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posterits. Not to speak of my own humble labors in this behalf, the fortunate detectors of these obsolete relics of genius will take place with the distinguished sons of erudition who brought to light the celebrated tablet,


U. M.

S. M.

ARK." and with the happy discoverers of the drinking horn and letters,

" HARDENVT." an acknowledgment which has consigned to immortality the names Gough and GEORGE STEVENS.

For the satisfaction of the learned, however, I take this occasion to announce that I have in progress, and nearly ready for publication, by subscription, a variorum edition of " YANKEE Doodle,” in one volume, folio, with appropriate maps and plates ; the title page and a specimen of which I subjoin :

“Bacididov Xcov ta Aciroueva. Basilidis Chii quæ extant omnia. Textum ad præstantissimas editiones recognitum, et præcipua varietate, nec non VV. DD. conjecturis instructum, prolegomenis et excursibus, varii argumenti, donavit, notisque perpetuis et ad æstheticen, historiam, geographiam, mythologiam, archæologiam, remque musicam spectantibus, illustravit Porson Junior, L. L. D. etc.

Proæmium-Hoc pulcherrimi Carminis fragmentum servavit Bedrotus, in suâ Alken. Omn. Op. editione, in notulis ad finem tom. ter. adjectis. Finis desideratur Grammatici Basilio cuidam adscripserunt, et hui opinioni Bedrotus eruditissimus assentit. Sed quis fuerit Basilius iste, et quando vixerit, omnino latet. Basilius Maximus cognominatus, de rebus ecclesiasticis auctor celeberrimus, circiter A. D. CCCXXVI, in Cappadociâ, floruit; et post hnnc, Basilius Seleuciæ Episcopus, A. D. CCCCXL; sed inter præclaru eorum scripta nulla hujus carminis vestigia extant. Malim Basilidi Chio, Herodoti patri, adscribere; de quo Herod. Lib. VIII. c. 132, lector eruditus adeat.

Poema totum, innumerabilibus penè mendis scaturientem, ad pristinum scnsum revocavi. “Too Avvlov 'Ypvos” Bedrotus, et post hunc, Schweighaeuser clarissimus edidit; sed non animadvertêre homines docti, (id quod rectè notavit auctor quidem eruditissimus, Robertus Lowth, de Sacrâ Poës. Heb. Pral. XXV.) Carmen omni cautioni destinatum, sive assâ voce, sive fidibus conjunctis, canendum, Græci wdnu appellant.” Nil moror quod Tyrwhittius Ricardi Dawesii Miscellaneis Criticis adjecit, To Exodcov fuisse carminis genus, a veteribus Atheniensibus in conviviis caniari solitum;"* quia won nomen generalissimum ra cxodia includit. Itaque “H Tov Arxlov lön" edidi, et procul dubio sic Basilides.


Πατηρ κα'γω, συν λοχαγω,

Εις σταθμούς ηλασαμεν
Έχει παιδαςτε και κορας

'Ως κριμνον, ωρασαμεν.

* Pickwick Papers.
+ See Gentleinan's Magazine.
+ Vid. Daw. Miscell. crit. p. 663, ad. fi:1. Ed. Sec. Lond. MDCCCXXVII.

Στροφη. .
Στου κορμος ψιλοειν, ,
Τροχοι αμαξης στρεφειν
Σε καταφερετο Σατανας!
Υπερος ολμου κοπτειν.

Ιαγχε δουλε, ανδροειν!
Ιαγχε δουλε,


(Hiatus valde defiendus.)


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Haec ode est dicolos, distrophos. Metrum est lambicum. Prior quisque versus est dimeter; alter quisque dimeter catalectus.

V V. 1, 2. Sic editores omnes quos viderim ; quod quidem mihi ferri non posse videtur. Enimvero qui Prosodiæ student observare possint, Aoxayos penultimam producere: e. g.

Αυδω λοχαγοις, οι τιταχθε πιμπραναι. (Troad. 1260, Ed. Dind.) Contra naagapev penultimam corripit; quoniam et in aorista et in futuro, penultima semper corripitur, nisi quæ in aw purum, vel in


desinunt. Tamen persaepe illa poetica geminatio occurrit, ut stepaprav pro enepasav. Sic Hom. Il. XI. 676. Ληιδα δ' εκ πεδιά συνελασσαμεν ηλιθα πολλα.

