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6.- A Grammar of the New Testament Dialect. By M. Stu
art, Prof. of Sacred Lit. Theol. Sem. Andover. Ando
ver : Gould & Newman. 1834. pp. 256. The first twenty-four pages of this grammar are taken up with the preface and the introduction, in which are given some account of the Greek Dialects; also of the controversy between the Purists and Hebraists, the two parties who long contended respecting the character of the New Testament Greek. This celebrated controversy is now regarded as finally settled. The predominant ingredient of the New Testament idiom is the Attic dialect, while its subordinate constituents are principally the Macedonic dialect, mixed with Hebrew idioms. It is sometimes called the Hebrew Greek, but generally the Hellenistic dialect. The first part of the Grammar, including eighteen pages, is taken up with the subject of Letters and their changes. It is necessarily handled in a brief manner, yet distinctly and satisfactorily. The second part treats of Gramatical Forms and Flexions, and is comprised in ninety-two pages. The reasons for the insertion of the forms and flexions are sufficiently obvious, though they have not generally been retained in the New Testament grammars. Particular attention has been paid by the author, to the explanation of the forms and principles of the Third Declension, and to the nature and formation of the Tenses. The remainder of the volume is occupied with the Syntax. Considerable space is very properly devoted to the Article. Those who will take the trouble to compare the grammar translated from Winer and published a few
years since at Andover, with the one now under consideration, will observe striking improvements in the latter. The recent investigations of Winer, as well as those of Passow, Buttmann, Matthiae, and of the author himself, have accumulated valuable materials, which were not in existence ten years since. We heartily commend the work to all biblical students. It will be a good accompaniment to the New Testament Lexicon of Prof. Robinson now in the press.
7.-Elements of Psychology; included in a Critical Examin
ation of Locke's Essay on the Human Understanding. By
French, with an Introduction, Notes, and Additions. By
C. S. Henry. Hartford : Cooke & Co. 1834. pp. 355. This is certainly a very important work, and, we think, cannot be without its influence on the metaphysical opinions of the country, and indeed, of the age, and coming ages. M. Cousin is an Eclectic Philosopher. He believes that no speculative system of unmixed errour can be embraced by the human mind; that, therefore, every system which has actually obtained currency, contains more or less of truth, which it is the business of a genuine philosopher, to extricate from the mass of errour in which it may be involved, and adopt into his own philosophical creed; and that every system which is not thus Eclectic, is false, so far as it is exclusive, and rejects the truths which lie at the foundation of other systems. In the light of this principle, he examines the doctrines of the Sensual School, as exhibited in the most able and influential work which it has produced. The characteristic of that School is, that it derives all our ideas, ultimately, from sensation. It is wrong, in its exclusive claims; as there are many ideas, which cannot be derived from that
Such are the ideas of space, time, substance, the infinite, right and wrong, &c. These ideas belong to us, not as sentient, but as rational beings. The exercise of the senses does not give them, nor does it give elements, out of which they are formed by reflection. It is only the occasion, on which the reason forms them for itself, or rather, recognizes them as true. In this, he agrees with Reid, Stewart, Coleridge, and others of the Spiritual School. In order to maintain the doctrine, that all our ideas are derived from sensation, either immediately, or by reflection, it was necessary for Locke to show how the ideas above enumerated may be acquired in that way. In order to do this, it was necessary to describe those ideas incorrectly, so as, in fact, to change their nature, and to substitute for them other ideas, such as sensation can furnish; so that, with him, space is nothing but body; time, nothing but succession; right, nothing but a relation between certain actions, and pleasurable sensations which are to follow them, miscalled rewards. Locke had prepared the way for this errour, by an errour of method; by inquiring after the origin of our ideas, before ascertaining what those ideas really are.
In exposing these errours of Locke, the author is naturally led to an exhibition of the true method of reasoning on the topics in question; showing both what these ideas really are, as they actually exist in the minds of men, and how the human mind actually acquires them. In doing this, he of necessity furnishes us with the principal elements of psychology.
Such are the claims of this work; and though we are not ready to endorse every part of it, we think them on the whole, well sustained. The translator, too, deserves praise. We have observed no instance, in which the train of argument suggests the query, whether he has correctly understood his author's meaning; and in very few instances has he failed to express that meaning in clear and vigorous English. His own additions are valuable ; though the abstract of Cousin's system, in the Introduction, will be found somewhat obscure by those to whoin his mode of reasoning is wholly new. In a mere abstract, however, it could not be otherwise.
