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political productions ascribed to Solomon, the individual character and views of the prophets, the changes produced in the conceptions of the Jews by the captivity, the imagery of the apocryphal writings, and a consideration of the “new poetical shoot which sprang up in the last book of the New Testament, at once expanding into a tree, blooming with fresh and unfading flowers."

11.-Vahram's Chronicle of the Armenian Kingdom in Cili

cia, during the time of the Crusades. Translated from the original Armenian ; with Notes and Illustrations. By Charles Fried. Neumann. London: Oriental Translation Fund, 1830. pp. 110. Vahram was a native of Edessa, a priest, and the secretary of king Leon III. Gibbon simply mentions the name of Cilicia, a kingdom which carried on successful wars against the emperours of Constantinople; and which, from the beginning of the crusades, remained the ally and friend of the Franks, and to whom belonged a part of the sea-coast, that continued from the time of Ezekiel the theatre of the commerce of the world. The Venetians and Genoese were so impressed with the importance of Cilicia, that they made several commercial treaties with the Armenian kings. The Armenian original of one of these agreements, together with a translation and notes, has been printed by Saint Martin. The crusaders were astonished to find within the frontiers of the Byzantine empire a powerful prince and ally of whom they had never before heard mention. By the unjust and cruel division of the kingdom of Armenia, the largest and most fertile part fell to the empire of Persia. The Byzantine emperours and the Sassanian princes for a while permitted native kings to hold a precarious sceptre; but they were speedily dismissed, and the Byzantine part of Armenia was governed by a Greek magistrate, and the Persian by a Marsben or Margrave. This state of the country, somewhat similar to that of the Maronites of our times, was on a sudden changed by the conquests of the Arabs; but the Armenians would not accept the Koran, and their condition became worse under the zealous and fanatical followers of the prophet of Mecca than under the descendants of Sapor the Great, while weak and dismayed by civil wars.

Ashod, the Bagratide, an Armenian nobleman of a Jewish

family, who had fled to Armenia after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, at last gained the confidence of his Arabian masters; and in 859 was appointed prince over all Armenia, and in 888, was favoured with a tributary crown. The Bagratides were the faithful friends of the Arabs, and often suffered from the inroads of the Greeks. The Bagratian kingdom in Armenia Proper was at length extinguished, and a new Armenian kingdom arose on the craggy rocks of Mount Taurus, and which gradually extended its boundaries to the sea-coast, including the whole province of Cilicia. Vahram carries his history no further down than the time of the death of bis sovereign, Leon III, in 1289; but the Cilicio-Armenian kingdom, which, during the whole time of its existence perhaps never was entirely independent, lasted nearly a hundred years longer. Leon, the sixth of that name and the last Armenian king of Cilicia, was, in 1375, taken prisoner by the Mamalukes of Egypt, and after a long captivity (1382) released by the generous interference of John 1, of Castile. The Mamalukes, however, soon lost a part of Armenia Proper, and all Cilicia, being compelled to yield to the superiour strength of the descendants of Osman or Othman. The Armenians again felt, as in former times, all the disasters to which the frontier provinces between two rival empires are usually exposed. The cruel policy of the Persian kings transplanted thousands of Christian families to the distant provinces of Persia, and transformed fertile regions into deserts. The Armenians were obliged, therefore, like the Jews, to disperse themselves over the world, and resort to commerce for the necessaries of life. Armenian merchants are now to be found in India, on the islands of the eastern Archipelago, in Singapore, in Afghanistan, Persia, Egypt, in every part of Asia Minor, Syria, Russia, Poland, Austria, and Italy. The present patriarch of Abyssinia is an Armenian. The valiant descendants of Haig are considered every where as clever and shrewd merchants.

It is about half a century since the modern Armenian provinces began to look to Russia for relief. By the wars of Russia against the Shah and the Sultan, the greater part of the old Parthian kingdom of Armenia has come under the sway of the czars.

Vahram is nearly the latest author who is considered by the Armenian literati to write classically. The classical Armenian language had been preserved from the beginning of Armenian

literature in the fifth century, amidst various political and religious disturbances, for a period of 800 years. During the course of the 13th century the language became corrupted ; and in the 14th, authors began to use in their writings the corrupted vernacular idiom. The Armenian literature remained in a very abject condition for about 400 years, till the middle of the 18th century, when Madras, Calcutta, Djulfa, New Nakchivan, Etchmiadzin, Tabreez, St. Petersburg, Moscow, Amsterdam, Smyrna, but principally Venice, bear witness to the literary energy of the far dispersed descendants of Haig. With the dawn of Armenian literature, history has been enriched by the chronicle of Eusebius; more valuable literary treasures may be expected. Very important original histories exist, which have never been printed or translated.

