting meeting ever known in the state. GENERAL McCook, with a detachment of troops from Fort Leavenworth, formed the funeral escort, which consisted of members of numerous military and civil organizations, with the state officials. Although, at his death, a private citizen, the courts adjourned on the announcement of his decease. The governor summoned a special meeting of the officers of the state, at which resolutions were adopted giving "public expression to the great loss the people of Kansas had suffered." The Deep Harbor Convention, consisting of delegates from all the states between Kausas and the gulf, then in session at Topeka, adopted a similar tribute.. His associates in the newspaper he had so long conducted were most fondly attached to him. One of them writes : “ COLONEL MARTIN was most attracted by heroism in actual life. His ideal was a certain brave steadfastness. His blood was more stirred to hear of the courage that dies defending than of onsets and charges. His hero was GEORGE H. THOMAS, the “Rock of Chickamauga,' whose portrait hangs over the fire-place in his library.”
GENERAL MARTIN was married, June 1, 1871, to Miss IDA CHALLIS, of Atchison, who, with seven children, survives him. As a husband and father, the story of his life may be summed up in the lines :
“The bravest are the tenderest;
COLONEL LEONARD A. HARRIS.
HARRIS.-Died, in Cincinnati, Ohio, July 5, 1890, LEONARD A. Harris, late Colonel of the 2d, and the 137th, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, aged 63 years, 9 months, and 25 days.
LEONARD A. HARRIS was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, October 11, 1826, and that city continued his home till the day of his death. His early life was one of considerable deprivation, and his only schooling was that gained in the public schools of his native city; but his love of learning was insatiable, and he made himself an educated man by earnest and diligent study throughout his life.
His youthful experiences were the common ones for boys so born and reared. In his early manhood, he took an active interest in politics, and was from its beginning a member of the Republican party. In 1856, he was candidate for sheriff of Hamilton county, barely missing election. He was also interested in military affairs.
At the very outbreak of the war, he was commissioned captain of Company A, 2d Ohio Infantry, and as such was mustered into the service of the United States, April 17, 1861, two days after the issuing of the President's proclamation. His regiment was one of the first to march to Washington, and was in GENERAL SCHENCK's brigade at the battle of Bull Run. On the muster-out of the regiment, at the end of three months, it was reorganized with the same number, and CAPTAIN HARRIS was commissioned colonel, to rank from August 5, 1861. Under his command, the regiment was sent into Kentucky, and was placed on duty there under GENERAL O. M. Mitchel and