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CHAPTER XI.

ABOMINABLE ABUSE OF POWER IN OUR RELATIONS WITH THE INDIANS.

Protection guarantied by treaty to the Indians—Some extracts from these trea-

ties—How interpreted by Mr. Calhoun—Trampled upon by General Jackson-
A Circular Address to the Indians—A very essential modification—A thrust at
the Cherokees—Newspaper comments_Dr. Randolph in the fidgets—Leave of
absence—Dismissed from office-Charges of defalcation—Four years persecu-
tion_Mr. Berrien's influence in the treatment of the Cherokees—The treaty (?)
of New Euchota-Repudiated by the Cherokees—Force to be employed-Ge-
neral Scott—Ridge's apology for the New Euchota treaty_Formation of a new
government west of the Mississippi—The Ridges and Boudinot killed—Refusal
to recognize the Cherokee delegation at Washington—My interview with
Mr. Poinsett—A new treaty proposed—Mr. Van Buren’s objections—A diplo-
matic way of getting round them—A plan proposed to bring the Seminole war
to a close_More diplomacy, ending in treachery-Vindication of John Ross-
Further developments of the injustice done to the Cherokees—The treaty of
Payne's Landing—Jackson's.“ talk”-Outrages upon the Florida Indians—In-
dian talk-Micanopy—Jumper—Osceola—The mad policy which provoked the
Florida war..

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MEMOIRS.

CHAPTER I.

PUBLIC OFFICE-ITS DUTIES, DIFFICULTIES AND DANGERS. First appointment to office-System of government trade with the Indians–Tra

ding companies and individuals—Contrast between the two systems—American Fur Company—John Jacob Astor—Missouri Fur Company—Difficulty of supplying the factories during the war–Unsuitable stock on hand at its closeLoss in disposing of it—Satisfaction of the Indians on receiving the new supplies—Clerks in the office-Miles, the trusty messenger-Inestimable value of competent and faithful clerks-Folly and wickedness of proscription-Transfer of the property of the Indian trade establishment-Increase of the capital-Assailed by Mr. Benton—The reply—Mr. Monroe's opinion-Payment of Indian annuities—Caution in keeping the accounts—Charged with defalcation-Mysterious disappearance of vouchers—Duplicates produced—Accounts settled — Charges of defalcation reiterated-Rules adopted in purchasing articles for the Indians-Anonymous charges of favoritism—Discomforts of office—Accounts kept open.

I owe my first connection with our Indian relations, and the first civil trust conferred upon me, to the confidence of PRESIDENT MADISON, who, unsolicited by myself, and, so far as I know, by any one for me, honored me, on the 2d April, 1816, with the commission of “Superintendent of the l'nited States Indian Trade with the Indian Tribes." I had been informed, a few days previous, of the intention of President Madison to call me to the discharge of the duties of this office, but had never spoken to him on the

VOL. I.

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