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BREVET MAJOR-GENERAL JULIUS WHITE.
WHITE.- Died, in Chicago, Illinois, May 12, 1890, JULIUS WHITE, late Brevet Major-General, U. S. Volunteers, aged 73 years, 7 months, 14 days.
JULIUS WHITE was born at Cazenovia, N. Y., September 29, 1816. Of his early years no record is at hand, but he was well born, well taught, and well principled.
Quite early in life he went to Chicago, when that great city was in the first struggles of its marvelous growth. He was living there a life of ease and comfort, and had almost reached the age of exemption from military duty when the war of the Rebellion summoned him to new duties. He raised the 37th Illinois Infantry, and was mustered into service as its colonel on the 18th of September, 1861. He was at once sent to Missouri, then the chief scene of military activity, and in December was placed in command of the 2d Brigade, 3d Division, Army of the South-west, commanded by MAJOR-GENERAL S. R. CURTIS. Under that general he took an active and gallant part in the battle of Pea Ridge.
On the 9th of June, 1862, he was promoted to be brigadier-general of volunteers, and ordered east. Here he took part in the unfortunate and ill-starred campaign which resulted in the evacuation of Winchester, where he was in command, and the subsequent surrender of Harper's Ferry by GENERAL D. S. MILEs. Both of these operations were investigated by a court of inquiry, of which GENERAL HUNTER was president, and in both the conduct of GENERAL WHITE received the highest commendation. The judgment of the court in regard to the evacuation of Winchester was that it was in accordance with orders from the general in chief, and that “he conducted the move as a cool and capable officer.” In regard to Harper's Ferry, the court found that “ of the subordinate officers
there was nothing that calls for censure. On the contrary, GENERAL JULIUS White merits approbation. He appears to have acted with decided capability and courage.”
In the subsequent reorganization, GENERAL WHITE was assigned to the Army of Ohio, under GENERAL BURNSIDE. He took part in the East Tennessee campaign, and when the 9th Corps returned east, accompanied it, serving with credit and distinction till his resignation on the 19th of November, 1864, after more than three years of gallant and faithful service. On the 13th of March, 1865, he was brevetted major-general, for “gallant and meritorious services during the war.”
He returned to Chicago, where he once more took up the active duties of civil life. At the time of his death, GENERAL WHITE had just been elected commander of the Illinois Commandery of the Loyal Legion, a position into which he was never installed. Within a week after his election, he was no longer living.
The commandery, in the record made of him after his death, says: “He was a brave soldier-a man who performed thoroughly and well all the duties which the fortunes of war and the claims of civil life put upon him; and the world is better for his having passed through it."
COLONEL JOHN A. MARTIN.
MARTIN.—Died, in Atchison, Kansas, October 2, 1889, John A. MARTIN, late Colonel of the 8th Kansas Volunteer Infantry and Brevet BrigadierGeneral, U.S. Volunteers, aged 50 years, 6 months, 23 days.
JOHN ALEXANDER MARTIN was born at Brownsville, a little town in the south-western part of Pennsylvania, on the Monongahela river, March 10, 1839. Through his mother, he was kindred to the brave COLONEL CRAWFORD, the story of whose cruel death at the hands of Indians long chilled the blood, as it was told by the borderers' fires at night. Ho was also of kin with the sturdy families which founded his native town-the BROWNS, the BLAINES, the Gil
LESPIES. He passed his boyhood in Brownsville, attending the school of “MASTER” GIBBONS, of whom he spoke in after years with reverence and affection, holding him up as a model teacher.
At the age of 15, he began to learn, in the office of the “Brownsville Cliffs," the art of printing--at a time when printing was taught as an art, and apprenticeship served as an education. His employer, MR. HURD, was his instructor, especially in English grammar, which was taught to the apprentices after the labors of the day.
Early in 1857, young Martin, then eighteen years old, found employment as compositor in the office of the “Commercial Journal," of Pittsburg. He had already become profoundly interested in the stirring politics of that time, though yet in his minority. In October, of 1857, he moved, with his father's family, to the rising young town of Atchison, Kansas, then the very hot-bed of dissension and strife. He was young, strong, handsome, master of his trade, full of zeal for freedom. These were qualifications enough. He at once began the work which he never laid down while life lasted. He threw himself with a boy's ardor, yet with a man's steadfast devotion, into the great conflict for freedom in Kansas.