8.-Biographia Literaria ; or Biographical Sketches of my
Literary Life and Opinions. By S. T. Coleridge. "Two volumes in one New-York: Leavitt, Lord & Co. 1834.
We wish to do little more than announce the republication of this book. The only American edition within our knowledgethat of the Eastburns, has long been out of print. The present edition is brought within a small compass, while, at the same time, the type is fair, and the whole mechanical execution good. To such of our readers as are unacquainted with the volume, we say, study it, and you will be well recompensed for your pains. If you do not enter into its just connections and spirit, you will still find numerous single thoughts and detached sentences of sterling value. You will pick up more than one golden apple along your path. The criticism on Wordsworth's poetry comes nearer to the ideal of a review than any thing within our knowledge. In this critique, the author discovers that acquaintance with the moral and intellectual nature of man, that perception of the laws on which the science of criticism is founded, that strength of judgment and honesty of intention, which, if more generally exhibited, would go far to remove the prejudice which is now felt against periodical Reviews.
9.- Memoirs of the Life and Correspondence of Christian
Frederick Schwartz ; to which is prefixed, a Sketch of the
With all our veneration for Schwartz, we have always had a secret suspicion of some defects in his christian and missionary character. We have imagined that he was too much under the influence of worldly wisdom, that his remarkable knowledge of the springs of human action, under the garb of great simplicity and meekness, led him too far from the path of the true missionary of Jesus ; in other words, that there was less in his character of the harmlessness of the dove than of the wisdom of the serpent. We had also supposed that his rules for the admission of converts within the pale of Christianity partook somewhat of the maxims of political measures.
We never doubted, for a moment, his distinguished excellence in general. Yet on reading the high wrought eulogies of his character, which are to be met with in the histories of missions, we always involuntarily made some allowances. We now gladly find ourselves to have been mistaken. These volumes have removed the prejudice entirely. His intercourse with the Madras government, and with the native princes was altogether honourable and christian. His motives, and his whole interiour frame, so far as they are developed by his actions, and his confidential correspondence are in full accordance with his personal appearance and his general reputation. He had doubtless, a great degree of that prudence which dwells with wisdom, and of that good understanding which results from the fear of the Lord, yet there was nothing like chicanery or double-dealing, or want of transparency in his conduct or character. He had a large share of that heartiness and unreservedness, which belongs to the German temperament, and which in connection with love to his work, and high spiritual affections, enabled him to tread so closely in the steps of apostles and martyrs. The Life by Dr. Pearson, the biographer of Buchanan, leaves nothing to be desired. It embraces a large amount of new materials, derived from the letters of Schwartz translated from the German, as well as from his English correspondence, and the records of the East India Company.
10.— The Spirit of Hebrew Poetry. By J. G. Herder. Trans
lated from the German by James Marsh. In two volumes.
Vol. II. Burlington : Edward Smith. 1833. pp. 319. A notice of the first volume of this translation, with some account of the life and character of Herder, may be found in the second volume of the Quarterly Observer, p. 179. The American public are now favoured with a translation of the second volume. There is every internal evidence that the work is faithfully done. The logical connection in the train of thoughts is preserved, and the graceful illustrations and light and delicate allusions appear well in their English dress.
We rejoice that the work of Herder is now accessible to the great body of students. It forms a bighly important part of the apparatus for the study of the scriptures. Its object is not commentary, theological statement, critical research, or hortatory appeal. It strives to imbue the reader with the spirit of Hebrew song. It transposes him to the margin of the Red sea, to the foot of Sinai, to the hills and vallies of the land of promise, and surrounds him with the glorious national recollections of the Jews. It seeks to make him at home under an eastern sky, and to fill his soul with such longings for the oriental life, as some eastern travellers have felt in their old age. Herder penetrates beneath the philology of the Hebrew language, and catches the living spirit of the poetry. There is frequently great truth and beauty in his thoughts aside from the objects which they were intended to illustrate. At the same time, a strong light is frequently thrown by his remarks, on the manners and customs of the Hebrews, their laws, religion, modes of thinking; and in this way, his book becomes valuable to the commentator and theologian. A sufficient testimony of the worth of it may be derived from the fact that it maintains its standing among scholars, notwithstanding all which has been accomplished in respect to biblical literature since the death of the author in 1803. The attentive reader will discover occasionally errours of doctrine, and remarks of a literary or miscellaneous nature, which require modification (for instance the last remark commencing on p. 14, and the first on p. 30,) still the value of the work is great, and we hope it will be fully appreciated by all lovers of the Bible.
The third part of the work was but just commenced by the author. It was intended to embrace inquiries respecting the Vol. V, No. 17.