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they remained three days, and consumed all their provisions. On the first of October they left this “dismal place," and after rowing twelve leagues, came to a village of the Poutouatamies, who came to the shore to receive them, but La Salle declined landing, and obliged his men to row three leagues further. They carried their canoes ashore, and Hennepin bore on his shoulders his brother missionary, Gabriel, whose years forbade his entering into the water. Not knowing what the disposition of the inhabitants might be, they fortified a rising ground as well as they could, and sent three men to the Poutouatami village, bearing the calumet, to purchase provisions. “ The calumet is the most mysterious thing in the world,' says Hennepin, and he devotes a page and a half to the description of it.

Their refusal to land had alarmed the villagers, and when the three men arrived they found the village deserted. They took some Indian corn, and left some goods in place of it, to show that they were not public robbers. In the mean time about twenty of the Indians had gone round to where the rest of the party had remained. La Salle amused them until the return of the men with the calumet, at sight of which, giving a great shout, they rose and began to dance. A good understanding being established, our voyagers were supplied with wild goats.

They left this place on the second of October, and resumed their voyage. Stormy weather still attended them, frequently obliging them to carry their boats to land. The coldness of the water made them sick; and, to add to their distress, their provisions again failed them, their allowance being but a handful of Indian corn in twentyfour hours. A he-goat, throttled by the wolves, to which the hovering ravens and eagles directed their attention, appeared a providential supply. On the eighteenth they came to the farther end of the lake.

On the entire chain our author makes these remarks: “All these lakes may well be called fresh-water seas. They abound extremely in white-fish, greater than carps, which are extraordinary good; nay, at twenty or thirty fathom water there are salmon trouts taken at fifty or sixty pound weight. It were easy to build on the sides of these great lakes an infinite number of considerable towns, which might have communication one with another, by navigation, for five hundred leagues together, and by an inconceivable commerce, which would establish itself among them. And to be sure the soil, if cultivated by Europeans, would prove very fertile.” The existence of tides in these great lakes has been disputed. Hennepin asserts in another place : “ There are likewise some very plain appearances of a flux and reflux; for they observe the water to flow and ebb by little tides, and that it flows oft times against the wind when very high.”

Having landed at the head of Lake Michigan, they had an agree. able change of diet in grapes as big as damask plums. A man having, contrary to orders, fired at a bear, a number of Indians in the neighbourhood came at night to reconnoitre, and stole some of their goods. The sentinel discovered the depredators, and they made a lame excuse of having mistaken them for Iroquois. They were a second time robbed; but the firmness of M. la Salle secured the detection of one of the robbers, who made a full confession. La Salle then advancing into the country secured another, whom, after having pointed out to him the first prisoner, he sent to his tribe with a message that if the stolen goods were not restored he would put his prisoner to death.

The savages were mightily puzzled with this message, having cut in pieces a coat which they had stolen, and divided the buttons. The rescue of the prisoner was proposed, and they advanced to give the Europeans battle. Fathers Gabriel and Zenobe said mass, whilst Hennepin accompanied the men, to exhort them to do their duty; and he avers that, having witnessed many battles in Europe, he was very little afraid of the savages. But reflecting how much more Christian-like it would be to terminate the difficulty without bloodshed, he advanced between the two lines to act as mediator. An incident now occurred which damped the courage of the Indians. One of the men seeing around a warrior's head a piece of the stolen coat, advanced boldly and seized it. At this the savages were so confounded that they came forward and presented the calumet to Hennepin. Some gowns of beaver skins were given to compensate for the stolen garment.

With the Franciscans the Indians were much pleased. These grey-coats, said they, went barefoot like themselves, took no presents, and carried no arms. Their kindness to the children likewise pleased them much, and they begged La Salle to leave one of them with them. From the continuation of their journey they endeavoured to dissuade the party by informing them, amongst other things, that the Illinois had burnt an Iroquois alive. Not discouraged by this, they reëmbarked to go down the lake on the first of November, and proceeded to the mouth of the river Miamis, which comes from the south and empties into Lake Michigan. What this river is it is difficult to tell, the Calumet and the Chicago, in some respects, answering to the description. They built a fort at the mouth of it, which occupied them till the close of November. On the twentieth M. de Tonti arrived, with part of the men whom they were waiting for, in three canoes, laden with venison. The rest of his party he had left on the other side of the lake. From Tonti they learnt that their ship had not put into the Bay of Missilimakinak, nor had she been heard of. They then concluded that she must have been lost. Tonti was despatched for the men whom he had left on the eastern side of the Lake. The canoe was lost on the coast, and also thie arms of the men, who were obliged to come by land, two of them deserting during the march.