. Quae guidem licentia hic locum habere non possit; nam ηλασαμμεν pro ηλασαμεν scribere non licentia est poetica, sed aliâ nimirum linguâ est loqui. Scribere ergo non dubitem,

Πατηρ κα'γω ηλασαμεν

Εις σταθμους συν λοχαγω quod quidem Prosodiæ rationem mirabiliter servat, et ad vernaculi interpretationis ordinem et verba, magis consentameum est.

V. 4. Ως κριμνον, κ. τ. λ.

Kpruvov, farina crassior, mica, Anglicè—" Hasty Pudding,” Vid. noias, ad fin. patria lingua exaratas. Ωρασαμεν. Quemadmodum ωρασαμεν penultimam producit, vid. sup. in vv. 1. 2. Quæ in aw purum, vel paw, purum imprurumve desinent, ca omnia (ni fallor,) penultimam istam, et in aorista et in futuro producunt,-ex. gratia. Kyunu te destepaoEv Apycrov dopv. Eurip. Phæniss, 1403. et vid. quac vir clar. Sam: Clark in Hom. II. Lib. 1. v. 67, annotavit.

V. 5. Σιτου, κ. τ. λ. Αlii, Πελαργος θριχας ψιλοειν ; sed inepte, quod quidem interpretatio antiqua Anglica planè demonstret. “Corn-stalks twist your hair," etc. Nam si to Texapyos—(Lat. “Ciconia,Ang. “stork”) retineretur, reddendum esset linguá Americanâ, “Corn Storks ;”-quod perinde est; nam ciconiarum nullum cst genus quod triticeum" vel “farreum,” vocatur. Opixas quoque supervacaneum csset, quod vet. cod. omn. reperitur, Eirov-Sc. milium Indicum: linquâ vernacla—"CORN.''

V. 6. Tpoxou quaśns otpoMc1v, . 7.d. Anglicè—"Cart-wheels surround you!” Hâc quidem sententiâ nihil unquam fuit ad commovendos affectus, neque excogitatum exquisitius neque elegantius dictum!

V V. 8, 9. laγχε δουλε ανδροειν ! etc. Οι δε παλαιοι φασι και οτι το ρημα, βομβιδες ον l@aowv exel, k. T. 1. Eustathius in loc. Qui plura velint Eustath: in Hom. Lib XVI. v. 379, adeant."

Having given, for the benefit of the learned, this specimen of my method of annotation in the forthcoming edition, I shall proceed briefly to suggest some of the curious and valuable illustrations,

both of national history and literature, which may be derived from this recovered relic of a former age.

YANKEE DOODLE, the popular name of our national medody, has exercised the critical ingenuity of the most eminent scholars and lexicographers. Some have had the folly to regard it as wholly insensate and ridiculous; others have supposed it to be the echo or imitation of some bird or animal, known to the earliest inhabitants of this continent, but now extinct. Such imitations are sometimes embodied in the Greek plays, as in the celebrated chorus of frogs in Aristophanes

Βρεκεκεκεξ, κουαξ κοαξ,

(Aristoph, Ran. 209-10 Ed. Dind.) which so much annoyed Dionysius in his passage over the Styx.

Others, with that reverence for antiquity which characterizes the true scholar, have sought for the origin and meaning of the words in the Saxon and German languages, and some have supposed them to be of Indian origin. Heckewelder, and after him the truly learned Dr. Webster, consider “Yankee" as an Indian corruption of “ English.” This and other theories equally fanciful will be fully discussed in the excursuses to the forthcoming edition. Happily, all doubt upon the question has been dissipated by the discovery of the original text. The melody must hereafter be known by the name we have given it, “IANKHE DOULE,” being in fact the Greek words IAΓΧΕ ΔΟΥΛΕ;-Ιάγχε the imperative perfect of the rule IAINN, (to rejoice) and Alūs from soīdos (a slave):—meaning “Rejoice, O slave!” or “Let the enslaved rejoice!”-Thus. what was before obscure and insensate becomes at once lucid and beautifully pertinent to a free nation.

This derivation, were it even conjectural, and not founded, as it is, upon irrefragable proof, would be no more indirect and equivocal than Dean Swift's celebrated etymology of “ Peloponnesus,” which it is not necessary for us to repeat; or Bailey's Hocus pocus," from Hoc est corpus meum," used at the moment of transubstantiation, in the Romish service; or “helter-skelter," from hilariter et celeriter”--the benediction of the priest at the breaking up of the assembly.

