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FORCE is the degree of loudness and energy of vocal sound. Moderate Force is that which is used in ordinary narration or description.

Soft or Weak Force is that which is used to express caution, fear, secrecy, solemnity, and tender emotions; as, Softly, peacefully, lay her to rest.

Loud or Strong Force is that which is used to express violent passion, or strong emotions of joy, hate, revenge, grief, and dignity; as, Strike-till the last armed foe expires!


1. In peace, there's nothing so becomes a man

As modest stillness and humility.

2. He sinks into thy depths with bubbling groan,
Without a grave, unknelled, uncoffined, and unknown.

3. I see you stand like greyhounds in the slips

Straining upon the start. The game's afoot;
Follow your spirit; and, upon this charge
Cry-God for Harry! England! and St. George!

QUALITY is the kind of tone used in speaking or reading.

The Pure Quality is a clear, smooth, flowing tone, uttered in the middle pitch, and is used when not much feeling or emotion is expressed.

The Orotund Quality is the pure tone deepened, and is used to express pathetic, grand, and sublime emotions; as, Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean-roll!

The Guttural Quality is a deep undertone, and is used to express hatred, contempt, aversion, and loathing; as, Thou slave, thou coward. thou wretch!

Th Aspirated Quality is not properly a vocal sound, but a whispered utterance used to express secrecy, fear, terror, and remorse; as, "Silence!" in undertones they cry.


1. We live in deeds, not years, in thoughts, not breaths,

In feelings, not in figures on a dial.

2. O thou Eternal One! whose presence bright

All space doth occupy, all motion guide.

3. You call me misbeliever, cut-throat dog,
And spit upon my Jewish gaberdine,
And all for that which is mine own.

4. Hush! lightly tread; still tranquilly she sleeps.
I've watched, suspending e'en my breath, in fear
To break the heavenly spell. Move silently.

Delivery is the expression of thought by means of words and actions.

Perfect delivery, then, is the result of a mastery of every principle and art of elocution: - enunciation, emphasis, tone, earnestness, expression, action. Gestures must depend mainly upon the earnestness of the speaker's conception of what he is to utter. No one can portray character unless he can realize it, and he can realize it only by making it his own for the time, and by expressing himself exactly as a person would do in the supposed situation, and so "suit the action to the word, the word to the action."

Action has been defined as the beginning, the middle, and the end of oratory. It is shown chiefly by the expression and the management of the eye, and by the motions of the hand, although thought may be expressed or enforced by various movements of the body. "When all the powers of elocution are brought into requisition, - the voice, with all its thrilling tones; the eye, through which, as a window, the soul darts forth its light; the whole glowing countenance; the whole breathing frame:- when every motion speaks, every muscle swells with the inspiration of high thoughts: - what instrument of music, what glories of the canvas can equal it? It is beauty, genius, power, sublimity, in their most glorious exercise."


"So they read in the book in the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading."

Nehemiah viii. 8.

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