On the third of December they left their fort, and proceeded up the river Miami to search for the portage between it and the Illinois river, which, after some trouble, they discovereel. He states that the heads of these two rivers are within a league and a half of each other. li is impossible tv dcciile what these rivers are, as he says they rowed from the mouth of the Miami river five and twenty leagues to the southwest, a length of navigation not afforded by any of thic streams cmptying into this part of Lake Michigan ; nor is this course that of the small streams in this part. Not being able to deciile what the river Miami is, it is impossible to say whether he means the Fox, the Des Plaines, or the Kankakee branch of the Ullinois.

The Illinois river, lic says, is navigable for canoes within a hundred paces from its source, and that in a liule way it increases to the width of the Meusc and Sambre united. They passed through great marshes in thie'upper part of the river, after which they came to a vast plain lestilute of wood, annually fired by the Miamis during their hunting scason. Game was now scarcely to be found, the men liaving gone sixty miles and returned with very little. From the fires which they saw upon the plain, they judged that parties of the natives were not very far from them. The end of August lic states to be the period in which wild oxen were hunted; and of the great numbers of them the multitude of horns covering the carth convinced them.

Nearly all December was spent in their voyage down the Illinois. In the end of this month they arrived at Illinois Lake, whereon the village of the Illinois was situated. Of the wild bulls, which we call improperly buffaloes, he gives a particular account, and adds a list of the other animals of the country, - wild goats, beavers, olters, bustards, swans, tortoises, turkcy-cocks, parrots, and partridges, with “ an incredible quantity of pelicans, whose bills are of a prodigious size." The timber le prefers to that of Canada; and he notices llic abundance of grape-vines and trees bearing other fruits. He felt persuaded that the soil of this country would produce all manner of corn ; fruits be even more plentifully than in any part of Europe, seeing there are two crops every year.”

They found no one in the village of the Illinois, thc inhabitants being absent on a hunting expedition, and hunger obliged them to take some of the corn laid up in store, for which they expected to make satisfaction by presents when they should meet the inhabitants. They arrived in four days morc, on New Ycar's Day, 1680, at a lake about seven leagues long and unc broad. The country on its

borders was called Pimitoni ( the place where there is abundance of fat beasts.) This lake he states is never frozen, nor the river hea tween it and the Meschasepi. Here M. la Salle ascertained the latitude, which, by some inexplicable error of the press, is given at thirty-three degrees and forty-five minutes. Between forty degrees forty minutes and forty degrees fifty-five minutes, is the true latilude of Peoria Lake.

Having been taught to expect to find the Indians hostile, La Salle made preparations to appear as formidable as possible, forming his boats in a line across the river. The Indians, upon their approach, were variously affeeted, a few seizing their arms, but the greater part taking to flight. La Salle was the first to land, but did not tender the calumet, fearing it might be attributed to weakness, whereupon the Indians, although several thousands in number, presented it themselves. Those who had run off returned ; and the missionaries having paid aitention to the children and old men, by means of an interpreter, niade known to the tribe the object of their visit. The Illinois le describes as more humane than any of the Indian tribes of North America. They rubbed their feet with bear's oil and bison's fat, which Hennepin declares to be "an incomparable refreshment" after travelling, and they then fed them with meat, putting the first three morsels into their mouths with great ceremony, "a great piece of civility among them.” Our travellers presented them with tobacco, related to them their having taken the corn from their village and gave them some axes in payment, offering to leave a smith with them to repair their tools. They were very friendly, and formed an alliance together.

This friendship some emissaries from the Miamis endeavoured to disturb, representing the party as friends of the Iroquois, who would soon come with others from Canada and destroy their nation. The subsequent coolness of their entertainers showed that this had produced some effect, but La Salle was enabled to expose the falsity of these charges, and good feelings were restored.

At a feast shortly after given them by Nicanape, brother to their head chief, who was then absent, he made a long speech to them, endeavouring to dissuade them from going to the Mississippi, describing the dwellers upon its banks as barbarous and bloody nations, whom they would be unable to resist. To this it was replied, that the dangers of the voyage would increase its glory, and that they would think it a happiness to lay down their lives in the cause of God, whose servants they were.

Six of the men, however, were so alarmed that they ran away, exchanging, in Hennepin's opinion, an uncertain peril for a most certain danger, considering the country through which they had to travel on their way back to Canada, and the season of the year.

With a view to defend themselves against both the Iroquois and

the Illinois, should they manifest a hostile disposition, they erected a fort upon the river, about four day's journey below the great village of the latter tribe. It was named Fort Crevecæur, (heartbreak,) on account of the desertion of their men, and the other difficulties they had to encounter. Here they commenced a vessel, the keel of which was forty feet in length, but the want of rigging and tackle (for they had given up the Griffin as lost) induced La Salle to return with three men to Fort Fontenac. Hennepin purposed to proceed to the Meschasepi in a canoe, to secure the friendship of the nations upon its banks. Of the two other Franciscans, Father Zenobe had already settled amongst the Illinois with a view to their conversion, whilst old Father Gabriel remained with the men left at Fort Creveccur. M. de Tonti was left in command by La Salle.


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