In February, 1858, before he was nineteen years old, he bought the “Squatter-Sovereign," a border-ruffian paper of the most vindictive character, which he at once re-named, in harmony with its new and noble mission, “Freedom's Champion.” On the 20th of that month, he began his editorial career, which lasted for more than thirty years. On the day of his death, the "Atchison Champion” still bore, at the head of its columns, the legend, "JOHN A. MARTIN, Publisher and Proprietor."
Fully to write his life would be to write a large part of the history of Kansas. He was one of the organizers of the Republican party there. He was, in 1859, secretary of the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, which framed the present constitution of Kansas. In 1860, he was chosen to the state senate, and was barely of age at the close of his term. He was delegate to the National Republican Convention, in 1860, at which ABRAHAM LINCOLN was nominated for President. Later, he was secretary of the great railroad convention at
Topeka, which set on foot the system of railroads that now gridirons the state. He was also a member of the first state senate, in 1861.
Such a man could not be inactive when the call to arms came. In the summer of 1861, he was very active in raising the 8th Kansas Infantry; and, in October, when it was organized, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, its first colonel being MAJOR HENRY W. WESSELS, of the 6th U. S. Infantry. The young lieutenantcolonel soon became a model officer, under the skillful training of his colonel. The early winter was spent in drill and garrison duty at Forts Leavenworth, Riley, and Kearney. In February, 1862, COLONEL WESSELS was called to Washington, to resume command of his own regiment in the regular service, and the command of the 8th Kansas devolved on LIEUTENANT-COLONEL MARTIN. The spring was passed in varied and useful service on the borders of Kansas and Missouri. In June came orders sending it to Corinth, Mississippi, where it was assigned to the division of BRIGADIER-GENERAL JEFF. C. Davis, of the Army of Mississippi. The regiment was in a high state of discipline, and GENERAL ROSECRANS stated to COLONEL MARTIN that “no volunteer regiment in the army had received so favorable report from the inspector."
After a short service here, Davis's division was sent to Tennessee to reinforce the army under GENERAL BUELL. On September 3d, the 8th Kansas reached Nashville, and thus became part and parcel of the Army of the Cumberland.
With that army, it marched through Kentucky, in pursuit of BRAGg. At the battle of Perryville, on the 7th of October, 1862, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL MARTIN commanded his regiment with skill and courage. Ho had been assigned to MITCHELL'S division, which, in the battle, made the principal aggressive movement. But the 8th Kansas was in reserve, and had no opportunity to show its real quality. It took active part in the pursuit of the retreating rebel army, as far as Lancaster. At Bowling Green, on the first of November, while on the return to Nashville, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL MARTIN received his commission as colonel of the regiment he had so long and efficiently commanded.
At Nashville, it was made provost-guard of the city, of which COLONEL MARTIN was appointed provost-marshal, on the 20th of September. It was a most exacting and irksome position. The whole army was encamped about the town, which was also overrun with convalescents, camp followers of both sexes, and all the debased characters that are found in the wake of a great army. COLONEL MARTIN, at all times, displayed vigilance, good judgment, courage, and decision. He was only twenty-three years of age, yet he gave an example of just and firm and faithful government which few men could surpass. During the time he served as provost-marshal, law and order were maintained, and he gained the respect of both citizens and soldiers.
In June, 1863, when the army advanced from Murfreesboro, COLONEL MARTIN rejoined his old brigade, taking an active part in the Tullahoma and Middle Tennessee campaign. He was assigned to the 3d Brigade (HEG's), Davis's division, 20th Corps, and with it crossed the mountain ranges, and found itself, on the night of September 18th, on the borders of Chickamauga. In the terrific contest of the 19th, COLONEL HEG, brigade commander, was killed about the middle of the afternoon, and the command of the brigade fell to COLONEL MARTIN. The fierce fight of the next day, and its sad disasters, are parts of the same story. COLONEL MARTIN bravely and coolly led his command where the fight was hottest, and withdrew, at last, under orders. Out of the 1,218 men who went into action on the morning of September 19th, 586 were killed and wounded, and 110 missing, when night fell on the 20th-a total of nearly 700, or almost sixty per cent of the number engaged. His own regiment, the 8th Kansas, lost 220 out of 406, with only 25 missing.
When, at Chattanooga, the army was reorganized, the 8th Kansas was assigned to WILLICH's brigade, Wood's division, 4th Corps. Of the conduct of the regiment under COLONEL MARTIN, at the capture of Orchard Knob, November 23d, GENERAL WILLICH says: “Only a short time before, the 8th Kansas had been attached to my old brigade. The splendid advance of its skirmish line established be