Other and more important inferences, however, may be drawn from this valuable discovery. The American version is evidently indigenous, and has not been transmitted through the English, to whom indeed, the original appears to be wholly unknown. There is internal proof of this in the fragment itself. Kgiuvov, (v. 4) is a coarse mealy pudding of Indian corn, a grain to which the English were strangers until the discovery of America. This popular condiment called “Hasty PUDDING " in the American version, is certainly not of English origin, and even the name is scarcely known abroad.

Hear what the poet says of this truly antique and national article of food, Hasty Pudding.

For thee through Paris, that corrupted town,
How long, in vain, I wandered up and down;
Where shameless Bacchus with his drenching hoard,
Cold from his cave, usurps the smoaking board.
London is lost in smoke and steeped in tea:
No Yankee there can lisp the name of thee ;
The uncouth word, a libel on the town,

Would call a proclamation from the crown. * Nor is the name known on the continent, as we learn from the same high authority:

Thee the soft nations round the warm Levant,
Polanta call, the French of course Polante.
E'en in thy native regions, how I blush,
To hear the Pennsylvanians call thee mush!
On Hudson's banks, while men of Belgic spawn
Insult and eat thee by the name suppawn.
All spurious appellations void of truth;
I've known thee better from my carliest youth,

Thy name is Hasty-Pudding! Yet even this distinguished patriot and poet little suspected the antiquity of his favorite dish, as he could trace it no farther back than the aborigines of America

Declare what lovely squaw, in days of yore,
Ere great Columbus sought thy native shore,

First gave thee to the world;" &c. &c.t Again, the expression Eirou xoguos, in v. 5. evidently refers to the same American grain,--.“ corn stalks,” in the only sense the passage admits of, being unknown in England. Thus a fair and conclusive inference may be drawn from this brief relic, that Indian corn was known to the Greeks, at least four hundred and fifty years before Christ; that is, in the time of Herodotus ; a fact which throws much light upon the origin of the aborigines of America, and may yet afford a clue to unravel that mysterious enigma. Indeed it may not unlikely be found, upon further inquiry, that the Greeks and the aborigines of this continent both derived this sublime production from a common and more ancient source-from the Sanscrit or Persian for instance—and thus may be discovered the origin of the literature of both races. Molière borrowed his Amphitrion (as he did many of his comedies) from Plautus ; Plautus translated it from the Greek, and, as all scholars know, it has been discovered by Dow in the Hindostanee!

The Ephesian Matron of La Fontaine was avowedly taken from the Italian; the Italians derived it from Petronius, and Petronius from the Greek. It has since, as we know, been discovered in the * Barlow's “Hasty Pudding,” Canto I. Ib.

Arabian Tales; and finally Du Halde detected the same tale among the versions made by the Jesuits from the Chinese! But these speculations are leading me too far.

The Greeks, it is well known, had different songs for the various trades, for the names of many of which I must refer the learned reader to Athenæus.* The corn-grinders, the workers in wool, the weavers, the reapers, the kneaders, the bathers, and the galleyrowers, had each their respective songs. Athenæus has not preserved

any of them, but we have, from another source the song of Callistratus, to the glory of Harmodius and Aristogiton, which we learn from current Grecian literaturc, was sung by the potter at his wheel, and the mariner on his bench. We have an anonymous translation of the “crow song," (which is preserved in Athenæus,) commencing as follows:

My good worthy masters, a pittance bestow,
Some oat meal or barley or wheat for the crow;
A loaf, or a penny, or e’en what you will
From the poor man, a grain of his salt may suffice,
For your crow swallows all and is not over nice;
And the man who can now give his grain and no more,

May, another day, give from a plentiful store, &c. But once again I forbear to follow out this inexhaustible subject; leading as it does to innumerable conjectures and inquiries interesting to the scholar and archæologist. All these matters will be discussed, at length, in the forthcoming edition of the poem. Indeed I am not without strong hopes of discovering the original of several other celebrated and popular ballads. Among them, the elegiac verses commencing

Heigh diddle diddle,

The Cat's in the fiddle!” &c. &c. bear a strong resemblance to the celebrated Greek ode,

A Ιδάλια ! Ιδαλια ! and are not unlike, in metre, to Horace's

Eheu fugaces,

Postume ! Postume! Car. Lib. II. 14. I shall not, however, any longer tantalize the curious with further indications of my discoveries, but subscribe myself, very respectfully,

Your obedient servant

Porson JUNIOR.

• Deip. Lib. XIV. Cap. 3.

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