ARTICLE IX.

MISCELLANEOUS AND LITERARY NOTICES.

GREAT

BRITAIN.

It is known to our readers that the Commentaries of Calvin on various portions of the Scriptures are now publishing in Germany, under the editorial charge of Tholuck. "Three volumes have appeared, embracing the epistles of Paul. The Commentary on the Romans has just been issued in an English translation by Francis Sibson, A. B. of Trinity College, Dublin, in one volume 18mo. of 640 pages. A Life of Calvin with a list of his writings, and a portrait, is prefixed, occupying about 80 pages. We cannot speak of the fidelity of the translation, as we have had no leisure to compare it with the original. The translator is not wanting in enthusiastic admiration of the great reformer. In a note, he thus alludes to the condition of biblical criticism in England: “We trust the time is not distant when every good classical school will pay so much attention to the New Testament, even in some of the higher departments of biblical criticism, as to compel all our colleges to assume a more distinguished stand in one of the most important branches of literature. What a disgrace that Britain should be so much surpassed by Germany in this truly useful study! Shall we not be roused by our American descendants ? Professor Stuart's critical remarks on the Epistles to the Romans and Hebrews are truly valuable.”

Some of the British Reviews speak in high terms of Smith and Dwight's Tour, as being the best book of Travels, which has appeared relating to Armenia, and some of the adjoining provinces. Our readers will be glad to learn that Mr. Smith is preparing a new edition, which will doubtless be still more worthy of attention. We intend to embrace an early opportunity to present our views of the condition of the Oriental churches visited by Messrs. Smith and Dwight, the causes of their sad decline, and the means by which they may again be restored to more than their original purity. No portion of the old World is more interesting than Asia Minor. Scarcely any presents a finer field for the investigations of the christian scholar.

We have been very much disappointed in looking over the new Life of Dr. Watts by Southey. It is a feeble effort, and will add nothing to the fame of the Laureate. The biographer places Dr. Watts' poetical character somewhat higher than Dr. Johnson did. He considers the charge of Socinianism which has been made against him to be unsupported, but thinks that he finds in a detached sentence or two evidence that the poet cherished the opinion of Origen respecting eternal punishment.

FRANCE.

At a meeting of the Academy of Inscriptions on the 24th of July last, M. Etienne Quatrimére read a dissertation on the site of the ancient Ophir, which he supposed to be in Sofala, in Eastern Africa. He also attempted to prove that Pharaoh Necho doubled the cape of Good Hope.

There were expended in France in 1831, for elementary instruction, (raised by vote of the different departments) £4,800; in 1832, £31,030; in 1833, £48,800 ; in 1834, £116,780. M. Guizot, the late minister of public Instruction, insisted that Christian Morals should not only form a part of national education, but its ground-work.

An Historical Institute has just been formed in France, divided as follows--1. Natural History. 2. Social and Philosophical Sciences. 3. Languages and Literature of different nations. 4. History of Physical and Mathematical Sciences. 5. Fine Arts. 6. History of France. There are several hundred members, among whom are Carnot, Michaud, Laborde, St. Hilaire, Elie de Beaumont, Broussais, Lacretelle and other distinguished savans.

The works of Confucius and Mencius are about to appear in Paris in Chinese and French, by G. Pauthier. Siebold, the traveller in Japan, is publishing a Fauna of the country, assisted by Temminck Schlegel, and Hahn. Two livraisons have appeared.

HOLLAND.

The number of students in the University of Leyden is about 300. The botanical garden covers four acres. The university possesses very valuable Oriental MSS., and the select libraries of the critics Scanlinger, Vossius, and Erpenius.

The proportion of religious denominations in Holland is about the same as in Amsterdam, which here follows:-

Reformed Church, 100,899 Small sect of Lutherans, 9,843
Roman Catholics,

43,212
Mennonites,

1,946 Lutherans,

22,623
Episcopalians,

237 Jews,

21,498
Other Sects,

107

.

.

Total,

200,365

SWEDEN.

The University of Upsala, founded in 1246, has 24 professors ; 14 adjunct professors; 60,000 volumes in its library; 1000 MSS. ; a cabinet of coins. The students at the beginning of 1834, were in theology 245; medicine 150 ; philosophy 328 ; and 249 not classed; total 1072. The whole number in 1820, was 830. The number of printing presses in Sweden is but 28—10 in Stockholm, 3 in Gottenburg, 2 in Upsala, 2 in Norrköping, and one each in three other places. There is one press to 97,840 inhabitants, the population being 2,741, 000. The original works publisbed in 1833 were 140. The translations from other languages are in this order-German, French, English. The periodicals, which have the largest subscription, circulate

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